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Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

The Yoga Sutras of Patañjali is a collection of Sanskrit sutras (aphorisms) on the theory and practice of yoga - 195 sutras (according to Vyāsa and Krishnamacharya) and 196 sutras (according to other scholars including BKS Iyengar). The Yoga Sutras was compiled in the early centuries CE, by the sage Patanjali in India who synthesized and organized knowledge about yoga from much older traditions.

Some pages from a historic Yogasutra manuscript (Sanskrit, Devanagari). The verses are highlighted and are embedded inside the bhasya (commentary).
Patañjali Statue (traditional form indicating kundalini or incarnation of Shesha)

The Yoga Sutras are best known for its reference to ashtanga, eight elements of practice culminating in samadhi, concentration of the mind on an object of meditation, namely yama (abstinences), niyama (observances), asana (yoga postures), pranayama (breath control), pratyahara (withdrawal of the senses), dharana (concentration of the mind), dhyana (meditation) and samadhi (absorption). However, its main aim is kaivalya, discernment of purusha, the witness-conscious, as separate from prakriti, the cognitive apparatus, and disentanglement of purusha from prakriti's muddled defilements.

The Yoga Sutras built on Samkhya-notions of purusha and prakriti, and are often seen as complementary to it. It is closely related to Buddhism, incorporating some of its terminology. Yet, Samkhya, Yoga, Vedanta, as well as Jainism and Buddhism can be seen as representing different manifestations of a broad stream of ascetic traditions in ancient India, in contrast to the Bhakti traditions and Vedic ritualism which were prevalent at the time.

The contemporary Yoga tradition holds the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali to be one of the foundational texts of classical Yoga philosophy. However, the appropriation - and misappropriation - of the Yoga Sutras and its influence on later systematizations of yoga has been questioned by David Gordon White, who argues that the text fell into relative obscurity for nearly 700 years from the 12th to 19th century, and made a comeback in late 19th century due to the efforts of Swami Vivekananda, the Theosophical Society and others. It gained prominence as a classic in the 20th century.

Contents

Author

The colophons of manuscripts of the Yoga Sutras attribute the work to Patanjali. The identity of Patañjali has been the subject of academic debate because an author of the same name is credited with the authorship of the classic text on Sanskrit grammar named Mahābhāṣya that is firmly debatable to the second century BC. Yet the two works are completely different in subject matter and in the details of language, grammar and vocabulary, as was compellingly pointed out long ago by Louis Renou. Furthermore, before the time of Bhoja (11th century), no known text states that the authors were the same.

Dating

Philipp A. Maas assessed Patañjali's Pātañjalayogaśāstra's date to be about 400 CE, based on synchronisms between its arguments and those of Vasubandhu, on tracing the history of the commentaries on it published in the first millennium CE, on the opinions of earlier Sanskrit commentators, on the testimony of manuscript colophons and on a review of extant literature. This dating for the Pātañjalayogaśāstra was proposed as early as 1914 by Woods and has been accepted widely by academic scholars of the history of Indian philosophical thought.

Edwin Bryant, on the other hand, surveyed the major commentators in his translation of the Yoga Sūtras. He observed that "Most scholars date the text shortly after the turn of the Common Era (circa first to second century), but that it has been placed as early as several centuries before that." Bryant concluded that "A number of scholars have dated the Yoga Sūtras as late as the fourth or fifth century CE, but these arguments have all been challenged. ... All such arguments [for a late date] are problematic."

Michele Desmarais summarized a wide variety of dates assigned to Yogasutra, ranging from 500 BCE to 3rd century CE, noting that there is a paucity of evidence for any certainty. She stated the text may have been composed at an earlier date given conflicting theories on how to date it, but latter dates are more commonly accepted by scholars.

Compilation

The Yoga Sutras are a composite of various traditions. The levels of samādhi taught in the text resemble the Buddhist jhanas. According to Feuerstein, the Yoga Sutras are a condensation of two different traditions, namely "eight limb yoga" (aṣṭāṅga yoga) and action yoga (Kriya yoga). The kriya yoga part is contained in chapter 1, chapter 2 sutras 1-27, chapter 3 except sutra 54, and chapter 4. The "eight limb yoga" is described in chapter 2 sutras 28–55, and chapter 3 sutras 3 and 54.

There are numerous parallels in the ancient Samkhya, Yoga and Abhidharma schools of thought, particularly from the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century AD, notes Larson. Patanjali's Yoga Sutras may be a synthesis of these three traditions. From the Samkhya school of Hinduism, Yoga Sutras adopt the "reflective discernment" (adhyavasaya) of prakrti and purusa (dualism), its metaphysical rationalism, and its three epistemic methods to gaining reliable knowledge. From Abhidharma Buddhism's idea of nirodhasamadhi, suggests Larson, Yoga Sutras adopt the pursuit of an altered state of awareness. However, unlike Buddhism, which believes that there is neither self nor soul, Yoga is physicalist and realist, like Samkhya, in believing that each individual has a self and soul. The third concept that Yoga Sutras synthesizes into its philosophy is the ancient ascetic traditions of isolation, meditation and introspection, as well as the yoga ideas from the 1st millennium BCE Indian texts such as Katha Upanishad, Shvetashvatara Upanishad and Maitri Upanishad.

According to Wujastyk, referencing Maas, Patanjali integrated yoga from older traditions in Pātañjalayogaśāstra, and added his own explanatory passages to create the unified work that, since 1100 CE, has been considered the work of two people. Together the compilation of Patanjali's sutras and the Vyasabhasya, is called Pātañjalayogaśāstra.

Yogabhashya

The Yogabhashya is a commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali, traditionally attributed to the legendary Vedic sage Vyasa who is said to have composed the Mahabharata. This commentary is indispensable for the understanding of the aphoristic and terse Yoga sutras, and the study of the sutras has always referred to the Yogabhashya. Some scholars see Vyasa as a later 4th or 5th century AD commentator (as opposed to the ancient mythic figure).

Scholars hold that both texts, the sutras and the commentary were written by one person. According to Philipp A. Maas, based on a study of the original manuscripts, Patañjali's composition was entitled Pātañjalayogaśāstra ("The Treatise on Yoga according to Patañjali") and consisted of both Sūtras and Bhāṣya. This means that the Bhāṣya was in fact Patañjali's own work.

The practice of writing a set of aphorisms with the author's own explanation was well known at the time of Patañjali, as for example in Vasubandhu's Abhidharmakośabhāṣya (that, incidentally, Patañjali quotes). These research findings change the historical understanding of the yoga tradition, since they allow us to take the Bhāṣya as Patañjali's very own explanation of the meaning of his somewhat cryptic sūtras.

The Yogabhashya states that 'yoga' in the Yoga Sutras has the meaning of 'samadhi'. Another commentary (the Vivarana) by a certain Shankara, confirms the interpretation of yogah samadhih (YBh. I.1): 'yoga' in Patañjali's sutra has the meaning of 'integration'. This Shankara may or may not have been the famed Vedantic scholar Adi Shankara (8th or 9th century). Scholarly opinion is still open on this issue.

Patañjali divided his Yoga Sutras into four chapters or books (Sanskrit Pada), containing in all 196 aphorisms, divided as follows:

  • Samadhi Pada (51 sutras). Samadhi is a state of direct and reliable perception (pramāṇa) where "the seer" (Purusha, pure consciousness, the Self) abides in itself. Samadhi is the main technique the yogi learns by which to calm the workings of the mind, whereafter Kaivalya, the isolation of 'the seer' from the impurities of the mind, is attained. The author describes yoga and then the nature and the means of attaining samādhi.
  • This chapter contains the famous definitional verse (YS 1.2): "Yogaś citta-vritti-nirodhaḥ" ("Yoga is the restriction of the fluctuations of mindstuff"). When the mind is stilled, the seer or real Self is revealed:
1.3. Then the Seer is established in his own essential and fundamental nature.
1.4. In other states there is assimilation (of the Seer) with the modifications (of the mind).
  • YS 1.33-39 mentions seven practices to still the mind, the seventh being meditative absorption (YS 1.39), which is further explained in YS 1.40-51 and YS 3.1-12.
  • Sadhana Pada (55 sutras). Sadhana is the Sanskrit for "practice" or "discipline," aiming at discriminative discernment, to discern the Seer (consciousness) from its objects and the hindrances. Here the author outlines two systems of Yoga: Kriyā Yoga and Aṣṭāṅga Yoga ('Eightlimbed Yoga').
  • Kriyā Yoga in the Yoga Sūtras is a preparation for Aṣṭāṅga Yoga:
  1. tapas - austerity
  2. svādhyaya - self-study of the scriptures
  3. iśvara praṇidhana – devotion to god or pure consciousness
  • Aṣṭānga Yoga is the yoga of eight limbs. In chapter 2, five "indirect aids" for purification and aiding insight are outlined:
1. Yama - restraints or ethics of behaviour ; Yama consists of Ahimsa (Non violence), Satya (Truthfulness), Asteya (Non stealing), Brahmacharya (Chastity) and Aparigraha (Non possession)
2. Niyama - observances ; Niyama consists of Saucha (Cleanliness), Santosha (Contentment), Tapas (Austerity), Svadhyaya (Selfstudy) and Isvara Pranidhana (Devotion to the lord)
3. Āsana - A physical posture in which one can be steady and comfortable.
4. Prāṇāyāma - control of the prana(breath)
5. Pratyahara - withdrawal of the senses
  • Vibhuti Pada (56 sutras). Vibhuti is the Sanskrit word for "power" or "manifestation". In chapter 3, samyama is outlined:
6. Dhāraṇā - concentration
7. Dhyāna - meditation
8. Samādhi - absorption
Besides insight into pure awareness (purusha), samyama gives 'supra-normal powers' (Sanskrit: siddhi), as the yogi gains access to and unites with the tattvas, the constituents of prakriti. The text warns (III.38) that these powers can become an obstacle to the yogi who seeks liberation.
  • Kaivalya Pada (34 sutras). Kaivalya, "isolation", of the Seer from the contents of the mind so it is no longer disturbed by the movements of the mind. It stands for emancipation or liberation, and is used where other texts often employ the term moksha (liberation). The Kaivalya Pada describes the process of liberation and the reality of the Seer.

Metaphysics

The metaphysics of Patanjali is built on the same dualist foundation as the Samkhya school. The universe is conceptualized as of two realities in Samkhya-Yoga schools: Puruṣa (consciousness) and prakriti (mind, cognition, emotions, and matter). It considers consciousness and matter, self/soul and body as two different realities. Jiva (a living being) is considered as a state in which puruṣa is bonded to prakriti in some form, in various permutations and combinations of various elements, senses, feelings, activity and mind. During the state of imbalance or ignorance, one of more constituents overwhelm the others, creating a form of bondage. The end of this bondage is called Kaivalya, liberation, or moksha by both Yoga and Samkhya school. The ethical theory of Yoga school is based on Yamas and Niyama, as well as elements of the Guṇa theory of Samkhya.. Recently there has been an attempt to explain the sutras from modern scientific point of view


Patanjali adopts the theory of Guṇa from Samkhya. Guṇas theory states that three gunas (innate tendency, attributes) are present in different proportions in all beings, and these three are sattva guna (goodness, constructive, harmonious), rajas guna (passion, active, confused), and tamas guna (darkness, destructive, chaotic). These three are present in every being but in different proportions, and the fundamental nature and psychological dispositions of beings is a consequence of the relative proportion of these three gunas. When sattva guna predominates an individual, the qualities of lucidity, wisdom, constructiveness, harmony, and peacefulness manifest themselves; when rajas is predominant, attachment, craving, passion-driven activity and restlessness manifest; and when tamas predominates in an individual, ignorance, delusion, destructive behavior, lethargy, and suffering manifests. The guṇas theory underpins the philosophy of mind in Yoga school of Hinduism.

Soteriology

1.2. Yoga is the inhibition of the modifications of the mind.
1.3. Then the Seer is established in his own essential and fundamental nature.
1.4. In other states there is assimilation (of the Seer) with the modifications (of the mind).

Yoga Sutra of Patanjali

According to Bryant, the purpose of yoga is liberation from suffering, by means of discriminative discernment. The eight limbs are "the means of achieving discriminative discernment," the "uncoupling of puruṣa from all connection with prakṛti and all involvement with the citta." Bryant states that, to Patanjali, Yoga-practice "essentially consists of meditative practices culminating in attaining a state of consciousness free from all modes of active or discursive thought, and of eventually attaining a state where consciousness is unaware of any object external to itself, that is, is only aware of its own nature as consciousness unmixed with any other object."

While the Samkhya school suggests that jnana (knowledge) is a sufficient means to moksha, Patanjali suggests that systematic techniques/practice (personal experimentation) combined with Samkhya's approach to knowledge is the path to moksha. Patanjali holds that avidya, ignorance is the cause of all five kleshas, which are the cause of suffering and saṁsāra. Liberation, like many other schools, is removal of ignorance, which is achieved through discriminating discernment, knowledge and self-awareness. The Yoga Sūtras is the Yoga school's treatise on how to accomplish this. Samādhi is the state where ecstatic awareness develops, state Yoga scholars, and this is how one starts the process of becoming aware of Purusa and true Self. It further claims that this awareness is eternal, and once this awareness is achieved, a person cannot ever cease being aware; this is moksha, the soteriological goal in Hinduism.

Book 3 of Patanjali's Yogasutra is dedicated to soteriological aspects of yoga philosophy. Patanjali begins by stating that all limbs of yoga are a necessary foundation to reaching the state of self-awareness, freedom and liberation. He refers to the three last limbs of yoga as samyama, in verses III.4 to III.5, and calls it the technology for "discerning principle" and mastery of citta and self-knowledge. In verse III.12, the Yogasutras state that this discerning principle then empowers one to perfect sant (tranquility) and udita (reason) in one's mind and spirit, through intentness. This leads to one's ability to discern the difference between sabda (word), artha (meaning) and pratyaya (understanding), and this ability empowers one to compassionately comprehend the cry/speech of all living beings. Once a yogi reaches this state of samyama, it leads to unusual powers, intuition, self-knowledge, freedoms and kaivalya, the redemptive goal of the yogi.

Epistemology

The epistemology in Patanjali's system of Yoga, like the Sāmkhya school of Indian philosophy, relies on three of six Pramanas, as the means of gaining reliable knowledge. These included Pratyakṣa (perception), Anumāṇa (inference) and Sabda (Āptavacana, word/testimony of reliable sources).

Patanjali's system, like the Samkhya school, considers Pratyakṣa or Dṛṣṭam (direct sense perception), Anumāna (inference), and Śabda or Āptavacana (verbal testimony of the sages or shāstras) to be the only valid means of knowledge or Pramana. Unlike few other schools of Hinduism such as Advaita Vedanta, Yoga did not adopt the following three Pramanas: Upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), Arthāpatti (postulation, deriving from circumstances) or Anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof).

God

Patanjali differs from the closely related non-theistic/atheistic Samkhya school by incorporating what some scholars have called a "personal, yet essentially inactive, deity" or "personal god" (Ishvara). Hindu scholars such as the 8th century Adi Sankara, as well as many modern academic scholars describe Yoga school as "Samkya school with God."

The Yogasutras of Patanjali use the term Isvara in 11 verses: I.23 through I.29, II.1, II.2, II.32 and II.45. Ever since the Sutra's release, Hindu scholars have debated and commented on who or what is Isvara? These commentaries range from defining Isvara from a "personal god" to "special self" to "anything that has spiritual significance to the individual". Whicher states that while Patanjali's terse verses can be interpreted both as theistic or non-theistic, Patanjali's concept of Isvara in Yoga philosophy functions as a "transformative catalyst or guide for aiding the yogin on the path to spiritual emancipation". Whereas the purusa (spirit, or true self) of the yogin is bound to the prakriti - the material body subject to karmas and kleshas, the special purusa called Isvara is immaterial and ultimately free.

Patanjali defines Isvara (Sanskrit: ईश्वर) in verse 24 of Book 1, as "a special Self/Spirit (पुरुषविशेष, puruṣa-viśeṣa)."}} This sutra adds the characteristics of Isvara as that special Self/Spirit which is unaffected (अपरामृष्ट, aparamrsta) by one's obstacles/hardships (क्लेश, klesha), one's circumstances created by past or one's current actions (कर्म, karma), one's life fruits (विपाक, vipâka), and one's psychological dispositions/intentions (आशय, ashaya).

The fusion of Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi is Samyama – the path to Kaivalya in Yoga school.
Main article: Yoga (philosophy)

The Yoga Sutras incorporated the teachings of many other Indian philosophical systems prevalent at the time. According to Zimmer, Samkhya and Yoga are two of several schools of philosophy that originated over the centuries that had common roots in the pre-Aryan cultures and traditions of India. Yet, the orthodox Hindu philosophies of Samkhya, Yoga, Vedanta, as well as the non-orthodox Nastika systems of Jainism and Buddhism can all be seen as representing one stream of spiritual activity in ancient India, in contrast to the Bhakti traditions and Vedic ritualism which were also prevalent at the same time. The Vedanta-Sramana traditions, iconolatry and Vedic rituals can be identified with the Jnana marga, Bhakti marga and the Karma marga respectively that are outlined in the Bhagavad Gita.

Samkhya

The Yoga Sutras are built on a foundation of Samkhya philosophy, and are generally seen as the practice while Samkhya is the theory. The influence of Samkhya is so pervasive in the Sutras that the historian Surendranath Dasgupta went so far as to deny independent categorization to Patañjali's system, preferring to refer to it as Patanjala Samkhya, similar to the position taken by the Jain writer Haribhadra in his commentary on Yoga. Patañjali's Yoga Sutras accept the Samkhya's division of the world and phenomena into twenty-five tattvas or principles, of which one is Purusha meaning Self or consciousness, the others being Prakriti (primal nature), Buddhi (intellect or will), Ahamkara (ego), Manas (mind), five buddhindriyas (sensory capabilities), five karmendriyas (action-capabilities) and ten elements. The second part of the Sutras, the Sadhana, also summarizes the Samkhya perspectives about all seen activity lying within the realm of the three Gunas of Sattva (illumination), Rajas (passion) and Tamas (lethargy).

The Yoga Sutras diverge from early Samkhya by the addition of the principle of Isvara or God, as exemplified by Sutra 1.23 - "Iśvara pranidhãnãt vã", which is interpreted to mean that surrender to God is one way to liberation. Isvara is defined here as "a distinct Consciousness, untouched by afflictions, actions, fruitions or their residue". In the sutras, it is suggested that devotion to Isvara, represented by the mystical syllable Om may be the most efficient method of achieving the goal of Yoga. This syllable Om is a central element of Hinduism, appearing in all the Upanishads, including the earliest Chandogya and Brihadaranyaka Upanishads, and expounded upon in the Mandukya Upanishad.

Another divergence from Samkhya is that while the Samkhya holds that knowledge is the means to liberation, Patañjali's Yoga insists on the methods of concentration and active striving. The aim of Yoga is to free the individual from the clutches of the matter, and considers intellectual knowledge alone to be inadequate for the purpose – which is different from the position taken by Samkhya.

However, the essential similarities between the Samkhya and Patañjali's system remained even after the addition of the Isvara principle, with Max Müller noting that "the two philosophies were in popular parlance distinguished from each other as Samkhya with and Samkhya without a Lord...." The Bhagavad Gita, one of the chief scriptures of Hinduism, is considered to be based on this synthetic Samkhya-Yoga system.

The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali is a foundational text of the Yoga philosophy school of Hinduism.

Buddhism

Scholars have presented different viewpoints on the relationship between Patanjali's Yoga Sutras and the teachings in Buddhist texts.

Karel Werner writes, "Patanjali's system is unthinkable without Buddhism. As far as its terminology goes there is much in the Yoga Sutras that reminds us of Buddhist formulations from the Pāli Canon and even more so from the Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma and from Sautrāntika." He adds, "upon the whole it [Patanjali's Yoga sutras] is more elaborate and summarizes the actual technique of Yoga procedures more exactly than the Buddhist exposition". However, states Werner, "The Buddha was the founder of his system, even though, admittedly, he made use of some of the experiences he had previously gained under various Yoga teachers of his time. Patanjali is neither a founder nor a leader of a new movement. (...) The ingenuity of his [Patanjali's] achievement lies in the thoroughness and completeness with which all the important stages of Yoga practice and mental experiences are included in his scheme, and in their systematic presentation in a succinct treatise." Werner adds that the ideas of existence and the focus on "Self, Soul" in Patajali's Yogasutra are different from the "no Self" precepts of Buddhism.

According to David Gordon White, the language of the Yoga Sutras is often closer to "Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, the Sanskrit of the early Mahayana Buddhist scriptures, than to the classical Sanskrit of other Hindu scriptures". He adds, historical evidence suggests that yoga philosophical systems influenced, and were influenced by, other philosophical systems in India such as early Buddhism and Jainism. White mentions controversies about the Yoga Sutras. A significant minority of scholars, notes White for example, believes that Vyasa lived a few centuries after Patanjali and his "Hindu-izing" commentary subverted Yoga Sutras' original "Buddhist" teachings; while the majority scholarly view disagrees with this view.

Other scholars state there are differences between the teachings in the Yoga Sutras and those in Buddhist texts. Patanjali's Yoga Sutras for example, states Michele Desmarias, accept the concept of a Self or soul behind the operational mind, while Buddhists do not accept such a Self exists. The role of Self is central to the idea of Saṃyoga, Citta, Self-awareness and other concepts in Chapters 2 through 4 of the Yoga sutras, according to Desmarias.

According to Barbara Miller, the difference between Patanjali's Yoga Sutras and teachings in Buddhist texts is, "In Samkhya and Yoga, as in Buddhism and Jainism, the most salient characteristic of existence is duhkha or suffering. According to Buddhism, the origin of suffering is desire; according to Yoga, it is the connection between the observer (Purusha) with the observed (Prakrti). In both systems, the origin of duhkha is ignorance. There are also similarities in the means of deliverance recommended by the two systems. In Buddhism, the aspirant is asked to follow the eightfold path, which culminates in right meditation or samadhi. In Yoga, the aspirant is asked to follow a somewhat different eight fold path, which also culminates in samadhi. But the aim of yoga meditation is conceived in terms that a Buddhist would not accept: as the separation of an eternal conscious self from unconscious matter. The purpose of Patanjali's Yoga is to bring about this separation by means of understanding, devotion and practice."

Robert Thurman writes that Patañjali was influenced by the success of the Buddhist monastic system to formulate his own matrix for the version of thought he considered orthodox. The Yoga Sutra, especially the fourth segment of Kaivalya Pada, contains several polemical verses critical of Buddhism, particularly the Vijñānavāda school of Vasubandhu.

Jainism

The five yamas or the constraints of the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali bear an uncanny resemblance to the five major vows of Jainism, indicating influence of Jainism. Three other teachings closely associated with Jainism also make an appearance in Yoga: the doctrine of "colors" in karma (lesya); the Telos of isolation (kevala in Jainism and Kaivalyam in Yoga); and the practice of nonviolence (ahimsa), though nonviolence (ahimsa) made its first appearance in Indian philosophy-cum-religion in the Hindu texts known as the Upanishads [the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, dated to the 8th or 7th century BCE, one of the oldest Upanishads, has the earliest evidence for the use of the word Ahimsa in the sense familiar in Hinduism (a code of conduct). It bars violence against "all creatures" (sarvabhuta) and the practitioner of Ahimsa is said to escape from the cycle of metempsychosis/reincarnation (CU 8.15.1). It also names Ahimsa as one of five essential virtues].

The contemporary Yoga tradition holds the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali to be one of the foundational texts of classical Yoga philosophy. However, the appropriation - and misappropriation - of the Yoga Sutras and its influence on later systematizations of yoga has been questioned by David Gordon White, who has argued that the text fell into relative obscurity for nearly 700 years from the 12th to 19th century, and made a comeback in late 19th century due to the efforts of Swami Vivekananda, the Theosophical Society and others. It gained prominence as a classic in the 20th century. It's influence was reaffirmed by James Mallinson.

Before the 20th century, history indicates that the medieval Indian yoga scene was dominated by the various other texts such as the Bhagavad Gita and the Yoga Vasistha, texts attributed to Yajnavalkya and Hiranyagarbha, as well as literature on hatha yoga, tantric yoga and Pashupata Shaivism yoga rather than the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali. Much about yoga is written in the Mokṣadharma section of the epic Mahābhārata. The members of the Jaina faith had their own, different literature on yoga, and Buddhist yoga stems from pre-Patanjali sources.

Some of the major commentaries on the Yoga Sutras were written between the ninth and sixteenth century. After the twelfth century, the school started to decline, and commentaries on Patanjali's Yoga philosophy were few. By the sixteenth century Patanjali's Yoga philosophy had virtually become extinct. The manuscript of the Yoga Sutras was no longer copied, since few read the text, and it was seldom taught.

According to David Gordon White, the popularity of the Yoga Sutras is recent, "miraculously rehabilitated" by Swami Vivekananda after having been ignored for seven centuries. It was with the rediscovery by a British Orientalist in the early 1800s that wider interest in the Yoga Sutras arose in the West. Popular interest arose in the 19th century, when the practice of yoga according to the Yoga Sutras became regarded as the science of yoga and the "supreme contemplative path to self-realization" by Swami Vivekananda, following Helena Blavatsky, president of the Theosophical Society. It has become a celebrated text in the West, states White, because of "Big Yoga – the corporate yoga subculture".

The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali was the most translated ancient Indian text in the medieval era, having been translated into about forty Indian languages and two non-Indian languages: Old Javanese and Arabic.

  • In early 11th century, the Persian scholar Al Biruni (973-1050 CE) visited India, lived with Hindus for 16 years, and with their help translated several significant Sanskrit works into Arabic and Persian languages. One of these was Patanjali's Yogasutras. His translation included the text and a hitherto unknown Sanskrit commentary. Al Biruni's translation preserved many of the core themes of Yoga philosophy of Hinduism, but certain sutras and analytical commentaries were restated making it more consistent with Islamic monotheistic theology. Al Biruni's version of Yoga Sutras reached Persia and Arabian peninsula by about 1050 AD.
  • The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali was translated into Old Javanese by Indonesian Hindus, and the text was called Dharma Patanjala. The surviving text has been dated to about 1450 CE, however it is unclear if this text is a copy of an earlier translation and whether other translations existed in Indonesia. This translation shares ideas found in other Indian translations particularly those in the Śaiva traditions, and some in Al Biruni translation, but it is also significantly different in parts from the 11th century Arabic translation. The most complete copy of the Dharma Patañjala manuscript is now held at the Staatsbibliothek in Berlin.

By the early 21st century, scholars had located 37 editions of Patanjali's Yoga Sutras published between 1874 and 1992, and 82 different manuscripts, from various locations in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Europe and the United States, many in Sanskrit, some in different North and South Indian languages. The numerous historical variants show that the text was a living document and it was changed as these manuscripts were transmitted or translated, with some ancient and medieval manuscripts marked with "corrections" in the margin of the pages and elsewhere by unknown authors and for unclear reasons. This has made the chronological study of Yoga school of philosophy a difficult task.

Many commentaries have been written on the Yoga Sutras.

Medieval commentaries

Medieval commentaries on the Yoga sutras include:

  • Vācaspati Miśra (AD 900–980) who composed the commentary Tattvavaiśāradī, described as the "most significant early subcommentary".
  • Bhoja Raja's Raja-Martanda, 11th century.
  • Vijnanabhiksu's 16th century Yogabhashyavarttika or simply Yogavarttika ("Explanation of the Commentary on the Yoga Sutras" of Vyasa). The writer was a Vaishnava philosopher and exegete who tried to harmonize Samkhya and Vedanta and held the Bhedabheda view.
  • Ramananda Sarasvati's Yogamani-Prabha (16th century).

Modern translations and commentary

Countless commentaries on the Yoga Sutras are available today. The Sutras, with commentaries, have been published by a number of successful teachers of Yoga, as well as by academicians seeking to clarify issues of textual variation. There are also other versions from a variety of sources available on the Internet. The many versions display a wide variation, particularly in translation. The text has not been submitted in its entirety to any rigorous textual analysis, and the contextual meaning of many of the Sanskrit words and phrases remains a matter of some dispute. Modern translations and interpretations include:

  • 1852,1853:First translation of Yoga Sutras of Patanjali in English containing first two chapters by J.R Ballyntyne published by The Benaras College,in 1872 Govind Deva Shastri completed remaining two chapters.
  • 1882,1885:The whole complete book was published in 1882 and final revised edition published in 1885. The Yoga Philosophy with comments of Bhojaraja,J.R Ballantyne,Govind Shastri Deva,edited by Tookaram Tatya, Bombay Theosophical publication fund.
  • 1883: Yoga Aporhism of Patanjali with the commentary of Bhoja Raja by Rajendra Lala Mitra,Asiatic Society of Bengal
  • 1890: The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali, by Manilal Nabhubhai Dvivedi,Bombay Theosophical publication fund
  • 1914:The Yoga System of Patanjali with comment of Yoga Bhasya and explanation of Tatva Vicardi by James Haughton Woods,Harvard University Press
  • 1924: Patanjali Yoga Sutras with commentary of Vyasa and gloss of Vachaspati Mishra by Rama Prasad
  • 1907: Ganganath Jha's Yoga Sutras with the Yogabhashya attributed to Vyasa into English in its entirety. With notes drawn from Vācaspati Miśra's Tattvavaiśāradī amongst other important texts in the Yoga commentarial tradition.
  • 1896: Swami Vivekananda, Raja Yoga provides translation and an in-depth explanation of Yoga Sutra.
  • 1912: Charles Johnston Dublin University: The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: The Book of the Spiritual Man.
  • 1953: Swami Prabhavananda, Patanjali Yoga Sutras, Sri Ramakrishna Math, Madras, India.
  • 1961: I. K. Taimni, The Science of Yoga commentary with Sutras in Sanskrit and translation and commentary in English.
  • 1963: Swami Hariharananda Aranya's Bhasvati.
  • 1976: Swami Satyananda, Four Chapters of Freedom. Yoga Publications Trust, Munger, Bihar, India.
  • 1978: Swami Satchidananda, The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Integral Yoga, Yogaville.
  • 1989: Georg Feuerstein, The Yoga-Sûtra of Patanjali: A New Translation and Commentary, Inner Traditions International; Rochester, Vermont.
  • 1993: B. K. S. Iyengar, Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali. Harper Collins.
  • 1996: Barbara Stoler Miller, The Yoga Sutras Attributed to Patanjali; "Yoga – Discipline of Freedom. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • 2003: Chip Hartranft, The Yoga-Sutra of Patanjali: A New Translation with Commentary, Shambhala Classics, Boulder, Colorado.
  • 2009: Edwin F. Bryant's The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: A New Edition, Translation, and Commentary. North Point Press, New York.
  • 2013: Swami Kriyananda, Demystifying Patanjali: The Yoga Sutras - The Wisdom of Paramhansa Yogananda. Crystal Clarity Publishers, Nevada City.
  • 2020: Viswanatha Thalakola, The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Made Simple, Amazon KDP, Seattle, Washington.
  1. Radhakrishnan and Moore attribute the text to the grammarian Patañjali, dating it as 2nd century BC, during the Maurya Empire (322–185 BC). Scholars such as S.N. Dasgupta, (Yoga-As Philosophy and Religion Port Washington: Kennikat Press, 1924) claim this is the same Patañjali who authored the Mahabhasya, a treatise on Sanskrit grammar. For an argument about the philosophical nature of Sanskrit grammarian thought see: Lata, Bidyut (editor); Panini to Patañjali: A Grammatical March. New Delhi, 2004. Against these older views, Axel Michaels disagrees that the work was written by Patañjali, characterizing it instead as a collection of fragments and traditions of texts stemming from the 2nd or 3rd century.
  2. See James Woods, The yoga-system of Patañjali; or, The ancient Hindu doctrine of concentration of mind, embracing the mnemonic rules, called Yoga-sutras, of Patañjali, and the comment, called Yoga-bhashya (1914), archive.org for a complete translation
  3. क्लेशकर्मविपाकाशयैरपरामृष्टः पुरुषविशेष ईश्वरः ॥२४॥
  4. Zimmer: "[Jainism] does not derive from Brahman-Aryan sources, but reflects the cosmology and anthropology of a much older pre-Aryan upper class of northeastern India - being rooted in the same subsoil of archaic metaphysical speculation as Yoga, Sankhya, and Buddhism, the other non-Vedic Indian systems."
  5. Zimmer's point of view is supported by other scholars, such as Niniam Smart, in Doctrine and argument in Indian Philosophy, 1964, p.27-32 & p.76, and S.K. Belvakar & R.D. Ranade in History of Indian philosophy, 1974 (1927), p.81 & p.303-409.
  6. For an overview of the scope of earlier commentaries: Complete Commentary by Sankara on the Yoga Sutras: Vivarana Sub-commentary to Vyasabhasya on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Tr.fr. Sanskrit, Trevor Leggett, Rev. Ed. Routledge (1990) ISBN 978-0-7103-0277-9.
  7. A list of 22 Classical commentaries can be found among the listings of essential Yoga texts at mantra.org).Mantra.org.in, Fundamental Texts of Yoga
  1. Wujastyk 2011, p. 33.
  2. Feuerstein 1978, p. 108.
  3. Tola, Dragonetti & Prithipaul 1987, p. x.
  4. Whicher 1998, p. 49.
  5. Stuart Sarbacker (2011), Yoga Powers (Editor: Knut A. Jacobsen), Brill, ISBN 978-9004212145, page 195
  6. White 2014, p. xvi-xvii.
  7. Tola, Dragonetti & Prithipaul 1987, p. xi.
  8. Surendranath Dasgupta (1992). A History of Indian Philosophy. Reprint: Motilal Banarsidass (Original: Cambridge University Press, 1922). pp. 230–238. ISBN 978-81-208-0412-8.
  9. James G. Lochtefeld (2002).The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 506–507. ISBN 978-0-8239-3180-4.
  10. White 2014, pp. 34–38.
  11. Renou, Louis (1940). "On the Identity of the Two Patañjalis". In Law, Narendra Nath (ed.). Louis de La Vallée Poussin Memorial Volume. pp. 368–373.
  12. Radhakrishnan & Moore 1989, p. 453.
  13. Michaels 2004, p. 267.
  14. Maas, Philipp André; Patañjali; Hazel M. Hussong Fund (2006). Samādhipāda: das erste Kapitel des Pātan̄jalayogaśāstra zum ersten Mal kritisch ediert = The first chapter of the Pātan̄jalayogaśāstra for the first time critically edited. Aachen: Shaker. ISBN 978-3-8322-4987-8. OCLC 1049097407.
  15. Maas 2013, p. [page needed].
  16. The Yoga system of Patañjali or the ancient Hindu doctrine of concentration of mind embracing the mnemonic rules, called Yoga-sūtras, of Patañjali the comment, called Yogabhāshya ...: Transl. from the original Sanskrit by James Haughton Woods. Cambridge. 1914. OCLC 185290295.
  17. Potter, Karl H; Agrawal, M. M; Bhattacharyya, Sibajiban; Philips, Stephen H (1970). The encyclopedia of Indian philosophies. Yoga: India's philosophy of meditation Vol. 12 Vol. 12. ISBN 978-81-208-3349-4. OCLC 988887600.
  18. Baier, Karl; Maas, Philipp André; Preisendanz, Karin, eds. (2018). Yoga in transformation: historical and contemporary perspectives : with 55 figures. ISBN 978-3-8471-0862-7. OCLC 1081172387.
  19. Bryant, Edwin F; Patañjali; Patañjali (2009). The Yoga sūtras of Patañjali: a new edition, translation, and commentary with insights from the traditional commentators. New York: North Point Press. OCLC 1151865824.
  20. Bryant 2009, p. xxxiv.
  21. Bryant 2009, p. 510, notes 43-44.
  22. Michele Desmarais (2008), Changing Minds: Mind, Consciousness and Identity in Patanjali's Yoga Sutra, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120833364, pages 16-17
  23. Pradhan 2015, p. 151-152.
  24. Crangle 1984, p. [page needed].
  25. Feuerstein 1978, p. 108, Quote: "As I have shown in my own detailed examination of the Yoga-Sûtra, this great scripture could well be a composite of only two distinct Yoga lineages. On the one hand there is the Yoga of eight limbs or ashta-anga-yoga (written ashtângayoga), and on the other, there is the Yoga of Action (kriyâ-yoga).".
  26. Larson, pp. 43-45
  27. Wujastyk 2011, p. 32-33.
  28. Bryant, Edwin F. The Yoga Sutras of Patañjali: A New Edition, Translation, and Commentary; Introduction
  29. Maas 2006.
  30. Sankaracarya; Patañjali; T. S. Rukmani; Vyasa. Yogasutrabhasyavivarana of Sankara: Vivarana Text with English Translation, and Critical Notes along with Text and English Translation of Patañjali's Yogasutras and Vyasabhasya. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 2001. ISBN 978-81-215-0908-4.
  31. Woods 2003, p. [page needed].
  32. Iyengar 2002, p. [page needed].
  33. Woods 2003.
  34. Iyengar 2002.
  35. Taimni 1961, p. 16-17.
  36. "Intro Yoga Philosophy and Patanjali: What Is Kriya Yoga?". Yoga Journal. 28 August 2007. Retrieved23 January 2021.
  37. yoga sutras 2:46
  38. Griffin, Mark (2 January 2012). Shaktipat: The Doorway to Enlightenment. p. 213. ISBN 9780981937502.
  39. Jacobsen 2011, p. 6.
  40. Haney 2002, p. 17.
  41. Isaac & Dangwal 1997, p. 339.
  42. Samkhya - Hinduism Encyclopædia Britannica (2014)
  43. Gerald James Larson (2011), Classical Sāṃkhya: An Interpretation of Its History and Meaning, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120805033, pages 36-47
  44. Indian sage Patanjali's book on yoga the most scientific spiritual work in ancient times
  45. Alban Widgery (1930), The principles of Hindu Ethics, International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 40, No. 2, pages 234-237
  46. James G. Lochtefeld, Guna, in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, Vol. 1, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8, page 265
  47. Edwin Bryant (2011, Rutgers University), The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali IEP
  48. Bryant 2009, p. 10.
  49. The Yoga-darsana: The sutras of Patanjali with the Bhasya of Vyasa - Book 3 GN Jha (Translator); Harvard University Archives, pages 94-95
  50. Gregor Maehle (2007), Ashtanga Yoga: Practice & Philosophy, ISBN 978-1577316060, pages 237-238
  51. The Yoga-darsana: The sutras of Patanjali with the Bhasya of Vyasa - Book 3 GN Jha (Translator); Harvard University Archives, pages 108-126
  52. The Yoga Philosophy TR Tatya (Translator), with Bhojaraja commentary; Harvard University Archives, pages 108-109
  53. John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791430675, page 238
  54. Larson 1998, p. 9.
    • Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, pages 245-248;
    • John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791430675, page 238
  55. Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya and Yoga - An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415648875, page 39-41
  56. Lloyd Pflueger, Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra, in Theory and Practice of Yoga (Editor: Knut Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120832329, pages 38-39
  57. Kovoor T. Behanan (2002), Yoga: Its Scientific Basis, Dover, ISBN 978-0486417929, pages 56-58
  58. Roy Perrett (2007), Samkhya-Yoga Ethics, Indian Ethics: Classical Traditions and Contemporary Challenges (Editors: Purusottama Bilimoria et al), Volume 1, ISBN 978-0754633013, page 151
  59. Maurice Phillips (Published as Max Muller collection), The Evolution of Hinduism, Origin and Growth of Religion, p. 8, at Google Books, PhD. Thesis awarded by University of Berne, Switzerland, page 8
  60. Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya and Yoga - An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415648875, pages 31-46
  61. *Hariharānanda Āraṇya (2007), Parabhaktisutra, Aporisms on Sublime Devotion, (Translator: A Chatterjee), in Divine Hymns with Supreme Devotional Aphorisms, Kapil Math Press, Kolkata, pages 55-93;
    • Hariharānanda Āraṇya (2007), Eternally Liberated Isvara and Purusa Principle, in Divine Hymns with Supreme Devotional Aphorisms, Kapil Math Press, Kolkata, pages 126-129
  62. Whicher 1998, p. 86.
  63. पातञ्जलयोगप्रदीप, गीताप्रेस गोरखपुर, page 198
  64. aparAmRSTa, kleza, karma, vipaka and ashaya; Sanskrit English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany
  65. Lloyd Pflueger (2008), Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra, in Theory and Practice of Yoga (Editor: Knut Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120832329, pages 31-45
  66. Zimmer 1951, p. 217, 314.
  67. Zimmer 1951, p. 217.
  68. Crangle 1994, p. 7.
  69. Crangle 1994, p. 5-7.
  70. p222. A history of Indian philosophy, Volume 1 By Surendranath Dasgupta
  71. Indian Philosophy Vol 2, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. p.314
  72. p236. Classical Sāṃkhya: an interpretation of its history and meaning, By Gerald James Larson
  73. Reconciling yogas: Haribhadra's collection of views on yoga. By Christopher Chapple, Haribhadrasūri, John Thomas Casey p16
  74. Yoga sutras of Patañjali Sutra 1.23, from Light on the Yoga Sutras of Pantanjali by B.K.S Iyengar
  75. Reconciling yogas: Haribhadra's collection of views on yoga. By Christopher Chapple, Haribhadrasūri, John Thomas Casey. p15
  76. An outline of the religious literature of India. By John Nicol Farquhar. p. 132.
  77. Meditation on Om in the Mandukya Upanishad
  78. Zimmer 1951, p. 280. These two are regarded in India as twins, the two aspects of a single discipline. Sāṅkhya provides a basic theoretical exposition of human nature, enumerating and defining its elements, analyzing their manner of co-operation in a state of bondage ("bandha"), and describing their state of disentanglement or separation in release ("mokṣa"), while Yoga treats specifically of the dynamics of the process for the disentanglement, and outlines practical techniques for the gaining of release, or "isolation-integration" ("kaivalya").
  79. Müller (1899), Chapter 7, "Yoga Philosophy," p. 104.
  80. "Samkhya: Right Understanding – The Teachings of the Bhagavadgita – Chapter 3". Swami-krishnananda.org. Retrieved16 March 2013.
  81. "Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 6: Sankhya-yoga". Vedabase.io. 12 December 1972. Retrieved2 November 2020.
  82. White 2014, pp. 31–43, Chapter 2.
  83. Peter Heehs (2002), Indian Religions: A Historical Reader of Spiritual Expression and Experience, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0814736500, pages 136-142
  84. Michele Desmarais (2008), Changing Minds: Mind, Consciousness And Identity In Patanjali'S Yoga-Sutra, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120833364, pages 72-81 with footnotes
  85. Karel Werner (1994), The Yogi and the Mystic. Routledge, ISBN 978-0700702725, page 26
  86. Karel Werner (1998), Yoga and the Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120816091, page 131
  87. Karel Werner (1994), The Yogi and the Mystic. Routledge, ISBN 978-0700702725, pages 120-125, 139-145
  88. White 2014, p. 10.
  89. White 2014, p. 19.
  90. White 2014, pp. 40–41, Quote: "A significant minority opinion, however, maintains that Vyasa lived several centuries later, and that his "Hindu-izing" commentary, rather than elucidating Patanjali’s text, actually subverted its original "Buddhist" teachings.".
  91. Robert Thurman, The Central Philosophy of Tibet. Princeton University Press, 1984, page 34.
  92. An outline of the religious literature of India, By John Nicol Farquhar p.132
  93. Christopher Chapple (2008) Yoga and the Luminous: Patanjali's Spiritual Path to Freedom New York: SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7475-4 p. 110
  94. Zydenbos, Robert. Jainism Today and Its Future. München: Manya Verlag, (2006) p.66
  95. A History of Yoga By Vivian Worthington (1982) Routledge ISBN 978-0-7100-9258-8 p. 29
  96. Tähtinen pp. 2–5; English translation: Schmidt p. 631.
  97. Christopher Chapple (2008) Yoga and the Luminous: Patañjali's Spiritual Path to Freedom New York: SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7475-4
  98. Mallinson & Singleton 2017, p. xxxvi note 34.
  99. White 2014, p. xvi-xvii, 20-23.
  100. Mallinson & Singleton 2017, p. xvi.
  101. Williams, R. (1998). Jaina Yoga. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-8120807754.
  102. Tola, Dragonetti & Prithipaul 1987, p. xi note 3.
  103. White 2014, p. 6.
  104. White 2014, p. 16.
  105. White 2014, p. xvi.
  106. White 2011, p. 20-21.
  107. S Pines and T Gelblum (Translators from Arabic to English, 1966), Al-Bīrūni (Translator from Sanskrit to Arabic, ~ 1035 AD), and Patañjali, Al-Bīrūnī's Arabic Version of Patañjali's Yogasūtra, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 29, No. 2 (1966), pages 302-325
  108. Hellmut Ritter, al-Bīrūnī's übersetzung des Yoga-Sūtra des Patañjali, Oriens, Vol. 9, No. 2 (31 December 1956), pages 165-200 (in German)
  109. Maas 2013, pp. 53–90.
  110. Andrea Acri (2012), Yogasūtra 1.10, 1.21–23, and 2.9 in the Light of the Indo-Javanese Dharma Pātañjala, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Volume 40, Issue 3, pages 259-276
  111. Andrea Acri (2011), Dharma Pātañjala: a Śaiva scripture from ancient Java: studied in the light of related old Javanese and Sanskrit texts, Doctoral dissertation, Leiden University Institute for AREA Studies (LIAS), Leiden University.
  112. Philipp Maas (2010), On the Written Transmission of the Pātañjalayogaśāstra, in "From Vasubandhu to Caitanya, Studies in Indian Philosophy and its Textual History" (Editors: Johannes Bronkhorst und Karin Preisendanz), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120834729, pages 157-172
  113. Philipp Maas (2008), "Descent with Modification": The Opening of the Pātañjalayogaśāstra, in Śāstrārambha: Inquiries Into the Preamble in Sanskrit (Editor: Walter Slaje), Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447056458, pages 97-119
  114. Jacobsen, Knut A. (2019). "Classical Yoga Philosophy and the Legacy of Sāṃkhya: With Sanskrit Text and English Translation of Pātañjala Yogasūtra-s, Vyāsa Bhāṣya and Tattvavaiśāradī of Vācaspatimiśra, by Gerald James Larson". Religions of South Asia. 12 (3): 410–412. doi:10.1558/rosa.39892. ISSN 1751-2689.
  115. Christopher Key Chapple; Reading Patañjali without Vyasa: A Critique of Four Yoga Sutra Passages, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Spring, 1994), pp. 85-105.
  116. Ganganatha Jha (translator) (1907). The Yoga Darśana: The Sutras of Patañjali with the Bhāṣya of Vyāsa. With notes from Vācaspati Miśra's Tattvavaiśāradī, Vijnana Bhiksu's Yogavartika and Bhoja's Rajamartanda. Rajaram Tukaram Tatya: Bombay Theosophical Publication Fund. Source: [1] (accessed: 16 January 2011)
  117. "The Science of Yoga". Goodreads. Retrieved7 February 2017.
  118. "Four Chapters of Freedom". Biharyoga. Retrieved7 November 2021.
  119. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Made Simple https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/53301695-the-yoga-sutras-of-patanjali-made-simple
Printed sources
Web sources
  1. Edwin Bryant (2011, Rutgers University), The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali IEP
General references
  • Müeller, Max (1899). Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya and Yoga, Naya and Vaiseshika. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7661-4296-1. Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy.
  • Ranganathan, Shyam (2008). Patañjali's Yoga Sūtra: Translation, Commentary and Introduction. Delhi: Penguin Black Classics. ISBN 978-0-14-310219-9.
  • Sen, Amiya P. (2006). "Raja Yoga: The Science of Self-Realization". The Indispensable Vivekananda. Orient Blackswan. pp. 219–227. ISBN 978-81-7824-130-2.
  • Sharma, Chandradhar (1987). An Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0365-7.
  • Vivekananda, Swami (1980). Raja Yoga. Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center. ISBN 0-911206-23-X.
  • Wood, Ernest (1951). Practical Yoga, Ancient and Modern, Being a New, Independent Translation of Patanjali's Yoga Aphorisms. Rider and Company.
History
Translations
  • Bryant, Edwin F. (2009) The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. New York: North Point Press. ISBN 978-0-86547-736-0
  • Tola, Fernando; Dragonetti, Carmen; Prithipaul, K. Dad (1987). The Yogasūtras of Patañjali on concentration of mind. Motilal Banarsidass.
Practice and commentaries
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Overview
Manuscripts
Translations
Yoga bhashya
Commentaries

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Language Watch Edit The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali is a collection of Sanskrit sutras aphorisms on the theory and practice of yoga 195 sutras according to Vyasa and Krishnamacharya and 196 sutras according to other scholars including BKS Iyengar The Yoga Sutras was compiled in the early centuries CE by the sage Patanjali in India who synthesized and organized knowledge about yoga from much older traditions 1 2 3 Some pages from a historic Yogasutra manuscript Sanskrit Devanagari The verses are highlighted and are embedded inside the bhasya commentary Patanjali Statue traditional form indicating kundalini or incarnation of Shesha The Yoga Sutras are best known for its reference to ashtanga eight elements of practice culminating in samadhi concentration of the mind on an object of meditation namely yama abstinences niyama observances asana yoga postures pranayama breath control pratyahara withdrawal of the senses dharana concentration of the mind dhyana meditation and samadhi absorption However its main aim is kaivalya discernment of purusha the witness conscious as separate from prakriti the cognitive apparatus and disentanglement of purusha from prakriti s muddled defilements The Yoga Sutras built on Samkhya notions of purusha and prakriti and are often seen as complementary to it It is closely related to Buddhism incorporating some of its terminology Yet Samkhya Yoga Vedanta as well as Jainism and Buddhism can be seen as representing different manifestations of a broad stream of ascetic traditions in ancient India in contrast to the Bhakti traditions and Vedic ritualism which were prevalent at the time The contemporary Yoga tradition holds the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali to be one of the foundational texts of classical Yoga philosophy 4 5 However the appropriation and misappropriation of the Yoga Sutras and its influence on later systematizations of yoga has been questioned by David Gordon White 6 who argues that the text fell into relative obscurity for nearly 700 years from the 12th to 19th century and made a comeback in late 19th century due to the efforts of Swami Vivekananda the Theosophical Society and others It gained prominence as a classic in the 20th century 6 Contents 1 Author and dating 1 1 Author 1 2 Dating 1 3 Compilation 1 4 Yogabhashya 2 Contents 3 Philosophy 3 1 Metaphysics 3 2 Soteriology 3 3 Epistemology 3 4 God 4 Philosophical roots and influences 4 1 Samkhya 4 2 Buddhism 4 3 Jainism 5 Influence 6 Translations and commentaries 6 1 Medieval commentaries 6 2 Modern translations and commentary 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Sources 11 Further reading 12 External linksAuthor and dating EditAuthor Edit The colophons of manuscripts of the Yoga Sutras attribute the work to Patanjali 7 8 9 10 The identity of Patanjali has been the subject of academic debate because an author of the same name is credited with the authorship of the classic text on Sanskrit grammar named Mahabhaṣya that is firmly debatable to the second century BC Yet the two works are completely different in subject matter and in the details of language grammar and vocabulary as was compellingly pointed out long ago by Louis Renou 11 Furthermore before the time of Bhoja 11th century no known text states that the authors were the same note 1 Dating Edit Philipp A Maas assessed Patanjali s Patanjalayogasastra s date to be about 400 CE based on synchronisms between its arguments and those of Vasubandhu on tracing the history of the commentaries on it published in the first millennium CE on the opinions of earlier Sanskrit commentators on the testimony of manuscript colophons and on a review of extant literature 14 15 This dating for the Patanjalayogasastra was proposed as early as 1914 by Woods 16 and has been accepted widely by academic scholars of the history of Indian philosophical thought 17 18 Edwin Bryant on the other hand surveyed the major commentators in his translation of the Yoga Sutras 19 He observed that Most scholars date the text shortly after the turn of the Common Era circa first to second century but that it has been placed as early as several centuries before that 20 Bryant concluded that A number of scholars have dated the Yoga Sutras as late as the fourth or fifth century CE but these arguments have all been challenged All such arguments for a late date are problematic 21 Michele Desmarais summarized a wide variety of dates assigned to Yogasutra ranging from 500 BCE to 3rd century CE noting that there is a paucity of evidence for any certainty She stated the text may have been composed at an earlier date given conflicting theories on how to date it but latter dates are more commonly accepted by scholars 22 Compilation Edit The Yoga Sutras are a composite of various traditions 2 3 1 The levels of samadhi taught in the text resemble the Buddhist jhanas 23 24 According to Feuerstein the Yoga Sutras are a condensation of two different traditions namely eight limb yoga aṣṭaṅga yoga and action yoga Kriya yoga 25 The kriya yoga part is contained in chapter 1 chapter 2 sutras 1 27 chapter 3 except sutra 54 and chapter 4 2 The eight limb yoga is described in chapter 2 sutras 28 55 and chapter 3 sutras 3 and 54 2 There are numerous parallels in the ancient Samkhya Yoga and Abhidharma schools of thought particularly from the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century AD notes Larson 26 Patanjali s Yoga Sutras may be a synthesis of these three traditions From the Samkhya school of Hinduism Yoga Sutras adopt the reflective discernment adhyavasaya of prakrti and purusa dualism its metaphysical rationalism and its three epistemic methods to gaining reliable knowledge 26 From Abhidharma Buddhism s idea of nirodhasamadhi suggests Larson Yoga Sutras adopt the pursuit of an altered state of awareness However unlike Buddhism which believes that there is neither self nor soul Yoga is physicalist and realist like Samkhya in believing that each individual has a self and soul 26 The third concept that Yoga Sutras synthesizes into its philosophy is the ancient ascetic traditions of isolation meditation and introspection as well as the yoga ideas from the 1st millennium BCE Indian texts such as Katha Upanishad Shvetashvatara Upanishad and Maitri Upanishad 26 According to Wujastyk referencing Maas Patanjali integrated yoga from older traditions in Patanjalayogasastra and added his own explanatory passages to create the unified work that since 1100 CE has been considered the work of two people 1 Together the compilation of Patanjali s sutras and the Vyasabhasya is called Patanjalayogasastra 27 Yogabhashya Edit The Yogabhashya is a commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali traditionally attributed to the legendary Vedic sage Vyasa who is said to have composed the Mahabharata This commentary is indispensable for the understanding of the aphoristic and terse Yoga sutras and the study of the sutras has always referred to the Yogabhashya 28 Some scholars see Vyasa as a later 4th or 5th century AD commentator as opposed to the ancient mythic figure 28 Scholars hold that both texts the sutras and the commentary were written by one person According to Philipp A Maas based on a study of the original manuscripts Patanjali s composition was entitled Patanjalayogasastra The Treatise on Yoga according to Patanjali and consisted of both Sutras and Bhaṣya This means that the Bhaṣya was in fact Patanjali s own work 29 The practice of writing a set of aphorisms with the author s own explanation was well known at the time of Patanjali as for example in Vasubandhu s Abhidharmakosabhaṣya that incidentally Patanjali quotes These research findings change the historical understanding of the yoga tradition since they allow us to take the Bhaṣya as Patanjali s very own explanation of the meaning of his somewhat cryptic sutras 29 note 2 The Yogabhashya states that yoga in the Yoga Sutras has the meaning of samadhi Another commentary the Vivarana by a certain Shankara confirms the interpretation of yogah samadhih YBh I 1 yoga in Patanjali s sutra has the meaning of integration 30 This Shankara may or may not have been the famed Vedantic scholar Adi Shankara 8th or 9th century Scholarly opinion is still open on this issue 28 Contents EditPatanjali divided his Yoga Sutras into four chapters or books Sanskrit Pada containing in all 196 aphorisms divided as follows 31 32 Samadhi Pada 33 34 51 sutras Samadhi is a state of direct and reliable perception pramaṇa where the seer Purusha pure consciousness the Self abides in itself Samadhi is the main technique the yogi learns by which to calm the workings of the mind whereafter Kaivalya the isolation of the seer from the impurities of the mind is attained The author describes yoga and then the nature and the means of attaining samadhi This chapter contains the famous definitional verse YS 1 2 Yogas citta vritti nirodhaḥ Yoga is the restriction of the fluctuations of mindstuff 33 When the mind is stilled the seer or real Self is revealed 1 3 Then the Seer is established in his own essential and fundamental nature 1 4 In other states there is assimilation of the Seer with the modifications of the mind 35 dd YS 1 33 39 mentions seven practices to still the mind the seventh being meditative absorption YS 1 39 which is further explained in YS 1 40 51 and YS 3 1 12 dd Sadhana Pada 33 34 55 sutras Sadhana is the Sanskrit for practice or discipline aiming at discriminative discernment to discern the Seer consciousness from its objects and the hindrances Here the author outlines two systems of Yoga Kriya Yoga and Aṣṭaṅga Yoga Eightlimbed Yoga Kriya Yoga in the Yoga Sutras is a preparation for Aṣṭaṅga Yoga 36 tapas austerity 36 svadhyaya self study of the scriptures 36 isvara praṇidhana devotion to god or pure consciousness 36 Aṣṭanga Yoga is the yoga of eight limbs In chapter 2 five indirect aids for purification and aiding insight are outlined 1 Yama restraints or ethics of behaviour Yama consists of Ahimsa Non violence Satya Truthfulness Asteya Non stealing Brahmacharya Chastity and Aparigraha Non possession 2 Niyama observances Niyama consists of Saucha Cleanliness Santosha Contentment Tapas Austerity Svadhyaya Selfstudy and Isvara Pranidhana Devotion to the lord 3 Asana A physical posture in which one can be steady and comfortable 37 4 Praṇayama control of the prana breath 5 Pratyahara withdrawal of the senses dd Vibhuti Pada 33 34 56 sutras 38 Vibhuti is the Sanskrit word for power or manifestation In chapter 3 samyama is outlined 6 Dharaṇa concentration 7 Dhyana meditation 8 Samadhi absorption dd Besides insight into pure awareness purusha samyama gives supra normal powers Sanskrit siddhi as the yogi gains access to and unites with the tattvas the constituents of prakriti 39 The text warns III 38 that these powers can become an obstacle to the yogi who seeks liberation Kaivalya Pada 33 34 34 sutras Kaivalya isolation of the Seer from the contents of the mind so it is no longer disturbed by the movements of the mind It stands for emancipation or liberation and is used where other texts often employ the term moksha liberation The Kaivalya Pada describes the process of liberation and the reality of the Seer Philosophy EditMetaphysics Edit The metaphysics of Patanjali is built on the same dualist foundation as the Samkhya school web 1 The universe is conceptualized as of two realities in Samkhya Yoga schools Puruṣa consciousness and prakriti mind cognition emotions and matter It considers consciousness and matter self soul and body as two different realities 40 41 Jiva a living being is considered as a state in which puruṣa is bonded to prakriti in some form in various permutations and combinations of various elements senses feelings activity and mind 42 During the state of imbalance or ignorance one of more constituents overwhelm the others creating a form of bondage The end of this bondage is called Kaivalya liberation or moksha by both Yoga and Samkhya school 43 The ethical theory of Yoga school is based on Yamas and Niyama as well as elements of the Guṇa theory of Samkhya web 1 Recently there has been an attempt to explain the sutras from modern scientific point of view 44 Patanjali adopts the theory of Guṇa from Samkhya web 1 Guṇas theory states that three gunas innate tendency attributes are present in different proportions in all beings and these three are sattva guna goodness constructive harmonious rajas guna passion active confused and tamas guna darkness destructive chaotic 45 46 These three are present in every being but in different proportions and the fundamental nature and psychological dispositions of beings is a consequence of the relative proportion of these three gunas web 1 When sattva guna predominates an individual the qualities of lucidity wisdom constructiveness harmony and peacefulness manifest themselves when rajas is predominant attachment craving passion driven activity and restlessness manifest and when tamas predominates in an individual ignorance delusion destructive behavior lethargy and suffering manifests The guṇas theory underpins the philosophy of mind in Yoga school of Hinduism web 1 Soteriology Edit 1 2 Yoga is the inhibition of the modifications of the mind 1 3 Then the Seer is established in his own essential and fundamental nature 1 4 In other states there is assimilation of the Seer with the modifications of the mind Yoga Sutra of Patanjali 35 According to Bryant the purpose of yoga is liberation from suffering by means of discriminative discernment The eight limbs are the means of achieving discriminative discernment the uncoupling of puruṣa from all connection with prakṛti and all involvement with the citta Bryant states that to Patanjali Yoga practice essentially consists of meditative practices culminating in attaining a state of consciousness free from all modes of active or discursive thought and of eventually attaining a state where consciousness is unaware of any object external to itself that is is only aware of its own nature as consciousness unmixed with any other object 47 48 While the Samkhya school suggests that jnana knowledge is a sufficient means to moksha Patanjali suggests that systematic techniques practice personal experimentation combined with Samkhya s approach to knowledge is the path to moksha web 1 Patanjali holds that avidya ignorance is the cause of all five kleshas which are the cause of suffering and saṁsara web 1 Liberation like many other schools is removal of ignorance which is achieved through discriminating discernment knowledge and self awareness The Yoga Sutras is the Yoga school s treatise on how to accomplish this web 1 Samadhi is the state where ecstatic awareness develops state Yoga scholars and this is how one starts the process of becoming aware of Purusa and true Self It further claims that this awareness is eternal and once this awareness is achieved a person cannot ever cease being aware this is moksha the soteriological goal in Hinduism web 1 Book 3 of Patanjali s Yogasutra is dedicated to soteriological aspects of yoga philosophy Patanjali begins by stating that all limbs of yoga are a necessary foundation to reaching the state of self awareness freedom and liberation He refers to the three last limbs of yoga as samyama in verses III 4 to III 5 and calls it the technology for discerning principle and mastery of citta and self knowledge 49 50 In verse III 12 the Yogasutras state that this discerning principle then empowers one to perfect sant tranquility and udita reason in one s mind and spirit through intentness This leads to one s ability to discern the difference between sabda word artha meaning and pratyaya understanding and this ability empowers one to compassionately comprehend the cry speech of all living beings 51 52 Once a yogi reaches this state of samyama it leads to unusual powers intuition self knowledge freedoms and kaivalya the redemptive goal of the yogi 51 Epistemology Edit The epistemology in Patanjali s system of Yoga like the Samkhya school of Indian philosophy relies on three of six Pramanas as the means of gaining reliable knowledge 53 These included Pratyakṣa perception Anumaṇa inference and Sabda Aptavacana word testimony of reliable sources 54 55 Patanjali s system like the Samkhya school considers Pratyakṣa or Dṛṣṭam direct sense perception Anumana inference and Sabda or Aptavacana verbal testimony of the sages or shastras to be the only valid means of knowledge or Pramana 54 Unlike few other schools of Hinduism such as Advaita Vedanta Yoga did not adopt the following three Pramanas Upamaṇa comparison and analogy Arthapatti postulation deriving from circumstances or Anupalabdi non perception negative cognitive proof 55 God Edit Patanjali differs from the closely related non theistic atheistic Samkhya school by incorporating what some scholars have called a personal yet essentially inactive deity or personal god Ishvara 56 57 58 59 Hindu scholars such as the 8th century Adi Sankara as well as many modern academic scholars describe Yoga school as Samkya school with God 57 60 61 The Yogasutras of Patanjali use the term Isvara in 11 verses I 23 through I 29 II 1 II 2 II 32 and II 45 Ever since the Sutra s release Hindu scholars have debated and commented on who or what is Isvara These commentaries range from defining Isvara from a personal god to special self to anything that has spiritual significance to the individual 57 62 Whicher states that while Patanjali s terse verses can be interpreted both as theistic or non theistic Patanjali s concept of Isvara in Yoga philosophy functions as a transformative catalyst or guide for aiding the yogin on the path to spiritual emancipation 63 Whereas the purusa spirit or true self of the yogin is bound to the prakriti the material body subject to karmas and kleshas the special purusa called Isvara is immaterial and ultimately free Patanjali defines Isvara Sanskrit ईश वर in verse 24 of Book 1 as a special Self Spirit प र षव श ष puruṣa viseṣa 64 note 3 This sutra adds the characteristics of Isvara as that special Self Spirit which is unaffected अपर म ष ट aparamrsta by one s obstacles hardships क ल श klesha one s circumstances created by past or one s current actions कर म karma one s life fruits व प क vipaka and one s psychological dispositions intentions आशय ashaya 66 67 Philosophical roots and influences Edit The fusion of Dharana Dhyana and Samadhi is Samyama the path to Kaivalya in Yoga school Main article Yoga philosophy The Yoga Sutras incorporated the teachings of many other Indian philosophical systems prevalent at the time According to Zimmer Samkhya and Yoga are two of several schools of philosophy that originated over the centuries that had common roots in the pre Aryan cultures and traditions of India 68 note 4 note 5 Yet the orthodox Hindu philosophies of Samkhya Yoga Vedanta as well as the non orthodox Nastika systems of Jainism and Buddhism can all be seen as representing one stream of spiritual activity in ancient India in contrast to the Bhakti traditions and Vedic ritualism which were also prevalent at the same time The Vedanta Sramana traditions iconolatry and Vedic rituals can be identified with the Jnana marga Bhakti marga and the Karma marga respectively that are outlined in the Bhagavad Gita Samkhya Edit The Yoga Sutras are built on a foundation of Samkhya philosophy and are generally seen as the practice while Samkhya is the theory The influence of Samkhya is so pervasive in the Sutras that the historian Surendranath Dasgupta went so far as to deny independent categorization to Patanjali s system preferring to refer to it as Patanjala Samkhya similar to the position taken by the Jain writer Haribhadra in his commentary on Yoga 72 Patanjali s Yoga Sutras accept the Samkhya s division of the world and phenomena into twenty five tattvas or principles of which one is Purusha meaning Self or consciousness the others being Prakriti primal nature Buddhi intellect or will Ahamkara ego Manas mind five buddhindriyas sensory capabilities five karmendriyas action capabilities and ten elements 73 74 The second part of the Sutras the Sadhana also summarizes the Samkhya perspectives about all seen activity lying within the realm of the three Gunas of Sattva illumination Rajas passion and Tamas lethargy 75 The Yoga Sutras diverge from early Samkhya by the addition of the principle of Isvara or God as exemplified by Sutra 1 23 Isvara pranidhanat va which is interpreted to mean that surrender to God is one way to liberation 73 76 Isvara is defined here as a distinct Consciousness untouched by afflictions actions fruitions or their residue 77 In the sutras it is suggested that devotion to Isvara represented by the mystical syllable Om may be the most efficient method of achieving the goal of Yoga 78 This syllable Om is a central element of Hinduism appearing in all the Upanishads including the earliest Chandogya and Brihadaranyaka Upanishads and expounded upon in the Mandukya Upanishad 79 Another divergence from Samkhya is that while the Samkhya holds that knowledge is the means to liberation Patanjali s Yoga insists on the methods of concentration and active striving The aim of Yoga is to free the individual from the clutches of the matter and considers intellectual knowledge alone to be inadequate for the purpose which is different from the position taken by Samkhya 73 However the essential similarities between the Samkhya and Patanjali s system remained even after the addition of the Isvara principle 80 with Max Muller noting that the two philosophies were in popular parlance distinguished from each other as Samkhya with and Samkhya without a Lord 81 The Bhagavad Gita one of the chief scriptures of Hinduism is considered to be based on this synthetic Samkhya Yoga system 82 83 The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali is a foundational text of the Yoga philosophy school of Hinduism 4 5 Buddhism Edit See also Buddhism and Hinduism Yoga Scholars have presented different viewpoints on the relationship between Patanjali s Yoga Sutras and the teachings in Buddhist texts 84 85 86 Karel Werner writes Patanjali s system is unthinkable without Buddhism As far as its terminology goes there is much in the Yoga Sutras that reminds us of Buddhist formulations from the Pali Canon and even more so from the Sarvastivada Abhidharma and from Sautrantika 87 He adds upon the whole it Patanjali s Yoga sutras is more elaborate and summarizes the actual technique of Yoga procedures more exactly than the Buddhist exposition 88 However states Werner The Buddha was the founder of his system even though admittedly he made use of some of the experiences he had previously gained under various Yoga teachers of his time Patanjali is neither a founder nor a leader of a new movement The ingenuity of his Patanjali s achievement lies in the thoroughness and completeness with which all the important stages of Yoga practice and mental experiences are included in his scheme and in their systematic presentation in a succinct treatise 88 Werner adds that the ideas of existence and the focus on Self Soul in Patajali s Yogasutra are different from the no Self precepts of Buddhism 89 According to David Gordon White the language of the Yoga Sutras is often closer to Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit the Sanskrit of the early Mahayana Buddhist scriptures than to the classical Sanskrit of other Hindu scriptures 90 He adds historical evidence suggests that yoga philosophical systems influenced and were influenced by other philosophical systems in India such as early Buddhism and Jainism 91 White mentions controversies about the Yoga Sutras 84 A significant minority of scholars notes White for example believes that Vyasa lived a few centuries after Patanjali and his Hindu izing commentary subverted Yoga Sutras original Buddhist teachings while the majority scholarly view disagrees with this view 92 Other scholars state there are differences between the teachings in the Yoga Sutras and those in Buddhist texts 85 86 Patanjali s Yoga Sutras for example states Michele Desmarias accept the concept of a Self or soul behind the operational mind while Buddhists do not accept such a Self exists The role of Self is central to the idea of Saṃyoga Citta Self awareness and other concepts in Chapters 2 through 4 of the Yoga sutras according to Desmarias 86 According to Barbara Miller 85 the difference between Patanjali s Yoga Sutras and teachings in Buddhist texts is In Samkhya and Yoga as in Buddhism and Jainism the most salient characteristic of existence is duhkha or suffering According to Buddhism the origin of suffering is desire according to Yoga it is the connection between the observer Purusha with the observed Prakrti In both systems the origin of duhkha is ignorance There are also similarities in the means of deliverance recommended by the two systems In Buddhism the aspirant is asked to follow the eightfold path which culminates in right meditation or samadhi In Yoga the aspirant is asked to follow a somewhat different eight fold path which also culminates in samadhi But the aim of yoga meditation is conceived in terms that a Buddhist would not accept as the separation of an eternal conscious self from unconscious matter The purpose of Patanjali s Yoga is to bring about this separation by means of understanding devotion and practice 85 Robert Thurman writes that Patanjali was influenced by the success of the Buddhist monastic system to formulate his own matrix for the version of thought he considered orthodox 93 The Yoga Sutra especially the fourth segment of Kaivalya Pada contains several polemical verses critical of Buddhism particularly the Vijnanavada school of Vasubandhu 94 Jainism Edit The five yamas or the constraints of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali bear an uncanny resemblance to the five major vows of Jainism indicating influence of Jainism 95 96 97 Three other teachings closely associated with Jainism also make an appearance in Yoga the doctrine of colors in karma lesya the Telos of isolation kevala in Jainism and Kaivalyam in Yoga and the practice of nonviolence ahimsa though nonviolence ahimsa made its first appearance in Indian philosophy cum religion in the Hindu texts known as the Upanishads the Chandogya Upaniṣad dated to the 8th or 7th century BCE one of the oldest Upanishads has the earliest evidence for the use of the word Ahimsa in the sense familiar in Hinduism a code of conduct It bars violence against all creatures sarvabhuta and the practitioner of Ahimsa is said to escape from the cycle of metempsychosis reincarnation CU 8 15 1 98 It also names Ahimsa as one of five essential virtues 99 Influence EditThe contemporary Yoga tradition holds the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali to be one of the foundational texts of classical Yoga philosophy 4 5 However the appropriation and misappropriation of the Yoga Sutras and its influence on later systematizations of yoga has been questioned by David Gordon White 6 who has argued that the text fell into relative obscurity for nearly 700 years from the 12th to 19th century and made a comeback in late 19th century due to the efforts of Swami Vivekananda the Theosophical Society and others It gained prominence as a classic in the 20th century 6 It s influence was reaffirmed by James Mallinson 100 Before the 20th century history indicates that the medieval Indian yoga scene was dominated by the various other texts such as the Bhagavad Gita and the Yoga Vasistha texts attributed to Yajnavalkya and Hiranyagarbha as well as literature on hatha yoga tantric yoga and Pashupata Shaivism yoga rather than the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali 101 Much about yoga is written in the Mokṣadharma section of the epic Mahabharata 102 The members of the Jaina faith had their own different literature on yoga 103 and Buddhist yoga stems from pre Patanjali sources 104 Some of the major commentaries on the Yoga Sutras were written between the ninth and sixteenth century 105 After the twelfth century the school started to decline and commentaries on Patanjali s Yoga philosophy were few 105 By the sixteenth century Patanjali s Yoga philosophy had virtually become extinct 105 The manuscript of the Yoga Sutras was no longer copied since few read the text and it was seldom taught 106 According to David Gordon White the popularity of the Yoga Sutras is recent miraculously rehabilitated by Swami Vivekananda after having been ignored for seven centuries 107 It was with the rediscovery by a British Orientalist in the early 1800s that wider interest in the Yoga Sutras arose in the West 106 Popular interest arose in the 19th century when the practice of yoga according to the Yoga Sutras became regarded as the science of yoga and the supreme contemplative path to self realization by Swami Vivekananda following Helena Blavatsky president of the Theosophical Society 108 It has become a celebrated text in the West states White because of Big Yoga the corporate yoga subculture 107 Translations and commentaries EditThe Yoga Sutras of Patanjali was the most translated ancient Indian text in the medieval era having been translated into about forty Indian languages and two non Indian languages Old Javanese and Arabic 107 In early 11th century the Persian scholar Al Biruni 973 1050 CE visited India lived with Hindus for 16 years and with their help translated several significant Sanskrit works into Arabic and Persian languages One of these was Patanjali s Yogasutras His translation included the text and a hitherto unknown Sanskrit commentary 28 109 110 Al Biruni s translation preserved many of the core themes of Yoga philosophy of Hinduism but certain sutras and analytical commentaries were restated making it more consistent with Islamic monotheistic theology 109 111 Al Biruni s version of Yoga Sutras reached Persia and Arabian peninsula by about 1050 AD The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali was translated into Old Javanese by Indonesian Hindus and the text was called Dharma Patanjala 112 The surviving text has been dated to about 1450 CE however it is unclear if this text is a copy of an earlier translation and whether other translations existed in Indonesia This translation shares ideas found in other Indian translations particularly those in the Saiva traditions and some in Al Biruni translation but it is also significantly different in parts from the 11th century Arabic translation 112 The most complete copy of the Dharma Patanjala manuscript is now held at the Staatsbibliothek in Berlin 113 By the early 21st century scholars had located 37 editions of Patanjali s Yoga Sutras published between 1874 and 1992 and 82 different manuscripts from various locations in India Nepal Pakistan Europe and the United States many in Sanskrit some in different North and South Indian languages 114 115 The numerous historical variants show that the text was a living document and it was changed as these manuscripts were transmitted or translated with some ancient and medieval manuscripts marked with corrections in the margin of the pages and elsewhere by unknown authors and for unclear reasons This has made the chronological study of Yoga school of philosophy a difficult task 114 Many commentaries have been written on the Yoga Sutras note 6 Medieval commentaries Edit Medieval commentaries on the Yoga sutras include Vacaspati Misra AD 900 980 who composed the commentary Tattvavaisaradi described as the most significant early subcommentary 116 Bhoja Raja s Raja Martanda 11th century Vijnanabhiksu s 16th century Yogabhashyavarttika or simply Yogavarttika Explanation of the Commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Vyasa The writer was a Vaishnava philosopher and exegete who tried to harmonize Samkhya and Vedanta and held the Bhedabheda view 28 Ramananda Sarasvati s Yogamani Prabha 16th century Modern translations and commentary Edit Countless commentaries on the Yoga Sutras are available today The Sutras with commentaries have been published by a number of successful teachers of Yoga as well as by academicians seeking to clarify issues of textual variation There are also other versions from a variety of sources available on the Internet note 7 The many versions display a wide variation particularly in translation The text has not been submitted in its entirety to any rigorous textual analysis and the contextual meaning of many of the Sanskrit words and phrases remains a matter of some dispute 117 Modern translations and interpretations include 1852 1853 First translation of Yoga Sutras of Patanjali in English containing first two chapters by J R Ballyntyne published by The Benaras College in 1872 Govind Deva Shastri completed remaining two chapters 1882 1885 The whole complete book was published in 1882 and final revised edition published in 1885 The Yoga Philosophy with comments of Bhojaraja J R Ballantyne Govind Shastri Deva edited by Tookaram Tatya Bombay Theosophical publication fund 1883 Yoga Aporhism of Patanjali with the commentary of Bhoja Raja by Rajendra Lala Mitra Asiatic Society of Bengal 1890 The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali by Manilal Nabhubhai Dvivedi Bombay Theosophical publication fund 1914 The Yoga System of Patanjali with comment of Yoga Bhasya and explanation of Tatva Vicardi by James Haughton Woods Harvard University Press 1924 Patanjali Yoga Sutras with commentary of Vyasa and gloss of Vachaspati Mishra by Rama Prasad 1907 Ganganath Jha s Yoga Sutras with the Yogabhashya attributed to Vyasa into English in its entirety 118 With notes drawn from Vacaspati Misra s Tattvavaisaradi amongst other important texts in the Yoga commentarial tradition 1896 Swami Vivekananda Raja Yoga provides translation and an in depth explanation of Yoga Sutra 1912 Charles Johnston Dublin University The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali The Book of the Spiritual Man 1953 Swami Prabhavananda Patanjali Yoga Sutras Sri Ramakrishna Math Madras India 1961 I K Taimni The Science of Yoga commentary with Sutras in Sanskrit and translation and commentary in English 119 1963 Swami Hariharananda Aranya s Bhasvati 1976 Swami Satyananda Four Chapters of Freedom Yoga Publications Trust Munger Bihar India 120 1978 Swami Satchidananda The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Integral Yoga Yogaville 1989 Georg Feuerstein The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali A New Translation and Commentary Inner Traditions International Rochester Vermont 1993 B K S Iyengar Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Harper Collins 1996 Barbara Stoler Miller The Yoga Sutras Attributed to Patanjali Yoga Discipline of Freedom University of California Press Berkeley 2003 Chip Hartranft The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali A New Translation with Commentary Shambhala Classics Boulder Colorado 2009 Edwin F Bryant s The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali A New Edition Translation and Commentary North Point Press New York 2013 Swami Kriyananda Demystifying Patanjali The Yoga Sutras The Wisdom of Paramhansa Yogananda Crystal Clarity Publishers Nevada City 2020 Viswanatha Thalakola The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Made Simple Amazon KDP Seattle Washington 121 See also Edit Hinduism portal India portal Patanjali SamkhyaNotes Edit Radhakrishnan and Moore attribute the text to the grammarian Patanjali dating it as 2nd century BC during the Maurya Empire 322 185 BC 12 Scholars such as S N Dasgupta Yoga As Philosophy and Religion Port Washington Kennikat Press 1924 claim this is the same Patanjali who authored the Mahabhasya a treatise on Sanskrit grammar For an argument about the philosophical nature of Sanskrit grammarian thought see Lata Bidyut editor Panini to Patanjali A Grammatical March New Delhi 2004 Against these older views Axel Michaels disagrees that the work was written by Patanjali characterizing it instead as a collection of fragments and traditions of texts stemming from the 2nd or 3rd century 13 See James Woods The yoga system of Patanjali or The ancient Hindu doctrine of concentration of mind embracing the mnemonic rules called Yoga sutras of Patanjali and the comment called Yoga bhashya 1914 archive org for a complete translation क ल शकर मव प क शय रपर म ष ट 65 प र षव श ष ईश वर २४ Zimmer Jainism does not derive from Brahman Aryan sources but reflects the cosmology and anthropology of a much older pre Aryan upper class of northeastern India being rooted in the same subsoil of archaic metaphysical speculation as Yoga Sankhya and Buddhism the other non Vedic Indian systems 69 Zimmer s point of view is supported by other scholars such as Niniam Smart in Doctrine and argument in Indian Philosophy 1964 p 27 32 amp p 76 70 and S K Belvakar amp R D Ranade in History of Indian philosophy 1974 1927 p 81 amp p 303 409 71 For an overview of the scope of earlier commentaries Complete Commentary by Sankara on the Yoga Sutras Vivarana Sub commentary to Vyasabhasya on theYoga Sutras of PatanjaliTr fr Sanskrit Trevor Leggett Rev Ed Routledge 1990 ISBN 978 0 7103 0277 9 A list of 22 Classical commentaries can be found among the listings of essential Yoga texts at mantra org Mantra org in Fundamental Texts of YogaReferences Edit a b c Wujastyk 2011 p 33 a b c d Feuerstein 1978 p 108 a b Tola Dragonetti amp Prithipaul 1987 p x a b c Whicher 1998 p 49 a b c Stuart Sarbacker 2011 Yoga Powers Editor Knut A Jacobsen Brill ISBN 978 9004212145 page 195 a b c d White 2014 p xvi xvii Tola Dragonetti amp Prithipaul 1987 p xi Surendranath Dasgupta 1992 A History of Indian Philosophy Reprint Motilal Banarsidass Original Cambridge University Press 1922 pp 230 238 ISBN 978 81 208 0412 8 James G Lochtefeld 2002 The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism N Z The Rosen Publishing Group pp 506 507 ISBN 978 0 8239 3180 4 White 2014 pp 34 38 Renou Louis 1940 On the Identity of the Two Patanjalis In Law Narendra Nath ed Louis de La Vallee Poussin Memorial Volume pp 368 373 Radhakrishnan amp Moore 1989 p 453 Michaels 2004 p 267 Maas Philipp Andre Patanjali Hazel M Hussong Fund 2006 Samadhipada das erste Kapitel des Patan jalayogasastra zum ersten Mal kritisch ediert The first chapter of the Patan jalayogasastra for the first time critically edited Aachen Shaker ISBN 978 3 8322 4987 8 OCLC 1049097407 Maas 2013 p page needed The Yoga system of Patanjali or the ancient Hindu doctrine of concentration of mind embracing the mnemonic rules called Yoga sutras of Patanjali the comment called Yogabhashya Transl from the original Sanskrit by James Haughton Woods Cambridge 1914 OCLC 185290295 Potter Karl H Agrawal M M Bhattacharyya Sibajiban Philips Stephen H 1970 The encyclopedia of Indian philosophies Yoga India s philosophy of meditation Vol 12 Vol 12 ISBN 978 81 208 3349 4 OCLC 988887600 Baier Karl Maas Philipp Andre Preisendanz Karin eds 2018 Yoga in transformation historical and contemporary perspectives with 55 figures ISBN 978 3 8471 0862 7 OCLC 1081172387 Bryant Edwin F Patanjali Patanjali 2009 The Yoga sutras of Patanjali a new edition translation and commentary with insights from the traditional commentators New York North Point Press OCLC 1151865824 Bryant 2009 p xxxiv Bryant 2009 p 510 notes 43 44 Michele Desmarais 2008 Changing Minds Mind Consciousness and Identity in Patanjali s Yoga Sutra Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 978 8120833364 pages 16 17 Pradhan 2015 p 151 152 Crangle 1984 p page needed Feuerstein 1978 p 108 Quote As I have shown in my own detailed examination of the Yoga Sutra this great scripture could well be a composite of only two distinct Yoga lineages On the one hand there is the Yoga of eight limbs or ashta anga yoga written ashtangayoga and on the other there is the Yoga of Action kriya yoga a b c d Larson pp 43 45 Wujastyk 2011 p 32 33 a b c d e Bryant Edwin F The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali A New Edition Translation and Commentary Introduction a b Maas 2006 Sankaracarya Patanjali T S Rukmani Vyasa Yogasutrabhasyavivarana of Sankara Vivarana Text with English Translation and Critical Notes along with Text and English Translation of Patanjali s Yogasutras and Vyasabhasya Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers 2001 ISBN 978 81 215 0908 4 Woods 2003 p page needed Iyengar 2002 p page needed a b c d e Woods 2003 a b c d Iyengar 2002 a b Taimni 1961 p 16 17 a b c d Intro Yoga Philosophy and Patanjali What Is Kriya Yoga Yoga Journal 28 August 2007 Retrieved 23 January 2021 yoga sutras 2 46 Griffin Mark 2 January 2012 Shaktipat The Doorway to Enlightenment p 213 ISBN 9780981937502 Jacobsen 2011 p 6 Haney 2002 p 17 Isaac amp Dangwal 1997 p 339 Samkhya Hinduism Encyclopaedia Britannica 2014 Gerald James Larson 2011 Classical Saṃkhya An Interpretation of Its History and Meaning Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 978 8120805033 pages 36 47 Indian sage Patanjali s book on yoga the most scientific spiritual work in ancient times Alban Widgery 1930 The principles of Hindu Ethics International Journal of Ethics Vol 40 No 2 pages 234 237 James G Lochtefeld Guna in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism A M Vol 1 Rosen Publishing ISBN 978 0 8239 3179 8 page 265 Edwin Bryant 2011 Rutgers University The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali IEP Bryant 2009 p 10 The Yoga darsana The sutras of Patanjali with the Bhasya of Vyasa Book 3 GN Jha Translator Harvard University Archives pages 94 95 Gregor Maehle 2007 Ashtanga Yoga Practice amp Philosophy ISBN 978 1577316060 pages 237 238 a b The Yoga darsana The sutras of Patanjali with the Bhasya of Vyasa Book 3 GN Jha Translator Harvard University Archives pages 108 126 The Yoga Philosophy TR Tatya Translator with Bhojaraja commentary Harvard University Archives pages 108 109 John A Grimes A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy Sanskrit Terms Defined in English State University of New York Press ISBN 978 0791430675 page 238 a b Larson 1998 p 9 a b Eliott Deutsche 2000 in Philosophy of Religion Indian Philosophy Vol 4 Editor Roy Perrett Routledge ISBN 978 0815336112 pages 245 248 John A Grimes A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy Sanskrit Terms Defined in English State University of New York Press ISBN 978 0791430675 page 238 Mike Burley 2012 Classical Samkhya and Yoga An Indian Metaphysics of Experience Routledge ISBN 978 0415648875 page 39 41 a b c Lloyd Pflueger Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra in Theory and Practice of Yoga Editor Knut Jacobsen Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 978 8120832329 pages 38 39 Kovoor T Behanan 2002 Yoga Its Scientific Basis Dover ISBN 978 0486417929 pages 56 58 Roy Perrett 2007 Samkhya Yoga Ethics Indian Ethics Classical Traditions and Contemporary Challenges Editors Purusottama Bilimoria et al Volume 1 ISBN 978 0754633013 page 151 Maurice Phillips Published as Max Muller collection The Evolution of Hinduism Origin and Growth of Religion p 8 at Google Books PhD Thesis awarded by University of Berne Switzerland page 8 Mike Burley 2012 Classical Samkhya and Yoga An Indian Metaphysics of Experience Routledge ISBN 978 0415648875 pages 31 46 Hariharananda Araṇya 2007 Parabhaktisutra Aporisms on Sublime Devotion Translator A Chatterjee in Divine Hymns with Supreme Devotional Aphorisms Kapil Math Press Kolkata pages 55 93 Hariharananda Araṇya 2007 Eternally Liberated Isvara and Purusa Principle in Divine Hymns with Supreme Devotional Aphorisms Kapil Math Press Kolkata pages 126 129 Whicher 1998 p 86 Sanskrit Original with Translation 1 The Yoga Philosophy TR Tatya Translator with Bhojaraja commentary Harvard University Archives Translation 2 The Yoga darsana The sutras of Patanjali with the Bhasya of Vyasa GN Jha Translator with notes Harvard University Archives Translation 3 The Yogasutras of Patanjali Charles Johnston Translator प तञ जलय गप रद प ग त प र स ग रखप र page 198 aparAmRSTa kleza karma vipaka and ashaya Sanskrit English Dictionary Koeln University Germany Lloyd Pflueger 2008 Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra in Theory and Practice of Yoga Editor Knut Jacobsen Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 978 8120832329 pages 31 45 Zimmer 1951 p 217 314 Zimmer 1951 p 217 Crangle 1994 p 7 Crangle 1994 p 5 7 p222 A history of Indian philosophy Volume 1 By Surendranath Dasgupta a b c Indian Philosophy Vol 2 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan p 314 p236 Classical Saṃkhya an interpretation of its history and meaning By Gerald James Larson Reconciling yogas Haribhadra s collection of views on yoga By Christopher Chapple Haribhadrasuri John Thomas Casey p16 Yoga sutras of Patanjali Sutra 1 23 from Light on the Yoga Sutras of Pantanjali by B K S Iyengar Reconciling yogas Haribhadra s collection of views on yoga By Christopher Chapple Haribhadrasuri John Thomas Casey p15 An outline of the religious literature of India By John Nicol Farquhar p 132 Meditation on Om in the Mandukya Upanishad Zimmer 1951 p 280 These two are regarded in India as twins the two aspects of a single discipline Saṅkhya provides a basic theoretical exposition of human nature enumerating and defining its elements analyzing their manner of co operation in a state of bondage bandha and describing their state of disentanglement or separation in release mokṣa while Yoga treats specifically of the dynamics of the process for the disentanglement and outlines practical techniques for the gaining of release or isolation integration kaivalya Muller 1899 Chapter 7 Yoga Philosophy p 104 Samkhya Right Understanding The Teachings of the Bhagavadgita Chapter 3 Swami krishnananda org Retrieved 16 March 2013 Bhagavad Gita Chapter 6 Sankhya yoga Vedabase io 12 December 1972 Retrieved 2 November 2020 a b White 2014 pp 31 43 Chapter 2 a b c d Peter Heehs 2002 Indian Religions A Historical Reader of Spiritual Expression and Experience New York University Press ISBN 978 0814736500 pages 136 142 a b c Michele Desmarais 2008 Changing Minds Mind Consciousness And Identity In Patanjali S Yoga Sutra Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 978 8120833364 pages 72 81 with footnotes Karel Werner 1994 The Yogi and the Mystic Routledge ISBN 978 0700702725 page 26 a b Karel Werner 1998 Yoga and the Indian Philosophy Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 978 8120816091 page 131 Karel Werner 1994 The Yogi and the Mystic Routledge ISBN 978 0700702725 pages 120 125 139 145 White 2014 p 10 White 2014 p 19 White 2014 pp 40 41 Quote A significant minority opinion however maintains that Vyasa lived several centuries later and that his Hindu izing commentary rather than elucidating Patanjali s text actually subverted its original Buddhist teachings Robert Thurman The Central Philosophy of Tibet Princeton University Press 1984 page 34 An outline of the religious literature of India By John Nicol Farquhar p 132 Christopher Chapple 2008 Yoga and the Luminous Patanjali s Spiritual Path to Freedom New York SUNY Press ISBN 978 0 7914 7475 4 p 110 Zydenbos Robert Jainism Today and Its Future Munchen Manya Verlag 2006 p 66 A History of Yoga By Vivian Worthington 1982 Routledge ISBN 978 0 7100 9258 8 p 29 Tahtinen pp 2 5 English translation Schmidt p 631 Christopher Chapple 2008 Yoga and the Luminous Patanjali s Spiritual Path to Freedom New York SUNY Press ISBN 978 0 7914 7475 4 Mallinson amp Singleton 2017 p xxxvi note 34 White 2014 p xvi xvii 20 23 Mallinson amp Singleton 2017 p xvi Williams R 1998 Jaina Yoga Delhi Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 978 8120807754 Tola Dragonetti amp Prithipaul 1987 p xi note 3 a b c White 2014 p 6 a b White 2014 p 16 a b c White 2014 p xvi White 2011 p 20 21 a b S Pines and T Gelblum Translators from Arabic to English 1966 Al Biruni Translator from Sanskrit to Arabic 1035 AD and Patanjali Al Biruni s Arabic Version of Patanjali s Yogasutra Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies Vol 29 No 2 1966 pages 302 325 Hellmut Ritter al Biruni s ubersetzung des Yoga Sutra des Patanjali Oriens Vol 9 No 2 31 December 1956 pages 165 200 in German Maas 2013 pp 53 90 a b Andrea Acri 2012 Yogasutra 1 10 1 21 23 and 2 9 in the Light of the Indo Javanese Dharma Patanjala Journal of Indian Philosophy Volume 40 Issue 3 pages 259 276 Andrea Acri 2011 Dharma Patanjala a Saiva scripture from ancient Java studied in the light of related old Javanese and Sanskrit texts Doctoral dissertation Leiden University Institute for AREA Studies LIAS Leiden University a b Philipp Maas 2010 On the Written Transmission of the Patanjalayogasastra in From Vasubandhu to Caitanya Studies in Indian Philosophy and its Textual History Editors Johannes Bronkhorst und Karin Preisendanz Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 9788120834729 pages 157 172 Philipp Maas 2008 Descent with Modification The Opening of the Patanjalayogasastra in Sastrarambha Inquiries Into the Preamble in Sanskrit Editor Walter Slaje Otto Harrassowitz Verlag ISBN 978 3447056458 pages 97 119 Jacobsen Knut A 2019 Classical Yoga Philosophy and the Legacy of Saṃkhya With Sanskrit Text and English Translation of Patanjala Yogasutra s Vyasa Bhaṣya and Tattvavaisaradi of Vacaspatimisra by Gerald James Larson Religions of South Asia 12 3 410 412 doi 10 1558 rosa 39892 ISSN 1751 2689 Christopher Key Chapple Reading Patanjali without Vyasa A Critique of Four Yoga Sutra Passages Journal of the American Academy of Religion Vol 62 No 1 Spring 1994 pp 85 105 Ganganatha Jha translator 1907 The Yoga Darsana The Sutras of Patanjali with the Bhaṣya of Vyasa With notes from Vacaspati Misra s Tattvavaisaradi Vijnana Bhiksu s Yogavartika and Bhoja s Rajamartanda Rajaram Tukaram Tatya Bombay Theosophical Publication Fund Source 1 accessed 16 January 2011 The Science of Yoga Goodreads Retrieved 7 February 2017 Four Chapters of Freedom Biharyoga Retrieved 7 November 2021 The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Made Simple https www goodreads com book show 53301695 the yoga sutras of patanjali made simpleSources EditPrinted sourcesBryant Edwin F 2009 The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali A New Edition Translation and Commentary New York North Poinnt Press ISBN 978 0865477360 Crangle Eddie 1984 A Comparison of Hindu and Buddhist Techniques of Attaining Samadhi PDF in Hutch R A Fenner P G eds Under The Shade of the Coolibah Tree Australian Studies in Consciousness University Press of America Crangle Edward Fitzpatrick 1994 The Origin and Development of Early Indian Contemplative Practices Otto Harrassowitz Verlag Feuerstein Georg 1978 Handboek voor Yoga Dutch translation English title Textbook of Yoga Ankh Hermes Haney William S 2002 Culture and Consciousness Literature Regained New Jersey Bucknell University Press ISBN 1611481724 Isaac J R Dangwal Ritu 1997 Proceedings International conference on cognitive systems New Delhi Allied Publishers ISBN 81 7023 746 7 Iyengar B K S 2002 Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali HarperCollins UK ISBN 978 0 00 714516 4 Jacobsen Knut A ed 2011 Yoga Powers Leiden Brill ISBN 978 9004212145 Larson Gerald James 1998 Classical Saṃkhya An Interpretation of Its History and Meaning London Motilal Banarasidass ISBN 81 208 0503 8 Maas Philipp A 2006 Samadhipada Das erste Kapitel des Patanjalayogasastra zum ersten Mal kritisch ediert Samadhipada The First Chapter of the Patanjalayogasas tra for the First Time Critically Edited Aachen Shaker Maas Philipp A 2013 A Concise Historiography of Classical Yoga Philosophy In Franco Eli ed Periodization and Historiography of Indian Philosophy Wien Sammlung de Nobili Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Indologie und Religionsforschung Institut fur Sudasien Tibet und Buddhismuskunde der Universitat ISBN 978 3 900271 43 5 OCLC 859540980 twelve lectures held at the fourteenth World Sanskrit Conference Kyoto September 1 5 2009 Mallinson James Singleton Mark 2017 Roots of Yoga Penguin Books ISBN 978 0 241 25304 5 OCLC 928480104 Michaels Axel 2004 Hinduism Past and Present Princeton NJ Princeton University Press ISBN 978 0 691 08953 9 Pradhan Basant 2015 Yoga and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy Springer Radhakrishnan S Moore C A 1989 1957 A Source Book in Indian Philosophy Princeton NJ Princeton University Press ISBN 978 0 691 01958 1 Taimni I K 1961 The Science of Yoga The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali PDF Tola Fernando Dragonetti Carmen Prithipaul K Dad 1987 The Yogasutras of Patanjali on concentration of mind Motilal Banarsidass Whicher Ian 1998 The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga SUNY Press White David Gordon 2011 Yoga Brief History of an Idea Chapter 1 of Yoga in practice PDF Princeton University Press White David Gordon 2014 The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali A Biography Princeton University Press ISBN 978 0691143774 Woods James Haughton translator 2003 The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Courier Dover Publications ISBN 978 0 486 43200 7 Wujastyk Dominik 2011 The Path to Liberation through Yogic Mindfulness in Early Ayurveda In David Gordon White ed Yoga in practice Princeton University Press Zimmer Heinrich 1951 Philosophies of India New York Princeton University Press ISBN 0 691 01758 1 Bollingen Series XXVI Edited by Joseph Cambell Web sources a b c d e f g h i Edwin Bryant 2011 Rutgers University The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali IEP General referencesMueller Max 1899 Six Systems of Indian Philosophy Samkhya and Yoga Naya and Vaiseshika Calcutta Susil Gupta India Ltd ISBN 978 0 7661 4296 1 Reprint edition Originally published under the title of The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy Ranganathan Shyam 2008 Patanjali s Yoga Sutra Translation Commentary and Introduction Delhi Penguin Black Classics ISBN 978 0 14 310219 9 Sen Amiya P 2006 Raja Yoga The Science of Self Realization The Indispensable Vivekananda Orient Blackswan pp 219 227 ISBN 978 81 7824 130 2 Sharma Chandradhar 1987 An Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy Delhi Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 978 81 208 0365 7 Vivekananda Swami 1980 Raja Yoga Ramakrishna Vivekananda Center ISBN 0 911206 23 X Wood Ernest 1951 Practical Yoga Ancient and Modern Being a New Independent Translation of Patanjali s Yoga Aphorisms Rider and Company Further reading EditHistoryWhite David Gordon 2014 The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali A Biography Princeton NJ Princeton University Press ISBN 978 0 691 14377 4 TranslationsBryant Edwin F 2009 The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali New York North Point Press ISBN 978 0 86547 736 0 Tola Fernando Dragonetti Carmen Prithipaul K Dad 1987 The Yogasutras of Patanjali on concentration of mind Motilal Banarsidass Practice and commentariesGovindan Marshall Kriya Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and the Siddhas Babaji s Kriya Yoga and Publications 2000 2nd edition 2010 ISBN 978 1 895383 12 6 Iyengar B K S 1993 2002 Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Hammersmith London UK Thorsons ISBN 978 0 00 714516 4 Master E K The Yoga of Patanjali Kulapathi Book Trust ISBN 978 81 85943 05 3 Swami Satyandanda Four Chapters on Freedom Commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali ISBN 81 85787 18 2External links EditWikisource has original text related to this article Yoga SutrasOverviewEdwin Bryant The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali IEPManuscriptsManuscript Alfred Foucher from Bibliotheque Nationale de FranceTranslationsJames Woods The yoga system of Patanjali or The ancient Hindu doctrine of concentration of mind Yoga sutras of Patanjali 1914 Harvard University Press The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali translation by BonGiovanni at sacred texts com Yoga Sutras and related yoga texts at sanskritdocuments org The Online Companion to The Yoga Sutra Of Patanjali A New Translation With Commentary by Chip Hartranft Arlington Center Parallel Sanskrit IAST and English text and word for word translationYoga bhashyaGanganath Jha 1907 Yoga Philosophy with Vyasa Bhashya amp NotesCommentariesPatanjali Yoga Sutras A word by word translation with grammar and comment The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali by Charles Johnston Audiobook version Works by Patanjali at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Yoga Sutras of Patanjali at Internet Archive The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Rutgers University Yoga Sutras of Patanjali a Buddhist Commentary Audio lectures on the Yoga Sutras by Swami Harshananda at archive org Yoga Sutras Online Program by A G Mohan Yoga Sutras Commentary by a Modern Mystic 111 Audio lectures on the Yoga Sutras by Swami Tattwamayananda Science of Patanjali Yoga Sutras Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w 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