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Yogurt

For other uses, see Yogurt (disambiguation).

Yogurt (UK: ;US: , from Turkish: yoğurt) also spelled yoghurt, yogourt or yoghourt, is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as yogurt cultures. Fermentation of sugars in the milk by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tart flavor. Cow's milk is the milk most commonly used to make yogurt. Milk from water buffalo, goats, ewes, mares, camels, yaks and plant milks are also used to produce yogurt. The milk used may be homogenized or not. It may be pasteurized or raw. Each type of milk produces substantially different results.

Yogurt
A dish of yogurt
TypeDairy product
Region or stateEurasia
Serving temperatureChilled
Main ingredientsMilk, bacteria

Yogurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria. In addition, other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt. Some countries require yogurt to contain a specific amount of colony-forming units (CFU) of bacteria; in China, for example, the requirement for the number of lactobacillus bacteria is at least 1 million CFU per milliliter.

To produce yogurt, milk is first heated, usually to about 85 °C (185 °F), to denature the milk proteins so that they do not form curds. After heating, the milk is allowed to cool to about 45 °C (113 °F). The bacterial culture is mixed in, and a warm temperature of 30-45 °C (86-113 °F) is maintained for 4 to 12 hours to allow fermentation to occur, with the higher temperatures working faster but risking a lumpy texture or whey separation.

Contents

The word is derived from Turkish: yoğurt, and is usually related to the verb yoğurmak, "to knead", or "to be curdled or coagulated; to thicken". It may be related to yoğun, meaning thick or dense. The sound ğ was traditionally rendered as "gh" in transliterations of Turkish from around 1615–1625. In modern Turkish the letter ğ marks a diaeresis between two vowels, without being pronounced itself, which is reflected in some languages' versions of the word (e.g. Greek γιαούρτι giaoúrti, French yaourt, Romanian iaurt).

In English, the several variations of the spelling of the word include yogurt, yoghurt, and to a lesser extent yoghourt or yogourt.

Analysis of the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus genome indicates that the bacterium may have originated on the surface of a plant. Milk may have become spontaneously and unintentionally exposed to it through contact with plants, or bacteria may have been transferred from the udder of domestic milk-producing animals. The origins of yogurt are unknown, but it is thought to have been invented in Mesopotamia around 5000 BC. In ancient Indian records, the combination of yogurt and honey is called "the food of the gods". Persian traditions hold that "Abraham owed his fecundity and longevity to the regular ingestion of yogurt".

Unstirred Turkish Süzme Yoğurt (strained yogurt), with a 10% fat content

The cuisine of ancient Greece included a dairy product known as oxygala (οξύγαλα) which was similar to yogurt. Galen (AD 129 – c. 200/c. 216) mentioned that oxygala was consumed with honey, similar to the way thickened Greek yogurt is eaten today. The oldest writings mentioning yogurt are attributed to Pliny the Elder, who remarked that certain "barbarous nations" knew how "to thicken the milk into a substance with an agreeable acidity". The use of yogurt by medieval Turks is recorded in the books Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk by Mahmud Kashgari and Kutadgu Bilig by Yusuf Has Hajib written in the 11th century. Both texts mention the word "yogurt" in different sections and describe its use by nomadic Turks. The earliest yogurts were probably spontaneously fermented by wild bacteria in goat skin bags.

Some accounts suggest that Mughal Indian emperor Akbar's cooks would flavor yogurt with mustard seeds and cinnamon. Another early account of a European encounter with yogurt occurs in French clinical history: Francis I suffered from a severe diarrhea which no French doctor could cure. His ally Suleiman the Magnificent sent a doctor, who allegedly cured the patient with yogurt. Being grateful, the French king spread around the information about the food that had cured him.

Until the 1900s, yogurt was a staple in diets of people in the Russian Empire (and especially Central Asia and the Caucasus), Western Asia, South Eastern Europe/Balkans, Central Europe, and the Indian subcontinent. Stamen Grigorov (1878–1945), a Bulgarian student of medicine in Geneva, first examined the microflora of the Bulgarian yogurt. In 1905, he described it as consisting of a spherical and a rod-like lactic acid-producing bacteria. In 1907, the rod-like bacterium was called Bacillus bulgaricus (now Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus). The Russian biologist and Nobel laureate Ilya Mechnikov, from the Institut Pasteur in Paris, was influenced by Grigorov's work and hypothesized that regular consumption of yogurt was responsible for the unusually long lifespans of Bulgarian peasants. Believing Lactobacillus to be essential for good health, Mechnikov worked to popularize yogurt as a foodstuff throughout Europe.

Isaac Carasso industrialized the production of yogurt. In 1919, Carasso, who was from Ottoman Salonika, started a small yogurt business in Barcelona, Spain, and named the business Danone ("little Daniel") after his son. The brand later expanded to the United States under an Americanized version of the name: Dannon. Yogurt with added fruit jam was patented in 1933 by the Radlická Mlékárna dairy in Prague.

Yogurt was introduced to the United States in the first decade of the twentieth century, influenced by Élie Metchnikoff's The Prolongation of Life; Optimistic Studies (1908); it was available in tablet form for those with digestive intolerance and for home culturing. It was popularized by John Harvey Kellogg at the Battle Creek Sanitarium, where it was used both orally and in enemas, and later by Armenian immigrants Sarkis and Rose Colombosian, who started "Colombo and Sons Creamery" in Andover, Massachusetts in 1929.

Colombo Yogurt was originally delivered around New England in a horse-drawn wagon inscribed with the Armenian word "madzoon" which was later changed to "yogurt", the Turkish language name of the product, as Turkish was the lingua franca between immigrants of the various Near Eastern ethnicities who were the main consumers at that time. Yogurt's popularity in the United States was enhanced in the 1950s and 1960s, when it was presented as a health food by scientists like Hungarian-born bacteriologist Stephen A. Gaymont. Plain yogurt still proved too sour for the American palate and in 1966 Colombo Yogurt sweetened the yogurt and added fruit preserves, creating "fruit on the bottom" style yogurt. This was successful and company sales soon exceeded $1 million per year. By the late 20th century, yogurt had become a common American food item and Colombo Yogurt was sold in 1993 to General Mills, which discontinued the brand in 2010.

Yogurt in a refrigerator in a supermarket

In 2017, the average American ate 13.7 pounds of yogurt. The average consumption of yogurt has been declining since 2014.

Sale of yogurt was down 3.4 percent over the 12 months ending in February 2019. The decline of Greek-style yogurt has allowed Icelandic style yogurt to gain a foothold in the United States with sales of the Icelandic style yogurt increasing 24 percent in 2018 to $173 million.

Yogurt, Greek, plain (unsweetened), whole milk (daily value)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy406 kJ (97 kcal)
3.98 g
Sugars4.0 g
Dietary fiber0 g
5.0 g
9.0 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
26 μg
22 μg
Thiamine (B1)
2%
0.023 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
23%
0.278 mg
Niacin (B3)
1%
0.208 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
7%
0.331 mg
Vitamin B6
5%
0.063 mg
Folate (B9)
1%
5 μg
Vitamin B12
31%
0.75 μg
Choline
3%
15.1 mg
Vitamin C
0%
0 mg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
10%
100 mg
Iron
0%
0 mg
Magnesium
3%
11 mg
Manganese
0%
0.009 mg
Phosphorus
19%
135 mg
Potassium
3%
141 mg
Sodium
2%
35 mg
Zinc
5%
0.52 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Selenium9.7 µg
Water81.3 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Yogurt (plain yogurt from whole milk) is 81% water, 9% protein, 5% fat, and 4% carbohydrates, including 4% sugars (table). A 100-gram amount provides 406 kilojoules (97 kcal) of dietary energy. As a proportion of the Daily Value (DV), a serving of yogurt is a rich source of vitamin B12 (31% DV) and riboflavin (23% DV), with moderate content of protein, phosphorus, and selenium (14 to 19% DV; table).

Comparison of whole milk and plain yogurt from whole milk, one cup (245 g) each
Property Milk Yogurt
Energy 610 kJ (146 kcal) 620 kJ (149 kcal)
Total carbohydrates 12.8 g 12 g
Total fat 7.9 g 8.5 g
Cholesterol 24 mg 32 mg
Protein 7.9 g 9 g
Calcium 276 mg 296 mg
Phosphorus 222 mg 233 mg
Potassium 349 mg 380 mg
Sodium 98 mg 113 mg
Vitamin A 249 IU 243 IU
Vitamin C 0.0 mg 1.2 mg
Vitamin D 96.5 IU ~
Vitamin E 0.1 mg 0.1 mg
Vitamin K 0.5 μg 0.5 μg
Thiamine 0.1 mg 0.1 mg
Riboflavin 0.3 mg 0.3 mg
Niacin 0.3 mg 0.2 mg
Vitamin B6 0.1 mg 0.1 mg
Folate 12.2 μg 17.2 μg
Vitamin B12 1.1 μg 0.9 μg
Choline 34.9 mg 37.2 mg
Betaine 1.5 mg ~
Water 215 g 215 g
Ash 1.7 g 1.8 g

Tilde (~) represents missing or incomplete data. The above shows little difference exists between whole milk and yogurt made from whole milk with respect to the listed nutritional constituents.

Because it may contain live cultures, yogurt is often associated with probiotics, which have been postulated as having positive effects on immune, cardiovascular or metabolic health. However, to date high-quality clinical evidence has been insufficient to conclude that consuming yogurt lowers the risk of diseases or otherwise improves health.[needs update]

Yogurt made with raw milk can be contaminated with bacteria that can cause significant illness and death, including Listeria, Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter, Brucella, E.Coli and Salmonella. Yogurts can also be contaminated with Aflatoxin producing Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nomius.

Contamination occurs in traditionally prepared yogurts more often than industrially processed ones, but may affect the latter as well if manufacturing and packaging practices are suboptimal.

When mold forms on yogurt it can not be scraped away. The consistency of yogurt allows the mold to penetrate deeply under the surface where it spreads.

Tzatziki or cacık is a meze made with yogurt, cucumber, olive oil and fresh mint or dill

Dahi is a yogurt from the Indian subcontinent, known for its characteristic taste and consistency. The word dahi seems to be derived from the Sanskrit word dadhi ("sour milk"), one of the five elixirs, or panchamrita, often used in Hindu ritual. Sweetened dahi (mishti doi or meethi dahi) is common in eastern parts of India, made by fermenting sweetened milk. While cow's milk is currently the primary ingredient for yogurt, goat and buffalo milk were widely used in the past, and valued for the fat content (see buffalo curd).

Dadiah or dadih is a traditional West Sumatran yogurt made from water buffalo milk, fermented in bamboo tubes. Yogurt is common in Nepal, where it is served as both an appetizer and dessert. Locally called dahi, it is a part of the Nepali culture, used in local festivals, marriage ceremonies, parties, religious occasions, family gatherings, and so on. One Nepalese yogurt is called juju dhau, originating from the city of Bhaktapur. In Tibet, yak milk (technically dri milk, as the word yak refers to the male animal) is made into yogurt (and butter and cheese) and consumed.

In Northern Iran, Mâst Chekide is a variety of kefir yogurt with a distinct sour taste. It is usually mixed with a pesto-like water and fresh herb purée called delal. Common appetizers are spinach or eggplant borani, Mâst-o-Khiâr with cucumber, spring onions and herbs, and Mâst-Musir with wild shallots. In the summertime, yogurt and ice cubes are mixed together with cucumbers, raisins, salt, pepper and onions and topped with some croutons made of Persian traditional bread and served as a cold soup. Ashe-Mâst is a warm yogurt soup with fresh herbs, spinach and lentils. Even the leftover water extracted when straining yogurt is cooked to make a sour cream sauce called kashk, which is usually used as a topping on soups and stews.

Matsoni is a Georgian yogurt in the Caucasus and Russia. Tarator and Cacık are cold soups made from yogurt during summertime in eastern Europe. They are made with ayran, cucumbers, dill, salt, olive oil, and optionally garlic and ground walnuts. Tzatziki in Greece and milk salad in Bulgaria are thick yogurt-based salads similar to tarator.

Khyar w Laban (cucumber and yogurt salad) is a dish in Lebanon and Syria. Also, a wide variety of local Lebanese and Syrian dishes are cooked with yogurt like "Kibbi bi Laban" Rahmjoghurt, a creamy yogurt with much higher fat content (10%) than many yogurts offered in English-speaking countries. Dovga, a yogurt soup cooked with a variety of herbs and rice, is served warm in winter or refreshingly cold in summer. Jameed, yogurt salted and dried to preserve it, is consumed in Jordan. Zabadi is the type of yogurt made in Egypt, usually from the milk of the Egyptian water buffalo. It is particularly associated with Ramadan fasting, as it is thought to prevent thirst during all-day fasting.

Sweetened and flavored

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To offset its natural sourness, yogurt is also sold sweetened, sweetened and flavored or in containers with fruit or fruit jam on the bottom. The two styles of yogurt commonly found in the grocery store are set-style yogurt and Swiss-style yogurt. Set-style yogurt is poured into individual containers to set, while Swiss-style yogurt is stirred prior to packaging. Either may have fruit added to increase sweetness.

Lassi is a common Indian beverage made from stirred liquified yogurt that is either salted or sweetened with sugar commonly, less commonly honey and combined with fruit pulp to create flavored lassi. Consistency can vary widely, with urban and commercial lassis having uniform texture through being processed, whereas rural and rustic lassi has discernible curds or fruit pulp.

Large amounts of sugar – or other sweeteners for low-energy yogurts – are often used in commercial yogurt. Some yogurts contain added modified starch, pectin (found naturally in fruit) or gelatin to create thickness and creaminess. This type of yogurt may be marketed under the name Swiss-style, although it is unrelated to conventional Swiss yogurt. Some yogurts, often called "cream line", are made with whole milk which has not been homogenized so the cream rises to the top. In many countries, sweetened, flavored yogurt is common, typically sold in single-serving plastic cups. Common flavors may include vanilla, honey, and toffee, and various fruits. In the early 21st century, yogurt flavors inspired by desserts, such as chocolate or cheesecake, became common. There is concern about the health effects of sweetened yogurt due to its high sugar content, although research indicates that use of sugar in yogurt manufacturing has decreased since 2016 in response to WHO and government initiatives to combat obesity.

Straining

Main article: Strained yogurt
A coffee filter used to strain yogurt in a home refrigerator.

Strained yogurt has been strained through a filter, traditionally made of muslin and more recently of paper or non-muslin cloth. This removes the whey, giving a much thicker consistency. Strained yogurt is made at home, especially if using skimmed milk which results in a thinner consistency. Yogurt that has been strained to filter or remove the whey is known as Labneh in Middle Eastern countries. It has a consistency between that of yogurt and cheese. It may be used for sandwiches in Middle Eastern countries. Olive oil, cucumber slices, olives, and various green herbs may be added. It can be thickened further and rolled into balls, preserved in olive oil, and fermented for a few more weeks. It is sometimes used with onions, meat, and nuts as a stuffing for a variety of pies or kibbeh balls.

Some types of strained yogurts are boiled in open vats first, so that the liquid content is reduced. The East Indian dessert, a variation of traditional dahi called mishti dahi, offers a thicker, more custard-like consistency, and is usually sweeter than western yogurts. In western Indian (Marathi and Gujarati) cuisine, strained yogurt is macerated with sugar and spices such as saffron, cardamom and nutmeg to make the dessert "shrikhand". Strained yogurt is also enjoyed in Greece and is the main component of tzatziki (from Turkish "cacık"), a well-known accompaniment to gyros and souvlaki pita sandwiches: it is a yogurt sauce or dip made with the addition of grated cucumber, olive oil, salt and, optionally, mashed garlic. Srikhand, a dessert in India, is made from strained yogurt, saffron, cardamom, nutmeg and sugar and sometimes fruits such as mango or pineapple.

In North America, strained yogurt is commonly called "Greek yogurt". Powdered milk is sometimes added in lieu of straining to achieve thickness. In Britain as "Greek-style yogurt". In Britain the name "Greek" may only be applied to yogurt made in Greece.

Beverages

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Ayran, doogh ("dawghe" in Neo-Aramaic) or dhallë is a yogurt-based, salty drink. It is made by mixing yogurt with water and (sometimes) salt.

Borhani (or burhani) is a spicy yogurt drink from Bangladesh. It is usually served with kacchi biryani at weddings and special feasts. Key ingredients are yogurt blended with mint leaves (mentha), mustard seeds and black rock salt (Kala Namak). Ground roasted cumin, ground white pepper, green chili pepper paste and sugar are often added.

Lassi is a yogurt-based beverage that is usually slightly salty or sweet, and may be commercially flavored with rosewater, mango or other fruit juice. Salty lassi is usually flavored with ground, roasted cumin and red chilies, may be made with buttermilk.

An unsweetened and unsalted yogurt drink usually called simply jogurt is consumed with burek and other baked goods in the Balkans. Sweetened yogurt drinks are the usual form in Europe (including the UK) and the US, containing fruit and added sweeteners. These are typically called "drinkable yogurt". Also available are "yogurt smoothies", which contain a higher proportion of fruit and are more like smoothies.

A variety of plant milk yogurts appeared in the 2000s, using soy milk, rice milk, and nut milks such as almond milk and coconut milk fermented with cultures. These yogurts may be suitable for people with lactose intolerance or those who prefer plant-based foods such as vegetarians or vegans. Plant-based milks have different structures and components than dairy milk. Though they can be used to make many products similar to those made from dairy, there are differences in taste and texture. For example, "soy, almond, [and] coconut yogurts do not have the same delicate and smooth structure that conventional yogurts have." Since plant-based milks do not contain lactose (the food of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus), plant-based yogurts usually contain different bacterial strains than a dairy yogurt, such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Plant-based yogurts also vary considerably in their nutrition and ingredients, and may contain gums, stabilizers, high-intensity sweeteners, and artificial colors.

In Europe, companies may not market their plant-based products using the word "yogurt" since that term is reserved for products of animal origin only — per European Union regulation 1308/2013 and a 2017 ruling in the Court of Justice of the European Union.

Commercially available home yogurt maker

Yogurt is made by heating milk to a temperature that denaturates its proteins (scalding), essential for making yogurt, cooling it to a temperature that will not kill the live microorganisms that turn the milk into yogurt, inoculating certain bacteria (starter culture), usually Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, into the milk, and finally keeping it warm for several hours. The milk may be held at 85 °C (185 °F) for a few minutes, or boiled (giving a somewhat different result). It must be cooled to 50 °C (122 °F) or somewhat less, typically 40–46 °C (104–115 °F). Starter culture must then be mixed in well, and the mixture must be kept undisturbed and warm for some time, anywhere between 5 and 12 hours. Longer fermentation times produces a more acidic yogurt. The starter culture may be a small amount of live (not sterilized) existing yogurt or commercially available dried starter culture.

Milk with a higher concentration of solids than normal milk may be used; the higher solids content produces a firmer yogurt. Solids can be increased by adding dried milk. The yogurt-making process provides two significant barriers to pathogen growth, heat and acidity (low pH). Both are necessary to ensure a safe product. Acidity alone has been questioned by recent outbreaks of food poisoning by E. coli O157:H7 that is acid-tolerant. E. coli O157:H7 is easily destroyed by pasteurization (heating); the initial heating of the milk kills pathogens as well as denaturing proteins. The microorganisms that turn milk into yogurt can tolerate higher temperatures than most pathogens, so that a suitable temperature not only encourages the formation of yogurt, but inhibits pathogenic microorganisms. Once the yogurt has formed it can, if desired, be strained to reduce the whey content and thicken it.

Two types of yogurt are supported by the Codex Alimentarius for import and export.

  • Pasteurized yogurt ("heat treated fermented milk") is yogurt pasteurized to kill bacteria.
  • Probiotic yogurt (labeled as "live yogurt" or "active yogurt") is yogurt pasteurized to kill bacteria, with Lactobacillus added in measured units before packaging.[dubiousdiscuss]
  • Yogurt probiotic drink is a drinkable yogurt pasteurized to kill bacteria, with Lactobacillus added before packaging.

Under US Food and Drug Administration regulations, milk must be pasteurized before it is cultured, and may optionally be heat treated after culturing to increase shelf life. Most commercial yogurts in the United States are not heat treated after culturing, and contain live cultures.

Yogurt with live cultures is more beneficial than pasteurized yogurt for people with lactose malabsorption.

Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products. In 2010, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) determined that lactose intolerance can be alleviated by ingesting live yogurt cultures (lactobacilli) that are able to digest the lactose in other dairy products. The scientific review by EFSA enabled yogurt manufacturers to use a health claim on product labels, provided that the "yogurt should contain at least 108 CFU live starter microorganisms (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) per gram. The target population is individuals with lactose maldigestion."

  • Doogh is a savory yogurt-based beverage, traditionally served cold and is sometimes carbonated and seasoned with mint and salt.

  • Skyr is an Icelandic cultured dairy product, similar to strained yogurt traditionally served cold with milk and a topping of sugar

  • Raita is a condiment made with yogurt in the Indian subcontinent

  • Dadiah in a market

  • Plant milk yogurt

  • Home yogurt maker

  • A drinkable yogurt made from water buffalo milk

Other fermented dairy products

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  • The dictionary definition of yogurt at Wiktionary

Yogurt
Yogurt Language Watch Edit For other uses see Yogurt disambiguation Yogurt UK ˈ j ɒ ɡ e t US ˈ j oʊ ɡ er t 1 from Turkish yogurt also spelled yoghurt yogourt or yoghourt is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk 2 The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as yogurt cultures Fermentation of sugars in the milk by these bacteria produces lactic acid which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tart flavor 2 Cow s milk is the milk most commonly used to make yogurt Milk from water buffalo goats ewes mares camels yaks and plant milks are also used to produce yogurt The milk used may be homogenized or not It may be pasteurized or raw Each type of milk produces substantially different results YogurtA dish of yogurtTypeDairy productRegion or stateEurasiaServing temperatureChilledMain ingredientsMilk bacteriaCookbook Yogurt Media Yogurt Yogurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria In addition other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt Some countries require yogurt to contain a specific amount of colony forming units CFU of bacteria in China for example the requirement for the number of lactobacillus bacteria is at least 1 million CFU per milliliter 3 To produce yogurt milk is first heated usually to about 85 C 185 F to denature the milk proteins so that they do not form curds After heating the milk is allowed to cool to about 45 C 113 F 4 The bacterial culture is mixed in and a warm temperature of 30 45 C 86 113 F is maintained for 4 to 12 hours to allow fermentation to occur with the higher temperatures working faster but risking a lumpy texture or whey separation 5 6 Contents 1 Etymology and spelling 2 History 3 Market and consumption 4 Nutrition 5 Health and safety 6 Varieties and presentation 6 1 Sweetened and flavored 6 2 Straining 6 3 Beverages 7 Plant based yogurt 8 Production 9 Commercial yogurt 10 Lactose intolerance 11 Gallery 12 See also 12 1 Other fermented dairy products 13 References 14 External linksEtymology and spellingThe word is derived from Turkish yogurt 7 and is usually related to the verb yogurmak to knead or to be curdled or coagulated to thicken 7 It may be related to yogun meaning thick or dense The sound g was traditionally rendered as gh in transliterations of Turkish from around 1615 1625 7 In modern Turkish the letter g marks a diaeresis between two vowels without being pronounced itself which is reflected in some languages versions of the word e g Greek giaoyrti giaourti French yaourt Romanian iaurt In English the several variations of the spelling of the word include yogurt yoghurt and to a lesser extent yoghourt or yogourt 7 HistoryAnalysis of the L delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus genome indicates that the bacterium may have originated on the surface of a plant 8 Milk may have become spontaneously and unintentionally exposed to it through contact with plants or bacteria may have been transferred from the udder of domestic milk producing animals 9 The origins of yogurt are unknown but it is thought to have been invented in Mesopotamia around 5000 BC 10 In ancient Indian records the combination of yogurt and honey is called the food of the gods 11 Persian traditions hold that Abraham owed his fecundity and longevity to the regular ingestion of yogurt 12 Unstirred Turkish Suzme Yogurt strained yogurt with a 10 fat content The cuisine of ancient Greece included a dairy product known as oxygala o3ygala which was similar to yogurt 13 14 15 16 Galen AD 129 c 200 c 216 mentioned that oxygala was consumed with honey similar to the way thickened Greek yogurt is eaten today 16 15 The oldest writings mentioning yogurt are attributed to Pliny the Elder who remarked that certain barbarous nations knew how to thicken the milk into a substance with an agreeable acidity 17 The use of yogurt by medieval Turks is recorded in the books Diwan Lughat al Turk by Mahmud Kashgari and Kutadgu Bilig by Yusuf Has Hajib written in the 11th century 18 19 Both texts mention the word yogurt in different sections and describe its use by nomadic Turks 18 19 The earliest yogurts were probably spontaneously fermented by wild bacteria in goat skin bags 20 Some accounts suggest that Mughal Indian emperor Akbar s cooks would flavor yogurt with mustard seeds and cinnamon 21 Another early account of a European encounter with yogurt occurs in French clinical history Francis I suffered from a severe diarrhea which no French doctor could cure His ally Suleiman the Magnificent sent a doctor who allegedly cured the patient with yogurt 21 22 Being grateful the French king spread around the information about the food that had cured him Until the 1900s yogurt was a staple in diets of people in the Russian Empire and especially Central Asia and the Caucasus Western Asia South Eastern Europe Balkans Central Europe and the Indian subcontinent Stamen Grigorov 1878 1945 a Bulgarian student of medicine in Geneva first examined the microflora of the Bulgarian yogurt In 1905 he described it as consisting of a spherical and a rod like lactic acid producing bacteria In 1907 the rod like bacterium was called Bacillus bulgaricus now Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus The Russian biologist and Nobel laureate Ilya Mechnikov from the Institut Pasteur in Paris was influenced by Grigorov s work and hypothesized that regular consumption of yogurt was responsible for the unusually long lifespans of Bulgarian peasants 23 Believing Lactobacillus to be essential for good health Mechnikov worked to popularize yogurt as a foodstuff throughout Europe Isaac Carasso industrialized the production of yogurt In 1919 Carasso who was from Ottoman Salonika started a small yogurt business in Barcelona Spain and named the business Danone little Daniel after his son The brand later expanded to the United States under an Americanized version of the name Dannon Yogurt with added fruit jam was patented in 1933 by the Radlicka Mlekarna dairy in Prague 24 Yogurt was introduced to the United States in the first decade of the twentieth century influenced by Elie Metchnikoff s The Prolongation of Life Optimistic Studies 1908 it was available in tablet form for those with digestive intolerance and for home culturing 25 It was popularized by John Harvey Kellogg at the Battle Creek Sanitarium where it was used both orally and in enemas 26 and later by Armenian immigrants Sarkis and Rose Colombosian who started Colombo and Sons Creamery in Andover Massachusetts in 1929 27 28 Colombo Yogurt was originally delivered around New England in a horse drawn wagon inscribed with the Armenian word madzoon which was later changed to yogurt the Turkish language name of the product as Turkish was the lingua franca between immigrants of the various Near Eastern ethnicities who were the main consumers at that time Yogurt s popularity in the United States was enhanced in the 1950s and 1960s when it was presented as a health food by scientists like Hungarian born bacteriologist Stephen A Gaymont 29 Plain yogurt still proved too sour for the American palate and in 1966 Colombo Yogurt sweetened the yogurt and added fruit preserves creating fruit on the bottom style yogurt This was successful and company sales soon exceeded 1 million per year 30 By the late 20th century yogurt had become a common American food item and Colombo Yogurt was sold in 1993 to General Mills which discontinued the brand in 2010 31 Market and consumption Yogurt in a refrigerator in a supermarket In 2017 the average American ate 13 7 pounds of yogurt The average consumption of yogurt has been declining since 2014 Sale of yogurt was down 3 4 percent over the 12 months ending in February 2019 The decline of Greek style yogurt has allowed Icelandic style yogurt to gain a foothold in the United States with sales of the Icelandic style yogurt increasing 24 percent in 2018 to 173 million 32 NutritionYogurt Greek plain unsweetened whole milk daily value Nutritional value per 100 g 3 5 oz Energy406 kJ 97 kcal Carbohydrates3 98 gSugars4 0 gDietary fiber0 gFat5 0 gProtein9 0 gVitaminsQuantity DV Vitamin A equiv beta Carotenelutein zeaxanthin0 26 mg22 mgThiamine B1 2 0 023 mgRiboflavin B2 23 0 278 mgNiacin B3 1 0 208 mgPantothenic acid B5 7 0 331 mgVitamin B65 0 063 mgFolate B9 1 5 mgVitamin B1231 0 75 mgCholine3 15 1 mgVitamin C0 0 mgMineralsQuantity DV Calcium10 100 mgIron0 0 mgMagnesium3 11 mgManganese0 0 009 mgPhosphorus19 135 mgPotassium3 141 mgSodium2 35 mgZinc5 0 52 mgOther constituentsQuantitySelenium9 7 µgWater81 3 gLink to Full Report from USDA DatabaseUnits mg micrograms mg milligrams IU International units Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults Yogurt plain yogurt from whole milk is 81 water 9 protein 5 fat and 4 carbohydrates including 4 sugars table A 100 gram amount provides 406 kilojoules 97 kcal of dietary energy As a proportion of the Daily Value DV a serving of yogurt is a rich source of vitamin B12 31 DV and riboflavin 23 DV with moderate content of protein phosphorus and selenium 14 to 19 DV table Comparison of whole milk and plain yogurt from whole milk one cup 245 g each Property Milk 33 Yogurt 34 Energy 610 kJ 146 kcal 620 kJ 149 kcal Total carbohydrates 12 8 g 12 gTotal fat 7 9 g 8 5 gCholesterol 24 mg 32 mgProtein 7 9 g 9 gCalcium 276 mg 296 mgPhosphorus 222 mg 233 mgPotassium 349 mg 380 mgSodium 98 mg 113 mgVitamin A 249 IU 243 IUVitamin C 0 0 mg 1 2 mgVitamin D 96 5 IU Vitamin E 0 1 mg 0 1 mgVitamin K 0 5 mg 0 5 mgThiamine 0 1 mg 0 1 mgRiboflavin 0 3 mg 0 3 mgNiacin 0 3 mg 0 2 mgVitamin B6 0 1 mg 0 1 mgFolate 12 2 mg 17 2 mgVitamin B12 1 1 mg 0 9 mgCholine 34 9 mg 37 2 mgBetaine 1 5 mg Water 215 g 215 gAsh 1 7 g 1 8 g Tilde represents missing or incomplete data The above shows little difference exists between whole milk and yogurt made from whole milk with respect to the listed nutritional constituents Because it may contain live cultures yogurt is often associated with probiotics which have been postulated as having positive effects on immune cardiovascular or metabolic health 35 36 37 However to date high quality clinical evidence has been insufficient to conclude that consuming yogurt lowers the risk of diseases or otherwise improves health 38 needs update Health and safetyYogurt made with raw milk can be contaminated with bacteria that can cause significant illness and death including Listeria Cryptosporidium Campylobacter Brucella E Coli and Salmonella 39 Yogurts can also be contaminated with Aflatoxin producing Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nomius 40 Contamination occurs in traditionally prepared yogurts more often than industrially processed ones but may affect the latter as well if manufacturing and packaging practices are suboptimal 40 When mold forms on yogurt it can not be scraped away The consistency of yogurt allows the mold to penetrate deeply under the surface where it spreads 41 Varieties and presentation Tzatziki or cacik is a meze made with yogurt cucumber olive oil and fresh mint or dill Dahi is a yogurt from the Indian subcontinent known for its characteristic taste and consistency The word dahi seems to be derived from the Sanskrit word dadhi sour milk one of the five elixirs or panchamrita often used in Hindu ritual Sweetened dahi mishti doi or meethi dahi is common in eastern parts of India made by fermenting sweetened milk While cow s milk is currently the primary ingredient for yogurt goat and buffalo milk were widely used in the past and valued for the fat content see buffalo curd Dadiah or dadih is a traditional West Sumatran yogurt made from water buffalo milk fermented in bamboo tubes 42 Yogurt is common in Nepal where it is served as both an appetizer and dessert Locally called dahi it is a part of the Nepali culture used in local festivals marriage ceremonies parties religious occasions family gatherings and so on One Nepalese yogurt is called juju dhau originating from the city of Bhaktapur In Tibet yak milk technically dri milk as the word yak refers to the male animal is made into yogurt and butter and cheese and consumed In Northern Iran Mast Chekide is a variety of kefir yogurt with a distinct sour taste It is usually mixed with a pesto like water and fresh herb puree called delal Common appetizers are spinach or eggplant borani Mast o Khiar with cucumber spring onions and herbs and Mast Musir with wild shallots In the summertime yogurt and ice cubes are mixed together with cucumbers raisins salt pepper and onions and topped with some croutons made of Persian traditional bread and served as a cold soup Ashe Mast is a warm yogurt soup with fresh herbs spinach and lentils Even the leftover water extracted when straining yogurt is cooked to make a sour cream sauce called kashk which is usually used as a topping on soups and stews Matsoni is a Georgian yogurt in the Caucasus and Russia Tarator and Cacik are cold soups made from yogurt during summertime in eastern Europe They are made with ayran cucumbers dill salt olive oil and optionally garlic and ground walnuts Tzatziki in Greece and milk salad in Bulgaria are thick yogurt based salads similar to tarator Khyar w Laban cucumber and yogurt salad is a dish in Lebanon and Syria Also a wide variety of local Lebanese and Syrian dishes are cooked with yogurt like Kibbi bi Laban Rahmjoghurt a creamy yogurt with much higher fat content 10 than many yogurts offered in English speaking countries Dovga a yogurt soup cooked with a variety of herbs and rice is served warm in winter or refreshingly cold in summer Jameed yogurt salted and dried to preserve it is consumed in Jordan Zabadi is the type of yogurt made in Egypt usually from the milk of the Egyptian water buffalo It is particularly associated with Ramadan fasting as it is thought to prevent thirst during all day fasting 43 Sweetened and flavored This section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Yogurt news newspapers books scholar JSTOR January 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message To offset its natural sourness yogurt is also sold sweetened sweetened and flavored or in containers with fruit or fruit jam on the bottom 44 The two styles of yogurt commonly found in the grocery store are set style yogurt and Swiss style yogurt Set style yogurt is poured into individual containers to set while Swiss style yogurt is stirred prior to packaging Either may have fruit added to increase sweetness 44 Lassi is a common Indian beverage made from stirred liquified yogurt that is either salted or sweetened with sugar commonly less commonly honey and combined with fruit pulp to create flavored lassi 45 Consistency can vary widely with urban and commercial lassis having uniform texture through being processed whereas rural and rustic lassi has discernible curds or fruit pulp 45 Large amounts of sugar or other sweeteners for low energy yogurts are often used in commercial yogurt 44 46 Some yogurts contain added modified starch 47 pectin found naturally in fruit or gelatin to create thickness and creaminess This type of yogurt may be marketed under the name Swiss style although it is unrelated to conventional Swiss yogurt Some yogurts often called cream line are made with whole milk which has not been homogenized so the cream rises to the top In many countries sweetened flavored yogurt is common typically sold in single serving plastic cups 44 Common flavors may include vanilla honey and toffee and various fruits 44 46 In the early 21st century yogurt flavors inspired by desserts such as chocolate or cheesecake became common 46 There is concern about the health effects of sweetened yogurt due to its high sugar content 44 although research indicates that use of sugar in yogurt manufacturing has decreased since 2016 in response to WHO and government initiatives to combat obesity 44 48 Straining Main article Strained yogurt A coffee filter used to strain yogurt in a home refrigerator Strained yogurt has been strained through a filter traditionally made of muslin and more recently of paper or non muslin cloth This removes the whey giving a much thicker consistency Strained yogurt is made at home especially if using skimmed milk which results in a thinner consistency 49 Yogurt that has been strained to filter or remove the whey is known as Labneh in Middle Eastern countries It has a consistency between that of yogurt and cheese It may be used for sandwiches in Middle Eastern countries Olive oil cucumber slices olives and various green herbs may be added It can be thickened further and rolled into balls preserved in olive oil and fermented for a few more weeks It is sometimes used with onions meat and nuts as a stuffing for a variety of pies or kibbeh balls Some types of strained yogurts are boiled in open vats first so that the liquid content is reduced The East Indian dessert a variation of traditional dahi called mishti dahi offers a thicker more custard like consistency and is usually sweeter than western yogurts 50 In western Indian Marathi and Gujarati cuisine strained yogurt is macerated with sugar and spices such as saffron cardamom and nutmeg to make the dessert shrikhand Strained yogurt is also enjoyed in Greece and is the main component of tzatziki from Turkish cacik a well known accompaniment to gyros and souvlaki pita sandwiches it is a yogurt sauce or dip made with the addition of grated cucumber olive oil salt and optionally mashed garlic Srikhand a dessert in India is made from strained yogurt saffron cardamom nutmeg and sugar and sometimes fruits such as mango or pineapple In North America strained yogurt is commonly called Greek yogurt Powdered milk is sometimes added in lieu of straining to achieve thickness In Britain as Greek style yogurt In Britain the name Greek may only be applied to yogurt made in Greece 51 Beverages This section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed September 2015 Learn how and when to remove this template message Ayran doogh dawghe in Neo Aramaic or dhalle is a yogurt based salty drink It is made by mixing yogurt with water and sometimes salt Borhani or burhani is a spicy yogurt drink from Bangladesh It is usually served with kacchi biryani at weddings and special feasts Key ingredients are yogurt blended with mint leaves mentha mustard seeds and black rock salt Kala Namak Ground roasted cumin ground white pepper green chili pepper paste and sugar are often added Lassi is a yogurt based beverage that is usually slightly salty or sweet and may be commercially flavored with rosewater mango or other fruit juice Salty lassi is usually flavored with ground roasted cumin and red chilies may be made with buttermilk An unsweetened and unsalted yogurt drink usually called simply jogurt is consumed with burek and other baked goods in the Balkans Sweetened yogurt drinks are the usual form in Europe including the UK and the US containing fruit and added sweeteners These are typically called drinkable yogurt Also available are yogurt smoothies which contain a higher proportion of fruit and are more like smoothies Plant based yogurtA variety of plant milk yogurts appeared in the 2000s using soy milk rice milk and nut milks such as almond milk and coconut milk fermented with cultures These yogurts may be suitable for people with lactose intolerance or those who prefer plant based foods such as vegetarians or vegans 52 Plant based milks have different structures and components than dairy milk Though they can be used to make many products similar to those made from dairy there are differences in taste and texture For example soy almond and coconut yogurts do not have the same delicate and smooth structure that conventional yogurts have 53 Since plant based milks do not contain lactose the food of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus plant based yogurts usually contain different bacterial strains than a dairy yogurt such as Lactobacillus casei Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium bifidum 54 Plant based yogurts also vary considerably in their nutrition and ingredients and may contain gums stabilizers high intensity sweeteners and artificial colors 54 In Europe companies may not market their plant based products using the word yogurt since that term is reserved for products of animal origin only per European Union regulation 1308 2013 and a 2017 ruling in the Court of Justice of the European Union 55 56 Production Commercially available home yogurt maker Yogurt is made by heating milk to a temperature that denaturates its proteins scalding essential for making yogurt 57 cooling it to a temperature that will not kill the live microorganisms that turn the milk into yogurt inoculating certain bacteria starter culture usually Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus into the milk and finally keeping it warm for several hours The milk may be held at 85 C 185 F for a few minutes or boiled giving a somewhat different result It must be cooled to 50 C 122 F or somewhat less typically 40 46 C 104 115 F Starter culture must then be mixed in well and the mixture must be kept undisturbed and warm for some time anywhere between 5 and 12 hours Longer fermentation times produces a more acidic yogurt The starter culture may be a small amount of live not sterilized existing yogurt or commercially available dried starter culture Milk with a higher concentration of solids than normal milk may be used the higher solids content produces a firmer yogurt Solids can be increased by adding dried milk 58 The yogurt making process provides two significant barriers to pathogen growth heat and acidity low pH Both are necessary to ensure a safe product Acidity alone has been questioned by recent outbreaks of food poisoning by E coli O157 H7 that is acid tolerant E coli O157 H7 is easily destroyed by pasteurization heating the initial heating of the milk kills pathogens as well as denaturing proteins 59 The microorganisms that turn milk into yogurt can tolerate higher temperatures than most pathogens so that a suitable temperature not only encourages the formation of yogurt but inhibits pathogenic microorganisms Once the yogurt has formed it can if desired be strained to reduce the whey content and thicken it Commercial yogurtTwo types of yogurt are supported by the Codex Alimentarius for import and export 60 Pasteurized yogurt heat treated fermented milk 60 is yogurt pasteurized to kill bacteria 61 Probiotic yogurt labeled as live yogurt or active yogurt is yogurt pasteurized to kill bacteria with Lactobacillus added in measured units before packaging dubious discuss Yogurt probiotic drink is a drinkable yogurt pasteurized to kill bacteria with Lactobacillus added before packaging Under US Food and Drug Administration regulations milk must be pasteurized before it is cultured and may optionally be heat treated after culturing to increase shelf life 62 Most commercial yogurts in the United States are not heat treated after culturing and contain live cultures Yogurt with live cultures 63 64 65 is more beneficial than pasteurized yogurt for people with lactose malabsorption 66 Lactose intoleranceLactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose a sugar found in dairy products In 2010 the European Food Safety Authority EFSA determined that lactose intolerance can be alleviated by ingesting live yogurt cultures lactobacilli that are able to digest the lactose in other dairy products 66 The scientific review by EFSA enabled yogurt manufacturers to use a health claim on product labels provided that the yogurt should contain at least 108 CFU live starter microorganisms Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus per gram The target population is individuals with lactose maldigestion 66 Gallery Doogh is a savory yogurt based beverage traditionally served cold and is sometimes carbonated and seasoned with mint and salt Skyr is an Icelandic cultured dairy product similar to strained yogurt traditionally served cold with milk and a topping of sugar Raita is a condiment made with yogurt in the Indian subcontinent Dadiah in a market Plant milk yogurt Home yogurt maker A drinkable yogurt made from water buffalo milkSee also Food portal Fermented milk products Frozen yogurt List of dairy products Plant milk Probiotic Rice milk Soy yogurt List of yogurt based dishes and beverages Other fermented dairy products Amasi Chal Creme fraiche Curd Filmjolk Kefir Kumis Quark Ryazhenka Shanklish Skyr Smetana Sour cream Varenets ViiliReferences YOGURT meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary dictionary cambridge org Retrieved 17 February 2020 a b Yogurt from Part 131 Milk and Cream Subpart B Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream Sec 131 200 Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 US Food and Drug Administration 1 April 2016 Lee YK et al 2012 Probiotic Regulation in Asian Countries In Lahtinen S et al eds Lactic Acid Bacteria Microbiological and Functional Aspects Fourth ed Boca Raton CRC Press p 712 ISBN 9780824753320 Chandan RC Kilara A 22 December 2010 Dairy Ingredients for Food Processing John Wiley amp Sons pp 1 ISBN 978 0 470 95912 1 Clark M Creamy Homemade Yogurt Recipe NYT Cooking Retrieved 19 March 2017 The Science of Great Yogurt Retrieved 28 September 2021 a b c d Yogurt Collins English Dictionary Complete amp Unabridged 10th Edition HarperCollins 2012 Retrieved 21 March 2017 The sequence of the lactobacillus genome in yogurt unveiled 16 June 2006 Retrieved 16 January 2012 Yogurt Culture Evolves livescience com 9 June 2006 Retrieved 16 January 2012 Tribby D 2009 Yogurt In Clark C et al eds The Sensory Evaluation of Dairy Products Springer Science amp Business Media p 191 ISBN 9780387774084 Batmanglij Najmieh 2007 A Taste of Persia An Introduction to Persian Cooking I B Tauris p 170 ISBN 978 1 84511 437 4 Farnworth ER 2008 Handbook of fermented functional foods Taylor and Francis p 114 ISBN 978 1 4200 5326 5 Dalby A 1996 Siren Feasts A History of Food and Gastronomy in Greece London Routledge p 66 ISBN 0 415 15657 2 Alcock JP 2006 Food in the Ancient World Greenwood Publishing Group p 83 ISBN 9780313330032 Curdled milk oxygala or melca probably a kind of yogurt was acceptable because it was easier to digest Even so it was still to be mixed with honey or olive oil Columella gave instructions on how to make sour milk with seasoning into a b Hoffman S 2004 The Olive and the Caper Adventures in Greek Cooking Workman Publishing p 471 ISBN 9780761164548 something like yogurt was known to Greeks since classical times a sort of thickened sour milk called Pyriate or oxygala Oxi meant sour or vinegar gala milk Galen says that Oxygala was eaten alone with honey just as thick Greek yogurt is today a b Adamson MW 2008 Entertaining from Ancient Rome to the Super Bowl An Encyclopedia 2 volumes An Encyclopedia ABC CLIO p 9 ISBN 9780313086892 Oxygala however a form of yogurt was eaten and sometimes mixed with honey Ancient Greek and Roman cuisine did not rely on non cultured milk products which can be explained in part because without refrigeration milk becomes sour The Natural History of Pliny tr John Bostock Henry Thomas Riley London Bell 1856 93 Volume 3 p 84 It is a remarkable circumstance that the barbarous nations which subsist on milk have been for so many ages either ignorant of the merits of cheese or else have totally disregarded it and yet they understand how to thicken milk and form therefrom an acrid kind of milk with a pleasant flavor a b Toygar K 1993 Turk Mutfak Kulturu Uzerine Arastirmalar Turk Halk Kulturunu Arastirma ve Tanitma Vakfi p 29 ISBN 9789757878001 Retrieved 11 August 2009 a b Ogel B 1978 Turk Kultur Tarihine Giris Turklerde Yemek Kulturu Kultur Bakanligi Yayinlari p 35 Retrieved 11 August 2009 Biancalana A Yogurt Aquavitae DiWineTaste Retrieved 21 February 2012 a b Coyle LP 1982 The World Encyclopedia of Food Facts On File Inc p 763 ISBN 978 0 87196 417 5 Retrieved 11 August 2009 Rosenthal SD 1978 Fresh Food Bookthrift Co p 157 ISBN 978 0 87690 276 9 Retrieved 11 August 2009 Brown AC Valiere A 1 January 2004 Probiotics and medical nutrition therapy Nutrition in Clinical Care 7 2 56 68 PMC 1482314 PMID 15481739 Prvni ovocny jogurt se narodil u Vltavy in Czech ekonomika idnes cz 23 July 2002 Retrieved 27 April 2009 Annual report of the Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Wisconsin Report Volumes 25 26 1907 09 ed pp 29 197 205 206 volume has extra text help Dr John Harvey Kellogg museumofquackery com 20 April 2010 Retrieved 12 November 2010 Object of the Month The Massachusetts Historical Society June 2004 Colombo Yogurt First U S Yogurt Brand Celebrates 75 Years Business Wire 13 May 2004 Smith Andrew 2013 The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America 2 p 644 ISBN 9780199739226 Denker J 2003 The World on a Plate A Tour Through the History of America s Ethnic Cuisine University of Nebraska Press ISBN 0803260148 General Mills to discontinue producing Colombo Yogurt Eagle Tribune 29 January 2010 Archived from the original on 28 May 2011 Retrieved 29 April 2010 Patton L 17 April 2019 In the Yogurt World the Greeks Are Down and Vikings Are Up Bloomberg News Retrieved 18 April 2019 Milk whole 3 25 milkfat Self Nutrition Data know what you eat Conde Nast Retrieved 21 July 2015 Yogurt plain whole milk 8 grams protein per 8 oz Self Nutrition Data know what you eat Conde Nast Retrieved 21 July 2015 El Abbadi NH Dao MC Meydani SN May 2014 Yogurt role in healthy and active aging The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 99 5 Suppl 1263S 1270S doi 10 3945 ajcn 113 073957 PMC 6410895 PMID 24695886 Astrup A May 2014 Yogurt and dairy product consumption to prevent cardiometabolic diseases epidemiologic and experimental studies The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 99 5 Suppl 1235S 1242S doi 10 3945 ajcn 113 073015 PMID 24695891 Gijsbers L Ding EL Malik VS de Goede J Geleijnse JM Soedamah Muthu SS April 2016 Consumption of dairy foods and diabetes incidence a dose response meta analysis of observational studies The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 103 4 1111 1124 doi 10 3945 ajcn 115 123216 PMID 26912494 Rijkers GT de Vos WM Brummer RJ Morelli L Corthier G Marteau P November 2011 Health benefits and health claims of probiotics bridging science and marketing The British Journal of Nutrition 106 9 1291 1296 doi 10 1017 S000711451100287X PMID 21861940 The risks of raw milk CDC September 2017 a b Rad Aziz Homayouni 2019 The safety perspective of probiotic and non probiotic yoghurts a review Food Quality and Safety 3 1 9 14 doi 10 1093 fqsafe fyz006 Touzalin Jane Some molds you can eat This one you shouldn t The Washington Post Surono IS 1 January 2015 Traditional Indonesian dairy foods Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24 Suppl 1 S1 S26 S30 doi 10 6133 apjcn 2015 24 s1 05 PMID 26715081 Acidified milk in different countries Fao org Retrieved on 9 April 2013 a b c d e f g Moore JB Horti A Fielding BA September 2018 Evaluation of the nutrient content of yogurts a comprehensive survey of yogurt products in the major UK supermarkets BMJ Open 8 8 e021387 doi 10 1136 bmjopen 2017 021387 PMC 6144340 PMID 30228100 a b Cloake F 21 May 2015 How to make the perfect mango lassi The Guardian Retrieved 8 January 2020 a b c Berry D 20 May 2014 Building a better yogurt Food Business News Sosland Publishing Retrieved 8 January 2020 Alting AC Fred Van De Velde Kanning MW Burgering M Mulleners L Sein A Buwalda P 2009 Improved creaminess of low fat yogurt The impact of amylomaltase treated starch domains Food Hydrocolloids 23 3 980 987 doi 10 1016 j foodhyd 2008 07 011 Moore JB Sutton EH Hancock N 8 January 2020 Sugar reduction in yogurt products sold in the UK between 2016 and 2019 Nutrients 12 1 171 doi 10 3390 nu12010171 PMC 7019219 PMID 31936185 Davidson A 2014 The Oxford Companion to Food Oxford University Press ISBN 9780191040726 Hui ed Ramesh C Chandan associate editors Charles H White Arun Kilara Y H 2006 Manufacturing yogurt and fermented milks 1 ed Ames Iowa Blackwell p 364 ISBN 9780813823041 CS1 maint extra text authors list link Greek yogurt Chobani firm loses legal battle BBC 29 January 2014 Barnes A 17 January 2019 Choosing Dairy Free In 2019 Chobani Disrupting Yogurt Market With Plant Based Product Forbes Retrieved 30 March 2019 McClements David Julian Newman Emily McClements Isobelle Farrell 12 February 2019 Plant based Milks A Review of the Science Underpinning Their Design Fabrication and Performance Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 18 6 2047 2067 doi 10 1111 1541 4337 12505 PMID 33336952 via Wiley Online Library a b Densie Webb 2018 The Scoop on Vegan Yogurts Today s Dietitian Magazine www todaysdietitian com Cornall Jim 13 June 2017 European Court of Justice says purely plant based products can t use dairy names dairyreporter com European Court Prohibits Use of Dairy Names for NonDairy Products PDF PDF USDA Foreign Agricultural Service 11 July 2017 In its June 14 ruling the ECJ concluded that for marketing and advertising purposes in principle the designations milk cream butter cheese and yogurt are reserved under EU law for products of animal origin only The ECJ ruling prohibits the use of dairy names in association with purely plantbased products unless the names are included in an EU list of exceptions The ECJ also clarifies that this prohibition applies even when the plant origin of the product concerned is provided because the addition of descriptive and explanatory terms cannot completely rule out consumer confusion Parnell Clunies EM Kakuda Y Mullen K Arnott DR Deman JM 1986 Physical Properties of Yogurt A Comparison of Vat Versus Continuous Heating Systems of Milk Journal of Dairy Science 69 10 2593 2603 doi 10 3168 jds S0022 0302 86 80706 8 Hutkins R Making Yogurt at Home Univ of Nebraska Archived from the original on 23 August 2006 Retrieved 8 January 2013 Nummer BA Fermenting Yogurt at Home National Center for Home Food Preservation Archived from the original on 24 November 2011 Retrieved 8 January 2013 a b Milk and milk products 2nd Ed Codex Alimentarius PDF UN Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization 2011 Ray R Didier M 2014 Microorganisms and Fermentation of Traditional Foods CRC press ISBN 9781482223088 Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Sec 131 200 Yogurt US Food and Drug Administration 1 April 2017 Maisonneuve S Ouriet MF Duval Iflah Y June 2001 Comparison of yoghurt heat treated yoghurt milk and lactose effects on plasmid dissemination in gnotobiotic mice Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 79 2 199 207 doi 10 1023 A 1010246401056 PMID 11520006 S2CID 11673881 Piaia M Antoine J Mateos Guardia J Leplingard A Lenoir Wijnkoop I 2009 Assessment of the Benefits of Live Yogurt Methods and Markers forin vivo Studies of the Physiological Effects of Yogurt Cultures Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 15 2 3 79 87 doi 10 1080 08910600310019336 S2CID 218565763 Kalantzopoulos G 1997 Fermented products with probiotic qualities Anaerobe 3 2 3 185 190 doi 10 1006 anae 1997 0099 PMID 16887587 a b c Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to live yogurt cultures and improved lactose digestion ID 1143 2976 pursuant to Article 13 1 of Regulation EC No 1924 2006 EFSA Journal 8 10 2010 doi 10 2903 j efsa 2010 1763 Live yogurt cultures in yogurt improve digestion of lactose in yogurt in individuals with lactose maldigestionExternal links The dictionary definition of yogurt at Wiktionary Retrieved from https 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