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Yokosuka P1Y

The Yokosuka P1Y Ginga (銀河, "Galaxy") was a twin-engine, land-based bomber developed for the Japanese Imperial Navy in World War II. It was the successor to the Mitsubishi G4M and given the Allied reporting name "Frances".

P1Y Ginga
Role Attack bomber
National origin Empire of Japan
Manufacturer Yokosuka (3 × prototype only)
Nakajima
Kawanishi (P1Y2 series only)
First flight August 1943
Introduction October 1944
Retired 1945
Primary user Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service
Number built 1,102

Contents

The P1Y was designed by the Yokosuka Naval Air Technical Arsenal to Navy specification 15-Shi, calling for a fast bomber with speed matching the Zero, range matching the G4M, a 907 kg (2,000 lb) bombload, and the ability to dive-bomb as well as carry torpedoes. As the result, the construction suffered from excess complexity, difficulty of manufacture, and poor serviceability. Problems with the availability of enough reliable Nakajima Homare engines led to their replacement by the Mitsubishi Kasei in the P1Y2-S night-fighter version.

The streamlined design of the Ginga is attributed to Miki Tadanao, an engineer who after World War II went on to create a similar aerodynamic design for Japan's earliest bullet trains (Shinkansen), while working with the Japan National Railways (JNR).

Yokosuka P1Y "Frances" shot down next to USS Ommaney Bay(CVE-79) by 0945 on December 15, 1944.

The first flight was in August 1943. Nakajima manufactured 1,002 examples, which were operated by five Kōkūtai (Air Groups), and acted as land-based medium and torpedo bombers from airfields in China, Taiwan, the Mariana Islands, the Philippines, the Ryukyu Islands, Shikoku, and Kyūshū. During the last stages of the war the P1Y was used as a kamikaze aircraft against the United States Navy during the Okinawa Campaign in Operation Tan No. 2.

A night fighter version, the P1Y2-S Kyokko (極光, "Aurora"), with Mitsubishi Kasei engines, was equipped with radar and Schräge Musik-style upward-firing as well as forward-firing 20 mm cannon. A total of 96 were produced by Kawanishi, but due to inadequate high-altitude performance against the B-29 Superfortress, many were converted back to Ginga bombers.

A P1Y1 survives at the Smithsonian's Paul Garber Facility of its National Air and Space Museum. While only the fuselage has been photographed several times and can be found on the internet, the wings and engines are confirmed to exist. This was one of three P1Y's that were brought back to the United States after World War II for evaluation.

P1Y1 prototype #3 Ko-P1-3, Ishikawajima Tsu-11 testbed in 1944.
P1Y1b, Yokosuka Kōkūtai Yo-206.
P1Y1c, since it has a single forward cannon, and no dorsal turret.
A P1Y1 under attack by United States Navy aircraft and anti-aircraft guns.

P1Y1 Experimental Type 15 land-based bomber (15試陸上爆撃機, 15-Shi Rikujō Bakugekiki)
3 of prototypes and 9 of supplementary prototypes with 1,357 kW (1,820 hp) NK9C Nakajima NK9B Homare 11 engines. Prototype #3 was later used for Ishikawajima Tsu-11 testbed.
P1Y1 Ginga ("Milky Way") Model 11 (銀河11型, Ginga 11-gata)
First model of the series. Mounted Homare 11 or Homare 12.
P1Y1a Ginga Model 11A (銀河11甲型, Ginga 11 Kō-gata)
Mounted Homare 12, and fitted 1 × 13 mm (.51 in) Type 2 machine gun in the back defensive position.
P1Y1b Provisional name Ginga Model 11B (仮称銀河11乙型, Kashō Ginga 11 Otsu-gata)
Converted from P1Y1a, mounted Homare 12, and fitted 2 × 13 mm (.51 in) Type 2 machine guns in the back defensive position.
P1Y1c Provisional name Ginga Model 11C (仮称銀河11丙型, Kashō Ginga 11 Hei-gata)
Converted from P1Y1b, mounted Homare 12, and fitted 1 × 13 mm (.51 in) Type 2 machine gun in the forward position, prototype only.
P1Y1 Ginga Model 11 Night-fighter variant (銀河11型改造夜戦, Ginga 11-gata Kaizō yasen)
Converted from P1Y1. Armed with 2 × 20 mm Type 99 cannons. Equipped 302nd Kōkūtai only. This is not a naval regulation equipment.
P1Y1-S Provisional name Ginga Model 21 (仮称銀河21型, Kashō Ginga 21-gata)
Night fighter variant. Armed with 4 × 20 mm Type 99 cannons firing obliquely forward, and 1 × 13 mm (.51 in) Type 2 machine gun in the back defensive position. Only a project.
P1Y1 Ground attack variant
Converted from P1Y1/P1Y1a, installed up to 20 × 20 mm Type 99 cannons in the bomb bay for land strikes against B-29 bases in the Marianas. Approx. 30 rebuilt.
P1Y2-S Provisional name Ginga Model 26/Test production Kyokkō ("Aurora") (仮称銀河26型/試製極光, Kashō Ginga 26-gata/Shisei Kyokkō)
Night fighter variant. Initial named Hakkō ("Corona", 白光) in October 1943, renamed Kyokkō in March 1944. Converted from P1Y1/P1Y1a. Fitted Mitsubishi MK4T-A Kasei 25 engines. Armed with 2 × 20 mm Type 99 cannons and 1 × 30 mm Type 5 cannon. Later, almost all were converted to P1Y2. 96 or 97 produced.
P1Y2 Provisional name Ginga Model 16 (仮称銀河16型, Kashō Ginga 16-gata)
Land based bomber. Converted from P1Y2-S. Mounted 1,380 kW (1,850 hp) Mitsubishi MK4T-A Kasei 25 Kō engines.
P1Y2a Provisional name Ginga Model 16A (仮称銀河16甲型, Kashō Ginga 16 Kō-gata)
Converted from P1Y1a. Mounted Mitsubishi MK4T-A Kasei 25 Kō engines.
P1Y2b Provisional name Ginga Model 16B (仮称銀河16乙型, Kashō Ginga 16 Otsu-gata)
Converted from P1Y1b. Mounted Mitsubishi MK4T-A Kasei 25 Kō engines.
P1Y2c Provisional name Ginga Model 16C (仮称銀河16丙型, Kashō Ginga 16 Hei-gata)
Converted from P1Y1c. Mounted Mitsubishi MK4T-A Kasei 25 Kō engines.
P1Y2 Ginga Model 16 Night-fighter variant (銀河16型改造夜戦, Ginga 16-gata Kaizō yasen)
Converted from P1Y2. Armed with 2 × 20 mm Type 99 machine guns or 1 × 30 mm Type 5 cannon. Equipped 302nd Kōkūtai only. This is not a naval regulation equipment.
P1Y3 Provisional name Ginga Model 13 (仮称銀河13型, Kashō Ginga 13-gata)
Converted from P1Y1. Mounted Homare 21 engines.
P1Y4 Provisional name Ginga Model 12 (仮称銀河12型, Kashō Ginga 12-gata)
Converted from P1Y1. Mounted Homare 23 engines.
P1Y5 Provisional name Ginga Model 14 (仮称銀河14型, Kashō Ginga 14-gata)
Converted from P1Y1. Mounted Mitsubishi Ha-43 engines.
P1Y6 Provisional name Ginga Model 17 (仮称銀河17型, Kashō Ginga 17-gata)
Converted from P1Y2. Mounted Mitsubishi MK4T-C Kasei 25 Hei engines.
Provisional name Ginga Model 33 (仮称銀河33型, Kashō Ginga 33-gata)
Long-range bomber variant. Crew: 4, bombs= up to 3,000 kg. Only a project.
Test production Tenga (試製天河, Shisei Tenga)
Proposed jet-powered bomber variant, mounted Ishikawajima Ne-30. Discontinued in 1945.
MXY10 Yokosuka Navy Bomber Ginga
Ground decoy non-flying replica of Yokosuka P1Y1.

January February March April May June July August September October November December Sub total
1943 2 4 4 10 25 45
1944 11 20 35 46 46 51 47 48 69 75 88 84 620
1945 90 52 52 63 64 53 40 20 434
Japan
  • Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service
    • 302nd Kōkūtai: Equipped night fighter variant only.
    • 521st Kōkūtai
    • 522nd Kōkūtai
    • 523rd Kōkūtai
    • 524th Kōkūtai
    • 701st Kōkūtai
    • 706th Kōkūtai
    • 752nd Kōkūtai
    • 761st Kōkūtai
    • 762nd Kōkūtai
    • 763rd Kōkūtai
    • 765th Kōkūtai
    • 1001st Kōkūtai
    • 1081st Kōkūtai
    • Miyazaki Kōkūtai
    • Toyohashi Kōkūtai
    • Yokosuka Kōkūtai
    • Kogeki 262nd Hikōtai
    • Kogeki 401st Hikōtai
    • Kogeki 405th Hikōtai
    • Kogeki 406th Hikōtai
    • Kogeki 501st Hikōtai
    • Kogeki 708th Hikōtai

Data from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War

General characteristics

  • Crew: 3
  • Length: 15 m (49 ft 3 in)
  • Wingspan: 20 m (65 ft 7 in)
  • Height: 4.3 m (14 ft 1 in)
  • Wing area: 55 m2 (590 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 7,265 kg (16,017 lb)
  • Gross weight: 10,500 kg (23,149 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 13,500 kg (29,762 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Nakajima NK9C Homare 12 18-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, 1,361 kW (1,825 hp) each for take-off

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 547 km/h (340 mph, 295 kn) at 5,900 m (19,357 ft)
  • Cruise speed: 370 km/h (230 mph, 200 kn) at 4,000 m (13,123 ft)
  • Range: 5,370 km (3,340 mi, 2,900 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 9,400 m (30,800 ft)
  • Wing loading: 191 kg/m2 (39 lb/sq ft)
  • Power/mass: 0.20 kW/kg (0.12 hp/lb)

Armament

  • Guns:
  • Bombs:
  • up to 1,000 kg (2,205 lb) of bombs or 1× 800 kg (1,764 lb) torpedo

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

Wikimedia Commons has media related toYokosuka P1Y.

Notes

  1. Norman Polmar, Thomas B. Allen, World War II: America at war, 1941–1945, Random House, 1991, p. 310.
  2. Francillon 1979, p. 462.
  3. Hood, Christopher P. (2007).Shinkansen – From Bullet Train to Symbol of Modern Japan. Routledge, London. pp. 53. ISBN 978-0-415-32052-8.
  4. USS Natoma Bay (CVE-62) Logbook Project
  5. Francillon 1979, p. 468.
  6. Francillon 1979, p. 465.
  7. "Garber Artifacts". www.enginehistory.org. Retrieved2020-07-06.
  8. The Maru Mechanic (1984), pp. 109–110.
  9. Famous Airplanes of the World (2000), pp. 29–31.
  10. Famous Airplanes of the World (2000), p. 26.
  11. Model Art (2001), p. 50–53
  12. Famous Airplanes of the World (2000), p. 31
  13. Francillon 1979, p. 467.
  14. The Maru Mechanic (1984), p. 110
  15. Model Art (1993), p. 135
  16. Famous Airplanes of the World (2000), p. 32–38
  17. Francillon 1979, pp. 467–468.
  • Francillon, René J. (1979). Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War (2nd ed.). London: Putnam & Company. ISBN 0-370-30251-6.
  • Huggins, Mark (January–February 2004). "Hunters over Tokyo: The JNAF's Air Defence of Japan 1944–1945". Air Enthusiast (109): 66–71. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • The Maru Mechanic No. 46 Ginga and Type 1 Attack Bomber, Ushio Shobō (Japan), May 1984
  • Famous Airplanes of the World, Special Edition Vol. 1 Navy Bomber "Ginga" [Frances], Bunrindo (Japan), September 2000
  • Model Art No. 406, Special issue Camouflage & Markings of Imperial Japanese Navy Bombers in W.W.II, Model Art Co. Ltd., April 1993
  • Model Art No. 595, Special issue Night fighters of the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy, Model Art Co. Ltd., October 2001

Yokosuka P1Y
Yokosuka P1Y Language Watch Edit The Yokosuka P1Y Ginga 銀河 Galaxy was a twin engine land based bomber developed for the Japanese Imperial Navy in World War II It was the successor to the Mitsubishi G4M and given the Allied reporting name Frances P1Y GingaRole Attack bomberNational origin Empire of JapanManufacturer Yokosuka 3 prototype only Nakajima Kawanishi P1Y2 series only First flight August 1943Introduction October 1944 1 Retired 1945Primary user Imperial Japanese Navy Air ServiceNumber built 1 102 Contents 1 Design and development 2 Operational history 3 Survivors 4 Variants 5 Number built by Nakajima and Kawanishi 6 Operators 7 Specifications P1Y1a 8 See also 9 References 9 1 Notes 10 Bibliography 11 Further readingDesign and development EditThe P1Y was designed by the Yokosuka Naval Air Technical Arsenal to Navy specification 15 Shi 2 calling for a fast bomber with speed matching the Zero range matching the G4M a 907 kg 2 000 lb bombload and the ability to dive bomb as well as carry torpedoes As the result the construction suffered from excess complexity difficulty of manufacture and poor serviceability Problems with the availability of enough reliable Nakajima Homare engines led to their replacement by the Mitsubishi Kasei in the P1Y2 S night fighter version The streamlined design of the Ginga is attributed to Miki Tadanao an engineer who after World War II went on to create a similar aerodynamic design for Japan s earliest bullet trains Shinkansen while working with the Japan National Railways JNR 3 Operational history Edit Yokosuka P1Y Frances shot down next to USS Ommaney Bay CVE 79 by 0945 on December 15 1944 4 The first flight was in August 1943 Nakajima manufactured 1 002 examples which were operated by five Kōkutai Air Groups and acted as land based medium and torpedo bombers from airfields in China Taiwan the Mariana Islands the Philippines the Ryukyu Islands Shikoku and Kyushu During the last stages of the war the P1Y was used as a kamikaze aircraft against the United States Navy during the Okinawa Campaign in Operation Tan No 2 A night fighter version the P1Y2 S Kyokko 極光 Aurora with Mitsubishi Kasei engines was equipped with radar and Schrage Musik style upward firing as well as forward firing 20 mm cannon A total of 96 were produced by Kawanishi 5 but due to inadequate high altitude performance against the B 29 Superfortress many were converted back to Ginga bombers 6 Survivors EditA P1Y1 survives at the Smithsonian s Paul Garber Facility of its National Air and Space Museum While only the fuselage has been photographed several times and can be found on the internet the wings and engines are confirmed to exist 7 This was one of three P1Y s that were brought back to the United States after World War II for evaluation Variants Edit P1Y1 prototype 3 Ko P1 3 Ishikawajima Tsu 11 testbed in 1944 P1Y1b Yokosuka Kōkutai Yo 206 P1Y1c since it has a single forward cannon and no dorsal turret A P1Y1 under attack by United States Navy aircraft and anti aircraft guns 8 9 P1Y1 Experimental Type 15 land based bomber 15試陸上爆撃機 15 Shi Rikujō Bakugekiki 3 of prototypes and 9 of supplementary prototypes 10 with 1 357 kW 1 820 hp NK9C Nakajima NK9B Homare 11 engines Prototype 3 was later used for Ishikawajima Tsu 11 testbed P1Y1 Ginga Milky Way Model 11 銀河11型 Ginga 11 gata First model of the series Mounted Homare 11 or Homare 12 P1Y1a Ginga Model 11A 銀河11甲型 Ginga 11 Kō gata Mounted Homare 12 and fitted 1 13 mm 51 in Type 2 machine gun in the back defensive position P1Y1b Provisional name Ginga Model 11B 仮称銀河11乙型 Kashō Ginga 11 Otsu gata Converted from P1Y1a mounted Homare 12 and fitted 2 13 mm 51 in Type 2 machine guns in the back defensive position P1Y1c Provisional name Ginga Model 11C 仮称銀河11丙型 Kashō Ginga 11 Hei gata Converted from P1Y1b mounted Homare 12 and fitted 1 13 mm 51 in Type 2 machine gun in the forward position prototype only P1Y1 Ginga Model 11 Night fighter variant 銀河11型改造夜戦 Ginga 11 gata Kaizō yasen Converted from P1Y1 Armed with 2 20 mm Type 99 cannons Equipped 302nd Kōkutai only This is not a naval regulation equipment P1Y1 S Provisional name Ginga Model 21 仮称銀河21型 Kashō Ginga 21 gata Night fighter variant Armed with 4 20 mm Type 99 cannons firing obliquely forward and 1 13 mm 51 in Type 2 machine gun in the back defensive position Only a project P1Y1 Ground attack variantConverted from P1Y1 P1Y1a installed up to 20 20 mm Type 99 cannons in the bomb bay for land strikes against B 29 bases in the Marianas Approx 30 rebuilt P1Y2 S Provisional name Ginga Model 26 Test production Kyokkō Aurora 仮称銀河26型 試製極光 Kashō Ginga 26 gata Shisei Kyokkō Night fighter variant Initial named Hakkō Corona 白光 in October 1943 renamed Kyokkō in March 1944 11 Converted from P1Y1 P1Y1a Fitted Mitsubishi MK4T A Kasei 25 engines Armed with 2 20 mm Type 99 cannons and 1 30 mm Type 5 cannon Later almost all were converted to P1Y2 96 or 97 produced 12 P1Y2 Provisional name Ginga Model 16 仮称銀河16型 Kashō Ginga 16 gata Land based bomber Converted from P1Y2 S Mounted 1 380 kW 1 850 hp Mitsubishi MK4T A Kasei 25 Kō engines P1Y2a Provisional name Ginga Model 16A 仮称銀河16甲型 Kashō Ginga 16 Kō gata Converted from P1Y1a Mounted Mitsubishi MK4T A Kasei 25 Kō engines P1Y2b Provisional name Ginga Model 16B 仮称銀河16乙型 Kashō Ginga 16 Otsu gata Converted from P1Y1b Mounted Mitsubishi MK4T A Kasei 25 Kō engines P1Y2c Provisional name Ginga Model 16C 仮称銀河16丙型 Kashō Ginga 16 Hei gata Converted from P1Y1c Mounted Mitsubishi MK4T A Kasei 25 Kō engines P1Y2 Ginga Model 16 Night fighter variant 銀河16型改造夜戦 Ginga 16 gata Kaizō yasen Converted from P1Y2 Armed with 2 20 mm Type 99 machine guns or 1 30 mm Type 5 cannon Equipped 302nd Kōkutai only This is not a naval regulation equipment P1Y3 Provisional name Ginga Model 13 仮称銀河13型 Kashō Ginga 13 gata Converted from P1Y1 Mounted Homare 21 engines P1Y4 Provisional name Ginga Model 12 仮称銀河12型 Kashō Ginga 12 gata Converted from P1Y1 Mounted Homare 23 engines P1Y5 Provisional name Ginga Model 14 仮称銀河14型 Kashō Ginga 14 gata Converted from P1Y1 Mounted Mitsubishi Ha 43 engines P1Y6 Provisional name Ginga Model 17 仮称銀河17型 Kashō Ginga 17 gata Converted from P1Y2 Mounted Mitsubishi MK4T C Kasei 25 Hei engines Provisional name Ginga Model 33 仮称銀河33型 Kashō Ginga 33 gata Long range bomber variant Crew 4 bombs up to 3 000 kg Only a project Test production Tenga 試製天河 Shisei Tenga Proposed jet powered bomber variant mounted Ishikawajima Ne 30 Discontinued in 1945 MXY10 Yokosuka Navy Bomber Ginga Ground decoy non flying replica of Yokosuka P1Y1 Number built by Nakajima and Kawanishi Edit 12 January February March April May June July August September October November December Sub total1943 2 4 4 10 25 451944 11 20 35 46 46 51 47 48 69 75 88 84 6201945 90 52 52 63 64 53 40 20 434Operators Edit JapanImperial Japanese Navy Air Service 13 14 15 16 302nd Kōkutai Equipped night fighter variant only 521st Kōkutai 522nd Kōkutai 523rd Kōkutai 524th Kōkutai 701st Kōkutai 706th Kōkutai 752nd Kōkutai 761st Kōkutai 762nd Kōkutai 763rd Kōkutai 765th Kōkutai 1001st Kōkutai 1081st Kōkutai Miyazaki Kōkutai Toyohashi Kōkutai Yokosuka Kōkutai Kogeki 262nd Hikōtai Kogeki 401st Hikōtai Kogeki 405th Hikōtai Kogeki 406th Hikōtai Kogeki 501st Hikōtai Kogeki 708th HikōtaiSpecifications P1Y1a EditData from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War 17 General characteristicsCrew 3 Length 15 m 49 ft 3 in Wingspan 20 m 65 ft 7 in Height 4 3 m 14 ft 1 in Wing area 55 m2 590 sq ft Empty weight 7 265 kg 16 017 lb Gross weight 10 500 kg 23 149 lb Max takeoff weight 13 500 kg 29 762 lb Powerplant 2 Nakajima NK9C Homare 12 18 cylinder air cooled radial piston engines 1 361 kW 1 825 hp each for take off Performance Maximum speed 547 km h 340 mph 295 kn at 5 900 m 19 357 ft Cruise speed 370 km h 230 mph 200 kn at 4 000 m 13 123 ft Range 5 370 km 3 340 mi 2 900 nmi Service ceiling 9 400 m 30 800 ft Wing loading 191 kg m2 39 lb sq ft Power mass 0 20 kW kg 0 12 hp lb Armament Guns 1 flexible nose mounted 20 mm 0 787 in Type 99 cannon 1 flexible rear firing 13 mm 0 512 in Type 2 machine gunBombs up to 1 000 kg 2 205 lb of bombs or 1 800 kg 1 764 lb torpedoSee also EditRelated development Yokosuka Tenga Aircraft of comparable role configuration and era Douglas A 26 Invader Junkers Ju 188 Liore et Olivier LeO 45 Petlyakov Pe 2 Saab 18 Related lists List of aircraft of World War IIReferences EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Yokosuka P1Y Notes Edit Norman Polmar Thomas B Allen World War II America at war 1941 1945 Random House 1991 p 310 Francillon 1979 p 462 Hood Christopher P 2007 Shinkansen From Bullet Train to Symbol of Modern Japan Routledge London pp 53 ISBN 978 0 415 32052 8 USS Natoma Bay CVE 62 Logbook Project Francillon 1979 p 468 Francillon 1979 p 465 Garber Artifacts www enginehistory org Retrieved 2020 07 06 The Maru Mechanic 1984 pp 109 110 Famous Airplanes of the World 2000 pp 29 31 Famous Airplanes of the World 2000 p 26 Model Art 2001 p 50 53 a b Famous Airplanes of the World 2000 p 31 Francillon 1979 p 467 The Maru Mechanic 1984 p 110 Model Art 1993 p 135 Famous Airplanes of the World 2000 p 32 38 Francillon 1979 pp 467 468 Bibliography EditFrancillon Rene J 1979 Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War 2nd ed London Putnam amp Company ISBN 0 370 30251 6 Huggins Mark January February 2004 Hunters over Tokyo The JNAF s Air Defence of Japan 1944 1945 Air Enthusiast 109 66 71 ISSN 0143 5450 Further reading EditThe Maru Mechanic No 46 Ginga and Type 1 Attack Bomber Ushio Shobō Japan May 1984 Famous Airplanes of the World Special Edition Vol 1 Navy Bomber Ginga Frances Bunrindo Japan September 2000 Model Art No 406 Special issue Camouflage amp Markings of Imperial Japanese Navy Bombers in W W II Model Art Co Ltd April 1993 Model Art No 595 Special issue Night fighters of the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy Model Art Co Ltd October 2001 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yokosuka P1Y amp oldid 1025857355, wikipedia, 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