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Yom Kippur

For the war, see Yom Kippur War.

Yom Kippur (; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּיפּוּר‎, romanized: Yom Kipur, IPA: , lit.'Day of Atonement'; pluralיום הכיפורים, Yom HaKipurim) is the holiest day of the year in Judaism. Its central themes are atonement and repentance. Jews traditionally observe this holy day with a day-long fast, confession, and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue services.

Yom Kippur
Official nameיוֹם כִּיפּוּר
Observed by
TypeJewish
SignificanceAtonement for personal sins, fate of each person is sealed for the upcoming year
Observances
  • Fasting
  • prayer
  • abstaining from physical pleasures
  • refraining from work
Date10th day of Tishrei
2020 dateSunset, 27 September –
nightfall, 28 September
2021 dateSunset, 15 September –
nightfall, 16 September
2022 dateSunset, 4 October –
nightfall, 5 October
2023 dateSunset, 24 September –
nightfall, 25 September
FrequencyAnnual
Related toRosh Hashanah, which precedes Yom Kippur

Contents

Yom (יוֹם) means "day" in Hebrew and Kippur (כִּפּוּר) is translated to "atonement". The common English translation of Yom Kippur is Day of Atonement, however, this translation lacks precision. The name Yom Kippur is based on the Torah verse, "...but on the 10th day of the seventh month it is the day of kippurim unto you..." (Leviticus 23:27). The literal translation of kippurim is cleansing. Yom Kippur is a Jewish day to atone for misdeeds and become cleansed and purified from them.

Yom Kippur is "the tenth day of [the] seventh month" (Tishrei) and is also known as the "Sabbath of Sabbaths". Rosh Hashanah (referred to in the Torah as Yom Teruah) is the first day of that month according to the Hebrew calendar. Yom Kippur completes the annual period known in Judaism as the High Holy Days or Yamim Nora'im ("Days of Awe") that commences with Rosh Hashanah. The ten days from Rosh Hashanah to Yom Kippur correspond to the last ten days of the 40-day period Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the second set of tablets.

Heavenly books opened

According to Jewish tradition, God inscribes each person's fate for the coming year into a book, the Book of Life, on Rosh Hashanah, and waits until Yom Kippur to "seal" the verdict. During the Days of Awe, a Jew tries to amend their behavior and seek forgiveness for wrongs done against God (bein adam leMakom) and against other human beings (bein adam lechavero). The evening and day of Yom Kippur are set aside for public and private petitions and confessions of guilt (Vidui). At the end of Yom Kippur, one hopes that they have been forgiven by God.

Further information: Jewish liturgy

The Yom Kippur prayer service includes several unique aspects. One is the actual number of prayer services. Unlike a regular day, which has three prayer services (Ma'ariv, the evening prayer; Shacharit, the morning prayer; and Mincha, the afternoon prayer), or a Shabbat or Yom Tov, which have four prayer services (a'arivt; Shacharit; Mussaf, the additional prayer; and Mincha), Yom Kippur has five prayer services (Ma'ariv; Shacharit; Mussaf; Mincha; and Ne'ilah, the closing prayer). The prayer services also include private and public confessions of sins (Vidui) and a unique prayer dedicated to the special Yom Kippur avodah (service) of the Kohen Gadol (high priest) in the Holy Temple in Jerusalem.

As one of the most culturally significant Jewish holidays, Yom Kippur is observed by many secular Jews who may not observe other holidays. Many secular Jews attend synagogue on Yom Kippur—for many secular Jews the High Holy Days are the only times of the year during which they attend synagogue—causing synagogue attendance to soar.

Preceding day

Erev Yom Kippur (lit. "eve [of] day [of] atonement") is the day preceding Yom Kippur, corresponding to the ninth day of the Hebrew month of Tishrei. This day is commemorated with additional morning prayers, asking others for forgiveness, giving charity, performing the kapparot ritual, an extended afternoon prayer service, and two festive meals.

General observances

Leviticus 16:29 mandates establishment of this holy day on the 10th day of the 7th month as the day of atonement for sins. It calls it the Sabbath of Sabbaths and a day upon which one must afflict one's soul.

Leviticus 23:27 decrees that Yom Kippur is a strict day of rest.

Five additional prohibitions are traditionally observed, as detailed in the Jewish oral tradition (Mishnah tractate Yoma 8:1).

The number five is a set number, relating to:

  1. In the Yom Kippur section of the Torah, the word soul appears five times.
  2. The soul is known by five separate names: soul, wind, spirit, living one and unique one.
  3. Unlike regular days, which have three prayer services, Yom Kippur has five – Maariv, Shacharit, Mussaf, Minchah and Neilah.
  4. The Kohen Gadol rinsed himself in the mikveh (ritual bath) five times on Yom Kippur.

The prohibitions are the following:

  1. No eating and drinking
  2. No wearing of leather shoes
  3. No bathing or washing
  4. No anointing oneself with perfumes or lotions
  5. No marital relations

A parallel has been drawn between these activities and the human condition according to the Biblical account of the expulsion from the garden of Eden. Refraining from these symbolically represents a return to a pristine state of re-attachment to the purity of Edenic existence, and symbolically therefore one avoids that which arose as a need only after the exile from Eden: The Eden account tells of God saying "thorns and thistles will grow in your way...the snake will raise its head (to bite you) and you will give your heel (to crush it)" and so in the new post-Edenic existence it became necessary to wear strong protective shoes, and so these are avoided on Yom Kippur (see article for specifics). The Eden account also states that as opposed to the automatic food and drink in Eden, it will be necessary to work for it "by the sweat of your brow", and so food and drink are refrained from on Yom Kippur, as well as washing, and the use of cosmetics to remove sweat or its odor etc. Similarly for the description of the post-Edenic relationship between man and woman, and so on Yom Kippur marital relations are avoided.

Total abstention from food and drink as well as keeping the other traditions begins at sundown, and ends after nightfall the following day. One should add a few minutes to the beginning and end of the day, called tosefet Yom Kippur, lit. "addition to Yom Kippur". Although the fast is required of all healthy men over 13 or women over 12, it is waived in the case of certain medical conditions.[citation needed]

By refraining from these activities, the body is uncomfortable but can still survive. The soul is considered to be the life force in a body. Therefore, by making one’s body uncomfortable, one’s soul is uncomfortable. By feeling pain one can feel how others feel when they are in pain. This is the purpose of the prohibitions.

Virtually all Jewish holidays involve meals, but since Yom Kippur involves fasting, Jewish law requires one to eat a large and festive meal on the afternoon before Yom Kippur, after the Mincha (afternoon) prayer. This meal is meant to make up for the inability to eat a large meal on the day of Yom Kippur instead, due to the prohibition from eating or drinking.[citation needed]

Wearing white clothing (or a kittel for Ashkenazi Jews), is traditional to symbolize one's purity on this day. Many Orthodox men immerse themselves in a mikveh on the day before Yom Kippur.

In order to gain atonement from God, one must:

  1. Pray
  2. Repent of one's sins
  3. Give to charity

Eve

Main article: Kol Nidre

Before sunset on Yom Kippur eve, worshipers gather in the synagogue. The Ark is opened and two people take from it two Sifrei Torah (Torah scrolls). Then they take their places, one on each side of the Hazzan, and the three recite (in Hebrew):

In the tribunal of Heaven and the tribunal of earth, we hold it lawful to pray with transgressors.

The cantor then chants the Kol Nidre prayer (Aramaic: כל נדרי, English translation: "All vows"). It is recited in Aramaic. Its name "Kol Nidre" is taken from the opening words, and translates "All vows":

All personal vows we are likely to make, all personal oaths and pledges we are likely to take between this Yom Kippur and the next Yom Kippur, we publicly renounce. Let them all be relinquished and abandoned, null and void, neither firm nor established. Let our personal vows, pledges and oaths be considered neither vows nor pledges nor oaths.

The leader and the congregation then say together three times "May all the people of Israel be forgiven, including all the strangers who live in their midst, for all the people are in fault." The Torah scrolls are then placed back into the Ark, and the Yom Kippur evening service begins.[citation needed]

Prayer services

Many married Ashkenazi Orthodox men wear a kittel, a white robe-like garment for evening prayers on Yom Kippur, otherwise used by men on their wedding day. They also wear a tallit (prayer shawl), which is typically worn only during morning services.

Prayer services begin with the Kol Nidre prayer, which is recited before sunset. Kol Nidre is a prayer that dates back to 9th century Israel. It is recited in a dramatic manner, before the open ark, using a melody that dates back to the 16th century. Then the service continues with the evening prayers (Ma'ariv or Arvit) and an extended Selichot service.[citation needed]

The morning prayer service is preceded by litanies and petitions of forgiveness called selichot; on Yom Kippur, many selichot are woven into the liturgy of the mahzor (prayer book). The morning prayers are followed by an added prayer (Mussaf) as on all other holidays. This is followed by Mincha (the afternoon prayer) which includes a reading (Haftarah) of the entire Book of Jonah, which has as its theme the story of God's willingness to forgive those who repent.[citation needed]

The service concludes with the Ne'ila ("closing") prayer, which begins shortly before sunset, when the "gates of prayer" will be closed. Yom Kippur comes to an end with a recitation of Shema Yisrael and the blowing of the shofar, which marks the conclusion of the fast.

Reform Judaism

Reform synagogues generally experience their largest attendance of the year on Yom Kippur and Rosh Hashanah for worship services. The prayer philosophy of Reform, as described in the introduction of the movement's High Holy Day prayerbook, "Mishkan Hanefesh", is to reflect "varied theological approaches that enable a diverse congregation to share religious experience... with a commitment to Reform tradition, as well as [to] the larger Jewish tradition." A central feature of these Reform services is the rabbinic sermon. "For more than a century and a half in the Reform Movement," writes Rabbi Lance Sussman, "High Holiday sermons were among the most anticipated events in synagogue life, especially on the eve of Rosh Hashanah and Kol Nidre night."

Repentance (Teshuva) and confessional (Vidui)

The Talmud states, "Yom Kippur atones for those who repent and does not atone for those who do not repent". Repentance in Judaism is done through a process called Teshuva, which in its most basic form consists of regretting having committed the sin, resolving not to commit that sin in the future and to confess that sin before God. Confession in Judaism is called Vidui (Hebrew וידוי). There is also a commandment to repent on Yom Kippur. Accordingly, Yom Kippur is unique for the confessional, or Vidui, that is part of the prayer services. In keeping with the requirement to repent on Yom Kippur, Jews recite the full Vidui a total of nine times: once during Mincha on Yom Kippur eve, and on Yom Kippur itself during Ma'ariv (two times), Shacharit (two times), Musaf (two times), and Mincha (two times); at Ne’eilah, only the short confessional is said. The first time in each service takes place during the personal recitation of the Amidah (standing, silent prayer), and the second time during the cantor's repetition of the Amidah (except during the preceding Mincha), in a public recitation.[citation needed]

The Yom Kippur confessional consists of two parts: a short confession beginning with the word Ashamnu (אשמנו, "we have sinned"), which is a series of words describing sin arranged according to the aleph-bet (Hebrew alphabetic order), and a long confession, beginning with the words Al Cheyt (על חטא, "for the sin"), which is a set of 22 double acrostics, also arranged according to the aleph-bet, enumerating a range of sins.[citation needed]

Avodah: remembering the Temple service

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A recitation of the sacrificial service of the Temple in Jerusalem traditionally features prominently in both the liturgy and the religious thought of the holiday. Specifically, the Avodah ("service") in the Musaf prayer recounts in great detail the sacrificial ceremonies of the Yom Kippur Korbanot (sacrificial offerings) that are recited in the prayers but have not been performed for 2,000 years, since the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans.

This traditional prominence is rooted in the Babylonian Talmud’s description of how to attain atonement following the destruction of the Temple. According to Talmud tractate Yoma, in the absence of a Temple, Jews are obligated to study the High Priest’s ritual on Yom Kippur, and this study helps achieve atonement for those who are unable to benefit from its actual performance. In Orthodox Judaism, accordingly, studying the Temple ritual on Yom Kippur represents a positive rabbinically ordained obligation which Jews seeking atonement are required to fulfill.

In Orthodox synagogues and many Conservative ones a detailed description of the Temple ritual is recited on the day. In most Orthodox and some Conservative synagogues, the entire congregation prostrates themselves at each point in the recitation where the Kohen Gadol (High Priest) would pronounce the Tetragrammaton (God’s holiest name, according to Judaism).

The main section of the Avodah is a threefold recitation of the High Priest’s actions regarding expiation in the Holy of Holies. Performing the sacrificial acts and reciting Leviticus 16:30, ("Your upright children"). (These three times, plus in some congregations the Aleinu prayer during the Musaf Amidah on Yom Kippur and Rosh Hashanah, are the only times in Jewish services when Jews engage in prostration, with the exception of some Yemenite Jews and talmedhei haRambam (disciples of Maimonides) who may prostrate themselves on other occasions during the year. A variety of liturgical poems are added, including a poem recounting the radiance of the countenance of the Kohen Gadol after exiting the Holy of Holies, traditionally believed to emit palpable light in a manner echoing the Torah's account of the countenance of Moses after descending from Mount Sinai, as well as prayers for the speedy rebuilding of the Temple and the restoration of sacrificial worship. There are a variety of other customs, such as hand gestures to mime the sprinkling of blood (one sprinkling upwards and seven downwards per set of eight).

Orthodox liturgies include prayers lamenting the inability to perform the Temple service and petitioning for its restoration, which Conservative synagogues generally omit. In some Conservative synagogues, only the Hazzan (cantor) engages in full prostration. Some Conservative synagogues abridge the recitation of the Avodah service to varying degrees, and some omit it entirely. Reconstructionist services omit the entire service as inconsistent with modern sensibilities.

Date of Yom Kippur

Yom Kippur falls each year on the 10th day of the Jewish month of Tishrei, which is 9 days after the first day of Rosh Hashanah. In terms of the Gregorian calendar, the earliest date on which Yom Kippur can fall is September 14, as happened most recently in 1899 and 2013. The latest Yom Kippur can occur relative to the Gregorian dates is on October 14, as happened in 1967 and will happen again in 2043. After 2089, the differences between the Hebrew calendar and the Gregorian calendar will result in Yom Kippur falling no earlier than September 15. Gregorian calendar dates for recent and upcoming Yom Kippur holidays are:

  • Sunset, 18 September 2018 – nightfall, 19 September 2018
  • Sunset, 8 October 2019 – nightfall, 9 October 2019
  • Sunset, 27 September 2020 – nightfall, 28 September 2020
  • Sunset, 15 September 2021 – nightfall, 16 September 2021
  • Sunset, 4 October 2022 – nightfall, 5 October 2022
  • Sunset, 24 September 2023 – nightfall, 25 September 2023
  • Sunset, 11 October 2024 – nightfall, 12 October 2024
  • Sunset, 1 October 2025 – nightfall, 2 October 2025

The Torah calls the day Yom HaKippurim (יוֹם הַכִּיפּוּרִים) and in it Leviticus 23:27 decrees a strict prohibition of work and affliction of the soul upon the tenth day of the seventh month, later known as Tishrei. The laws of Yom Kippur are mentioned in three passages in the Torah:

  1. Leviticus 16:1–34: God told Moses to tell Aaron that he can only enter the sanctuary in front of the cover that is on the ark when God is present on the cover in a cloud. If Aaron is to enter otherwise, he will die. On the tenth day of the seventh month, God said that the people must not work in order to cleanse and atone for their sins. The Kohen will lead in the atonement of all the people.
  2. Leviticus 23:26–32: God said to Moses that the tenth day of the month is the day of atonement and will be holy. The people must give a fire-offering to God and must not work. God told Moses that whoever does work, God will rid of the soul from its people. This is a day of complete rest from the evening of the ninth day of the month to the following evening.
  3. Numbers 29:7–11: The tenth day of the seventh month is a holy day and one must not work. For an elevation offering, one must sacrifice a young bull, a ram and seven lambs who are a year old. As well, for a sin offering, one must sacrifice a male goat.

Midrashic interpretation

Traditionally, Yom Kippur is considered the date on which Moses received the second set of Ten Commandments. It occurred following the completion of the second 40 days of instructions from God. At this same time, the Israelites were granted atonement for the sin of the Golden Calf; hence, its designation as the Day of Atonement.

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Temple service

The following summary of the Temple service is based on the traditional Jewish religious account described in Mishnah tractate Yoma, appearing in contemporary traditional Jewish prayer books for Yom Kippur, and studied as part of a traditional Jewish Yom Kippur worship service.

While the Temple in Jerusalem was standing (from Biblical times through 70 CE), the Kohen Gadol (High Priest) was mandated by the Torah to perform a complex set of special services and sacrifices for Yom Kippur to attain Divine atonement, the word "kippur" meaning "atone" in Hebrew. These services were considered to be the most important parts of Yom Kippur because through them the Kohen Gadol made atonement for all Jews and the world. During the service, the Kohen Gadol entered the Holy of Holies in the center of the Temple, the only time of the year that anyone went inside. Doing so required special purification and preparation, including five immersions in a mikveh (ritual bath), and four changes of clothing.[citation needed]

Seven days prior to Yom Kippur, the Kohen Gadol was sequestered in the Palhedrin chamber in the Temple, where he reviewed (studied) the service with the sages familiar with the Temple, and was sprinkled with spring water containing ashes of the Red Heifer as purification. The Talmud (Tractate Yoma) also reports that he practiced the incense offering ritual in the Avitnas chamber.[citation needed]

On the day of Yom Kippur, the Kohen Gadol had to follow a precise order of services, sacrifices, and purifications:

  • Morning (Tamid) offering: The Kohen Gadol first performed the regular daily (Tamid) offering—usually performed by ordinary priests—in special golden garments, after immersing in a mikveh and washing his hands and feet.
  • Garment change 1: The Kohen Gadol immersed in a special mikveh in the Temple courtyard and changed into special linen garments, and washed his hands and feet twice, once after removing the golden garments and once before putting on the linen garments.
  • Bull as personal sin-offering: The Kohen Gadol leaned (performed Semikha) and made a confession over the bull on behalf of himself and his household, pronouncing the Tetragrammaton. The people prostrated themselves when they heard. He then slaughtered the bull as a chatat (sin-offering) and received its blood in a bowl.
  • Lottery of the goats: At the Eastern (Nikanor) gate, the Kohen Gadol drew lots from a lottery box over two goats. One was selected "for the Lord", and one "for Azazel". The Kohen Gadol tied a red band around the horns of the goat "for Azazel".
  • Incense preparation: The Kohen Gadol ascended the mizbeach (altar) and took a shovel full of embers with a special shovel. He was brought incense. He filled his hands and placed it in a vessel. (The Talmud considered this the most physically difficult part of the service, as the Kohen Gadol had to keep the shovelful of glowing coals balanced and prevent its contents from dropping, using his armpit or teeth, while filling his hands with the incense.)
  • Incense offering: Holding the shovel and the vessel, he entered the Kadosh Hakadashim, the Temple's Holy of Holies. In the days of the First Temple, he placed the shovel between the poles of the Ark of the Covenant. In the days of the Second Temple, he put the shovel where the Ark would have been. He waited until the chamber filled with smoke and left.
  • Sprinkling of bull's blood in the Holy of Holies: The Kohen Gadol took the bowl with the bull’s blood and entered the Most Holy Place again. He sprinkled the bull’s blood with his finger eight times, before the Ark in the days of the First Temple, where it would have been in the days of the Second. The Kohen Gadol then left the Holy of Holies, putting the bowl on a stand in front of the Parochet (curtain separating the Holy from the Holy of Holies).
  • Goat for the Lord as a sin-offering for Kohanim: The Kohen Gadol went to the eastern end of the Israelite courtyard near the Nikanor Gate, laid his hands (semikha) on the goat "for the Lord", and pronounced confession on behalf of the Kohanim (priests). The people prostrated themselves when he pronounced the Tetragrammaton. He then slaughtered the goat, and received its blood in another bowl.
  • Sprinkling of goat's blood in the Holy of Holies: The Kohen Gadol took the bowl with the goat’s blood and entered the Kadosh Hakadashim again. He sprinkled the goat’s blood with his finger eight times the same way he had sprinkled the bull’s blood. The blood was sprinkled before the Ark in the days of the First Temple, where it would have been in the days of the Second Temple. The Kohen Gadol then left the Kadosh Hakadashim, putting the bowl on a stand in front of the Parochet (curtain separating the Holy from the Holy of Holies).
  • Sprinkling of blood in the Holy: Standing in the Hekhal (Holy), on the other side of the Parochet from the Holy of Holies, the Kohen Gadol took the bull's blood from the stand and sprinkled it with his finger eight times in the direction of the Parochet. He then took the bowl with the goat's blood and sprinkled it eight times in the same manner, putting it back on the stand.
  • Smearing of blood on the Golden (Incense) Altar: The Kohen Gadol removed the goat’s blood from the stand and mixed it with the bull's blood. Starting at the northeast corner, he then smeared the mixture of blood on each of the four corners of the Golden (Incense) altar in the Haichal. He then sprinkled the blood eight times on the altar.
Cliffs of Mount Azazel
  • Goat for Azazel: The Kohen Gadol left the Haichal and walked to the east side of the Azarah (Israelite courtyard). Near the Nikanor Gate, he leaned his hands (Semikha) on the goat "for Azazel" and confessed the sins of the entire people of Israel. The people prostrated themselves when he pronounced the Tetragrammaton. While he made a general confession, individuals in the crowd at the Temple would confess privately. The Kohen Gadol then sent the goat off "to the wilderness". In practice, to prevent its return to human habitation, the goat was led to a cliff outside Jerusalem and pushed off its edge.
  • Preparation of sacrificial animals: While the goat "for Azazel" was being led to the cliff, the Kohen Gadol removed the insides of the bull and intertwined the bodies of the bull and goat. Other people took the bodies to the Beit HaDeshen (place of the ashes). They were burned there after it was confirmed that the goat "for Azazel" had reached the wilderness.
  • Reading the Torah: After it was confirmed that the goat "for Azazel" had been pushed off the cliff, the Kohen Gadol passed through the Nikanor Gate into the Ezrat Nashim (Women’s Courtyard) and read sections of the Torah describing Yom Kippur and its sacrifices.
  • Garment change 2: The Kohen Gadol removed his linen garments, immersed in the mikveh in the Temple courtyard, and changed into a second set of special golden garments. He washed his hands and feet both before removing the linen garments and after putting on the golden ones.
  • Offering of rams: The Kohen Gadol offered two rams as an olah offering, slaughtering them on the north side of the mizbeach (outer altar), receiving their blood in a bowl, carrying the bowl to the outer altar, and dashing the blood on the northeast and southwest corners of the Outer Altar. He dismembered the rams and burned the parts entirely on the outer altar. He then offered the accompanying mincha (grain) offerings and nesachim (wine-libations).
  • Musaf offering: The Kohen Gadol then offered the Musaf offering.
  • Burning of innards: The Kohen Gadol placed the insides of the bull and goat on the outer altar and burned them entirely.
  • Garment change 3: The Kohen Gadol removed his golden garments, immersed in the mikveh, and changed to a new set of linen garments, again washing his hands and feet twice.
  • Removal of incense from the Holy of Holies: The Kohen Gadol returned to the Holy of Holies and removed the bowl of incense and the shovel.
  • Garment change 4: The Kohen Gadol removed his linen garments, immersed in the mikveh, and changed into a third set of golden garments, again washing his hands and feet twice.
  • Evening (Tamid) offering: The Kohen Gadol completed the afternoon portion of the regular (tamid) daily offering in the special golden garments. He washed his hands and feet a tenth time.

The Kohen Gadol wore five sets of garments (three golden and two white linen), immersed in the mikveh five times, and washed his hands and feet ten times. Sacrifices included two (daily) lambs, one bull, two goats, and two rams, with accompanying mincha (meal) offerings, wine libations, and three incense offerings (the regular two daily and an additional one for Yom Kippur). The Kohen Gadol entered the Holy of Holies four times. The Tetragrammaton was pronounced three times, once for each confession.

Ayalon Highway in Tel Aviv, empty of cars on Yom Kippur 2004

Yom Kippur is a legal holiday in the modern state of Israel. There are no radio or television broadcasts, airports are shut down, there is no public transportation, and all shops and businesses are closed.

In 2013, 73% of the Jewish people of Israel said that they were intending to fast on Yom Kippur. It is very common in Israel to wish "Tsom Kal" ([an] easy fast) or "Tsom Mo'il" ([a] benefiting fast) to everyone before Yom Kippur, even if one does not know whether they will fast or not.

It is considered impolite to eat in public on Yom Kippur or to sound music or to drive a motor vehicle. There is no legal prohibition on any of these, but in practice such actions are almost universally avoided in Israel during Yom Kippur, except for emergency services.

Over the last few decades, bicycle-riding and inline skating on the empty streets have become common among secular Israeli youths, especially on the eve of Yom Kippur in Tel Aviv

In 1973, an air raid siren was sounded on the afternoon of Yom Kippur and radio broadcasts were resumed to alert the public to the surprise attack on Israel by Egypt and Syria that launched the Yom Kippur War.

Some notable athletes have observed Yom Kippur, even when it conflicted with playing their sport.

In baseball, Sandy Koufax, the Hall of Fame pitcher, decided not to pitch Game 1 of the 1965 World Series because it fell on Yom Kippur. Koufax garnered national attention for his decision, as an example of the conflict between social pressures and personal beliefs.

Hall of Fame first baseman Hank Greenberg attracted national attention in 1934, nearly three decades earlier, when he refused to play baseball on Yom Kippur, even though the Tigers were in the middle of a pennant race, and he was leading the league in runs batted in. The Detroit Free Press columnist and poet Edgar A. Guest wrote a poem titled "Speaking of Greenberg", which ended with the lines "We shall miss him on the infield and shall miss him at the bat / But he's true to his religion—and I honor him for that." When Greenberg arrived in synagogue on Yom Kippur, the service stopped suddenly, and the congregation gave an embarrassed Greenberg a standing ovation.

Los Angeles Dodgers outfielder Shawn Green, similarly, made headlines in 2001 for sitting out a game for the first time in 415 games (then the longest streak among active players) on Yom Kippur, even though his team was in the middle of a playoff race. Other baseball players who have similarly sat out games on Yom Kippur include former Boston Red Sox and New York Yankees third baseman Kevin Youkilis, former Houston Astros catcher and former Los Angeles Angels manager Brad Ausmus, and outfielder Art Shamsky.

Gabe Carimi, the Consensus All-American left tackle in American football who won the 2010 Outland Trophy as the nation's top collegiate interior lineman, faced a conflict in his freshman year of college in 2007. That year Yom Kippur fell on a Saturday, and he fasted until an hour before his football game against Iowa started that night. Carimi said, "Religion is a part of me, and I don't want to just say I'm Jewish. I actually do make sacrifices that I know are hard choices." In 2004, Matt Bernstein, standout fullback at University of Wisconsin–Madison, fasted on Yom Kippur, then broke his fast on the sidelines before rushing for 123 yards in a game against Penn State.

In 2011, golfer Laetitia Beck declined a request to join the University of North Carolina Tar Heels Invitational competition, because it conflicted with Yom Kippur. Instead, she spent the day fasting and praying. She said: "My Judaism is very important to me, and ... on Yom Kippur, no matter what, I have to fast." Boris Gelfand, Israel's top chess player, played his game in the prestigious London Grand Prix Chess Tournament on 25 September 2012 (eve of Yom Kippur) earlier, to avoid playing on the holiday.

In 2013, the International Tennis Federation fined the Israel Tennis Association "more than $13,000 ... for the inconvenience" of having to reschedule a tennis match between the Israeli and Belgian teams that was originally scheduled on Yom Kippur. Dudi Sela, Israel's #1 player, quit his quarterfinal match in the third set of the 2017 Shenzhen Open so he could begin observing Yom Kippur by the time the sun set, forfeiting a possible $34,000 in prize money and 90 rankings points.

Professional wrestler Bill Goldberg has notably refused to wrestle a match on Yom Kippur.

Since 2016 the United Nations has officially recognized Yom Kippur, stating that from then on no official meetings would take place on the day. In addition, the United Nations stated that, beginning in 2016, they would have nine official holidays and seven floating holidays of which each employee would be able to choose one. It stated that the floating holidays will be Yom Kippur, Day of Vesak, Diwali, Gurpurab, Orthodox Christmas, Orthodox Good Friday, and Presidents' Day. This was the first time the United Nations officially recognized any Jewish holiday.

According to textual scholars, the biblical regulations covering Yom Kippur are spliced together from multiple source texts, as indicated by the duplication of the confession over the bullock, and the incongruity in one verse stating that the high priest should not enter the Holy of Holies (with the inference that there are exceptions for certain explicitly identified festivals), and the next verse indicating that they can enter whenever they wish (as long as a specific ritual is carried out first). Although Rashi tried to find a harmonistic explanation for this incongruity, the Leviticus Rabbah maintains that it was indeed the case that the high priest could enter at any time if these rituals were carried out. Textual scholars argue that the ritual is composed from three sources, and a couple of redactional additions:

  • prerequisite rituals before the high priest can enter the Holy of Holies (on any occasion), namely a sin offering and a whole offering, followed by the filling of the Holy of Holies with a cloud of incense while wearing linen garments
  • regulations which establish an annual day of fasting and rest, during which the sanctuary and people are purified, without stating the ritual for doing so; this regulation is very similar to the one in the Holiness Code
  • later elaborations of the ceremony, which include the sprinkling of the blood on the mercy seat, and the use of a scapegoat sent to Azazel; the same source also being responsible for small alterations to related regulations
  • the redactional additions

On the basis of their assumptions, these scholars believe that the original ceremony was simply the ritual purification of the sanctuary from any accidental ritual impurity, at the start of each new year, as seen in the Book of Ezekiel. Textual scholars date this original ceremony to before the priestly source, but after JE. According to the Book of Ezekiel, the sanctuary was to be cleansed by the sprinkling of bullock's blood, on the first day of the first and of the seventh months—near the start of the civil year and of the ecclesiastical year, respectively; although the masoretic text of the Book of Ezekiel has the second of these cleansings on the seventh of the first month, biblical scholars regard the Septuagint, which has the second cleaning as being the first of the seventh month, as being more accurate here. It appears that during the period that the Holiness Code and the Book of Ezekiel were written, the new year began on the tenth day of the seventh month, and thus liberal biblical scholars believe that by the time the Priestly Code was compiled, the date of the new year and of the day of atonement had swapped around.

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Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur Language Watch Edit For the war see Yom Kippur War Yom Kippur ˌ j ɒ m k ɪ ˈ p ʊer ˌ j ɔː m ˈ k ɪ p er ˌ j oʊ m 1 Hebrew יו ם כ יפ ו ר romanized Yom Kipur IPA ˈjom kiˈpuʁ lit Day of Atonement plural יום הכיפורים Yom HaKipurim is the holiest day of the year in Judaism Its central themes are atonement and repentance Jews traditionally observe this holy day with a day long fast confession and intensive prayer often spending most of the day in synagogue services Yom KippurJews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur by Maurycy Gottlieb 1878 Official nameיו ם כ יפ ו רObserved byJewsSamaritansTypeJewishSignificanceAtonement for personal sins fate of each person is sealed for the upcoming yearObservancesFastingprayerabstaining from physical pleasuresrefraining from workDate10th day of Tishrei2020 dateSunset 27 September nightfall 28 September2021 dateSunset 15 September nightfall 16 September2022 dateSunset 4 October nightfall 5 October2023 dateSunset 24 September nightfall 25 SeptemberFrequencyAnnualRelated toRosh Hashanah which precedes Yom Kippur Contents 1 Etymology 2 Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur 2 1 Heavenly books opened 3 Prayer service 4 Observance 4 1 Preceding day 4 2 General observances 4 3 Eve 4 4 Prayer services 4 4 1 Reform Judaism 4 5 Repentance Teshuva and confessional Vidui 4 6 Avodah remembering the Temple service 4 7 Date of Yom Kippur 5 In the Torah 5 1 Midrashic interpretation 6 Mishnaic and Talmudic literature 6 1 Temple service 7 Observance in Israel 8 Observance by athletes 9 Recognition by the United Nations 10 Modern scholarship 11 See also 12 References 13 External linksEtymology EditYom יו ם means day in Hebrew and Kippur כ פ ו ר is translated to atonement 2 The common English translation of Yom Kippur is Day of Atonement however this translation lacks precision The name Yom Kippur is based on the Torah verse but on the 10th day of the seventh month it is the day of kippurim unto you Leviticus 23 27 The literal translation of kippurim is cleansing Yom Kippur is a Jewish day to atone for misdeeds and become cleansed and purified from them 3 Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur EditYom Kippur is the tenth day of the seventh month 4 Tishrei and is also known as the Sabbath of Sabbaths 5 Rosh Hashanah referred to in the Torah as Yom Teruah is the first day of that month according to the Hebrew calendar Yom Kippur completes the annual period known in Judaism as the High Holy Days or Yamim Nora im Days of Awe that commences with Rosh Hashanah 5 The ten days from Rosh Hashanah to Yom Kippur correspond to the last ten days of the 40 day period Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the second set of tablets 6 Heavenly books opened Edit According to Jewish tradition God inscribes each person s fate for the coming year into a book the Book of Life on Rosh Hashanah and waits until Yom Kippur to seal the verdict 7 During the Days of Awe a Jew tries to amend their behavior and seek forgiveness for wrongs done against God bein adam leMakom and against other human beings bein adam lechavero The evening and day of Yom Kippur are set aside for public and private petitions and confessions of guilt Vidui At the end of Yom Kippur one hopes that they have been forgiven by God 8 Prayer service EditFurther information Jewish liturgy The Yom Kippur prayer service includes several unique aspects One is the actual number of prayer services Unlike a regular day which has three prayer services Ma ariv the evening prayer Shacharit the morning prayer and Mincha the afternoon prayer or a Shabbat or Yom Tov which have four prayer services a arivt Shacharit Mussaf the additional prayer and Mincha Yom Kippur has five prayer services Ma ariv Shacharit Mussaf Mincha and Ne ilah the closing prayer 9 The prayer services also include private and public confessions of sins Vidui 7 and a unique prayer dedicated to the special Yom Kippur avodah service of the Kohen Gadol high priest in the Holy Temple in Jerusalem 10 Observance EditAs one of the most culturally significant Jewish holidays Yom Kippur is observed by many secular Jews who may not observe other holidays Many secular Jews attend synagogue on Yom Kippur for many secular Jews the High Holy Days are the only times of the year during which they attend synagogue 11 causing synagogue attendance to soar Preceding day Edit On the eve of Yom Kippur by Jakub Weinles Erev Yom Kippur lit eve of day of atonement is the day preceding Yom Kippur corresponding to the ninth day of the Hebrew month of Tishrei This day is commemorated with additional morning prayers asking others for forgiveness giving charity performing the kapparot ritual an extended afternoon prayer service and two festive meals 12 General observances Edit Leviticus 16 29 mandates establishment of this holy day on the 10th day of the 7th month as the day of atonement for sins It calls it the Sabbath of Sabbaths and a day upon which one must afflict one s soul Leviticus 23 27 decrees that Yom Kippur is a strict day of rest Five additional prohibitions are traditionally observed as detailed in the Jewish oral tradition Mishnah tractate Yoma 8 1 The number five is a set number relating to In the Yom Kippur section of the Torah the word soul appears five times The soul is known by five separate names soul wind spirit living one and unique one Unlike regular days which have three prayer services Yom Kippur has five Maariv Shacharit Mussaf Minchah and Neilah The Kohen Gadol rinsed himself in the mikveh ritual bath five times on Yom Kippur 13 The prohibitions are the following No eating and drinking No wearing of leather shoes No bathing or washing No anointing oneself with perfumes or lotions No marital relations A parallel has been drawn between these activities and the human condition according to the Biblical account of the expulsion from the garden of Eden 14 Refraining from these symbolically represents a return to a pristine state of re attachment to the purity of Edenic existence and symbolically therefore one avoids that which arose as a need only after the exile from Eden The Eden account tells of God saying thorns and thistles will grow in your way the snake will raise its head to bite you and you will give your heel to crush it and so in the new post Edenic existence it became necessary to wear strong protective shoes and so these are avoided on Yom Kippur see article for specifics The Eden account also states that as opposed to the automatic food and drink in Eden it will be necessary to work for it by the sweat of your brow and so food and drink are refrained from on Yom Kippur as well as washing and the use of cosmetics to remove sweat or its odor etc Similarly for the description of the post Edenic relationship between man and woman and so on Yom Kippur marital relations are avoided 14 Total abstention from food and drink as well as keeping the other traditions begins at sundown and ends after nightfall the following day One should add a few minutes to the beginning and end of the day called tosefet Yom Kippur lit addition to Yom Kippur Although the fast is required of all healthy men over 13 or women over 12 it is waived in the case of certain medical conditions citation needed By refraining from these activities the body is uncomfortable but can still survive The soul is considered to be the life force in a body Therefore by making one s body uncomfortable one s soul is uncomfortable By feeling pain one can feel how others feel when they are in pain 15 This is the purpose of the prohibitions Virtually all Jewish holidays involve meals but since Yom Kippur involves fasting Jewish law requires one to eat a large and festive meal on the afternoon before Yom Kippur after the Mincha afternoon prayer This meal is meant to make up for the inability to eat a large meal on the day of Yom Kippur instead due to the prohibition from eating or drinking citation needed Wearing white clothing or a kittel for Ashkenazi Jews is traditional to symbolize one s purity on this day Many Orthodox men immerse themselves in a mikveh on the day before Yom Kippur 16 In order to gain atonement from God one must 13 Pray Repent of one s sins Give to charityEve Edit Main article Kol Nidre Before sunset on Yom Kippur eve worshipers gather in the synagogue The Ark is opened and two people take from it two Sifrei Torah Torah scrolls Then they take their places one on each side of the Hazzan and the three recite in Hebrew In the tribunal of Heaven and the tribunal of earth we hold it lawful to pray with transgressors The cantor then chants the Kol Nidre prayer Aramaic כל נדרי English translation All vows It is recited in Aramaic Its name Kol Nidre is taken from the opening words and translates All vows All personal vows we are likely to make all personal oaths and pledges we are likely to take between this Yom Kippur and the next Yom Kippur we publicly renounce Let them all be relinquished and abandoned null and void neither firm nor established Let our personal vows pledges and oaths be considered neither vows nor pledges nor oaths 17 The leader and the congregation then say together three times May all the people of Israel be forgiven including all the strangers who live in their midst for all the people are in fault The Torah scrolls are then placed back into the Ark and the Yom Kippur evening service begins citation needed Prayer services Edit Many married Ashkenazi Orthodox men wear a kittel a white robe like garment for evening prayers on Yom Kippur otherwise used by men on their wedding day 18 19 They also wear a tallit prayer shawl which is typically worn only during morning services 20 Prayer services begin with the Kol Nidre prayer which is recited before sunset Kol Nidre is a prayer that dates back to 9th century Israel It is recited in a dramatic manner before the open ark using a melody that dates back to the 16th century 21 Then the service continues with the evening prayers Ma ariv or Arvit and an extended Selichot service citation needed The morning prayer service is preceded by litanies and petitions of forgiveness called selichot on Yom Kippur many selichot are woven into the liturgy of the mahzor prayer book The morning prayers are followed by an added prayer Mussaf as on all other holidays This is followed by Mincha the afternoon prayer which includes a reading Haftarah of the entire Book of Jonah which has as its theme the story of God s willingness to forgive those who repent citation needed The service concludes with the Ne ila closing prayer which begins shortly before sunset when the gates of prayer will be closed Yom Kippur comes to an end with a recitation of Shema Yisrael and the blowing of the shofar 22 which marks the conclusion of the fast 20 Reform Judaism Edit Reform synagogues generally experience their largest attendance of the year on Yom Kippur and Rosh Hashanah for worship services The prayer philosophy of Reform as described in the introduction of the movement s High Holy Day prayerbook Mishkan Hanefesh is to reflect varied theological approaches that enable a diverse congregation to share religious experience with a commitment to Reform tradition as well as to the larger Jewish tradition A central feature of these Reform services is the rabbinic sermon For more than a century and a half in the Reform Movement writes Rabbi Lance Sussman High Holiday sermons were among the most anticipated events in synagogue life especially on the eve of Rosh Hashanah and Kol Nidre night 23 Repentance Teshuva and confessional Vidui Edit The Talmud states Yom Kippur atones for those who repent and does not atone for those who do not repent 24 Repentance in Judaism is done through a process called Teshuva which in its most basic form consists of regretting having committed the sin resolving not to commit that sin in the future and to confess that sin before God Confession in Judaism is called Vidui Hebrew וידוי There is also a commandment to repent on Yom Kippur 25 Accordingly Yom Kippur is unique for the confessional or Vidui that is part of the prayer services In keeping with the requirement to repent on Yom Kippur Jews recite the full Vidui a total of nine times once during Mincha on Yom Kippur eve and on Yom Kippur itself during Ma ariv two times Shacharit two times Musaf two times and Mincha two times at Ne eilah only the short confessional is said The first time in each service takes place during the personal recitation of the Amidah standing silent prayer and the second time during the cantor s repetition of the Amidah except during the preceding Mincha in a public recitation citation needed The Yom Kippur confessional consists of two parts a short confession beginning with the word Ashamnu אשמנו we have sinned which is a series of words describing sin arranged according to the aleph bet Hebrew alphabetic order and a long confession beginning with the words Al Cheyt על חטא for the sin which is a set of 22 double acrostics also arranged according to the aleph bet enumerating a range of sins citation needed Avodah remembering the Temple service Edit This section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed September 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message A recitation of the sacrificial service of the Temple in Jerusalem traditionally features prominently in both the liturgy and the religious thought of the holiday 10 Specifically the Avodah service in the Musaf prayer recounts in great detail the sacrificial ceremonies of the Yom Kippur Korbanot sacrificial offerings that are recited in the prayers but have not been performed for 2 000 years since the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans This traditional prominence is rooted in the Babylonian Talmud s description of how to attain atonement following the destruction of the Temple According to Talmud tractate Yoma in the absence of a Temple Jews are obligated to study the High Priest s ritual on Yom Kippur and this study helps achieve atonement for those who are unable to benefit from its actual performance In Orthodox Judaism accordingly studying the Temple ritual on Yom Kippur represents a positive rabbinically ordained obligation which Jews seeking atonement are required to fulfill In Orthodox synagogues and many Conservative ones a detailed description of the Temple ritual is recited on the day In most Orthodox and some Conservative synagogues the entire congregation prostrates themselves at each point in the recitation where the Kohen Gadol High Priest would pronounce the Tetragrammaton God s holiest name according to Judaism The main section of the Avodah is a threefold recitation of the High Priest s actions regarding expiation in the Holy of Holies Performing the sacrificial acts and reciting Leviticus 16 30 Your upright children These three times plus in some congregations the Aleinu prayer during the Musaf Amidah on Yom Kippur and Rosh Hashanah are the only times in Jewish services when Jews engage in prostration with the exception of some Yemenite Jews and talmedhei haRambam disciples of Maimonides who may prostrate themselves on other occasions during the year A variety of liturgical poems are added including a poem recounting the radiance of the countenance of the Kohen Gadol after exiting the Holy of Holies traditionally believed to emit palpable light in a manner echoing the Torah s account of the countenance of Moses after descending from Mount Sinai as well as prayers for the speedy rebuilding of the Temple and the restoration of sacrificial worship There are a variety of other customs such as hand gestures to mime the sprinkling of blood one sprinkling upwards and seven downwards per set of eight 26 Orthodox liturgies include prayers lamenting the inability to perform the Temple service and petitioning for its restoration which Conservative synagogues generally omit In some Conservative synagogues only the Hazzan cantor engages in full prostration Some Conservative synagogues abridge the recitation of the Avodah service to varying degrees and some omit it entirely Reconstructionist services omit the entire service as inconsistent with modern sensibilities Date of Yom Kippur Edit See also Jewish and Israeli holidays 2000 2050 Yom Kippur falls each year on the 10th day of the Jewish month of Tishrei which is 9 days after the first day of Rosh Hashanah In terms of the Gregorian calendar the earliest date on which Yom Kippur can fall is September 14 as happened most recently in 1899 and 2013 The latest Yom Kippur can occur relative to the Gregorian dates is on October 14 as happened in 1967 and will happen again in 2043 After 2089 the differences between the Hebrew calendar and the Gregorian calendar will result in Yom Kippur falling no earlier than September 15 27 Gregorian calendar dates for recent and upcoming Yom Kippur holidays are Sunset 18 September 2018 nightfall 19 September 2018 Sunset 8 October 2019 nightfall 9 October 2019 Sunset 27 September 2020 nightfall 28 September 2020 Sunset 15 September 2021 nightfall 16 September 2021 Sunset 4 October 2022 nightfall 5 October 2022 Sunset 24 September 2023 nightfall 25 September 2023 Sunset 11 October 2024 nightfall 12 October 2024 Sunset 1 October 2025 nightfall 2 October 2025In the Torah EditThe Torah calls the day Yom HaKippurim יו ם ה כ יפ ו ר ים and in it Leviticus 23 27 decrees a strict prohibition of work and affliction of the soul upon the tenth day of the seventh month later known as Tishrei The laws of Yom Kippur are mentioned in three passages in the Torah Leviticus 16 1 34 God told Moses to tell Aaron that he can only enter the sanctuary in front of the cover that is on the ark when God is present on the cover in a cloud If Aaron is to enter otherwise he will die On the tenth day of the seventh month God said that the people must not work in order to cleanse and atone for their sins The Kohen will lead in the atonement of all the people Leviticus 23 26 32 God said to Moses that the tenth day of the month is the day of atonement and will be holy The people must give a fire offering to God and must not work God told Moses that whoever does work God will rid of the soul from its people This is a day of complete rest from the evening of the ninth day of the month to the following evening Numbers 29 7 11 The tenth day of the seventh month is a holy day and one must not work For an elevation offering one must sacrifice a young bull a ram and seven lambs who are a year old As well for a sin offering one must sacrifice a male goat 13 Midrashic interpretation Edit Traditionally Yom Kippur is considered the date on which Moses received the second set of Ten Commandments It occurred following the completion of the second 40 days of instructions from God At this same time the Israelites were granted atonement for the sin of the Golden Calf hence its designation as the Day of Atonement 28 Mishnaic and Talmudic literature EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed September 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message Temple service Edit The following summary of the Temple service is based on the traditional Jewish religious account described in Mishnah tractate Yoma appearing in contemporary traditional Jewish prayer books for Yom Kippur and studied as part of a traditional Jewish Yom Kippur worship service 26 While the Temple in Jerusalem was standing from Biblical times through 70 CE the Kohen Gadol High Priest was mandated by the Torah to perform a complex set of special services and sacrifices for Yom Kippur to attain Divine atonement the word kippur meaning atone in Hebrew These services were considered to be the most important parts of Yom Kippur because through them the Kohen Gadol made atonement for all Jews and the world During the service the Kohen Gadol entered the Holy of Holies in the center of the Temple the only time of the year that anyone went inside Doing so required special purification and preparation including five immersions in a mikveh ritual bath and four changes of clothing citation needed Seven days prior to Yom Kippur the Kohen Gadol was sequestered in the Palhedrin chamber in the Temple where he reviewed studied the service with the sages familiar with the Temple and was sprinkled with spring water containing ashes of the Red Heifer as purification The Talmud Tractate Yoma also reports that he practiced the incense offering ritual in the Avitnas chamber citation needed On the day of Yom Kippur the Kohen Gadol had to follow a precise order of services sacrifices and purifications Morning Tamid offering The Kohen Gadol first performed the regular daily Tamid offering usually performed by ordinary priests in special golden garments after immersing in a mikveh and washing his hands and feet Garment change 1 The Kohen Gadol immersed in a special mikveh in the Temple courtyard and changed into special linen garments and washed his hands and feet twice once after removing the golden garments and once before putting on the linen garments Bull as personal sin offering The Kohen Gadol leaned performed Semikha and made a confession over the bull on behalf of himself and his household pronouncing the Tetragrammaton The people prostrated themselves when they heard He then slaughtered the bull as a chatat sin offering and received its blood in a bowl Lottery of the goats At the Eastern Nikanor gate the Kohen Gadol drew lots from a lottery box over two goats One was selected for the Lord and one for Azazel The Kohen Gadol tied a red band around the horns of the goat for Azazel Incense preparation The Kohen Gadol ascended the mizbeach altar and took a shovel full of embers with a special shovel He was brought incense He filled his hands and placed it in a vessel The Talmud considered this the most physically difficult part of the service as the Kohen Gadol had to keep the shovelful of glowing coals balanced and prevent its contents from dropping using his armpit or teeth while filling his hands with the incense Incense offering Holding the shovel and the vessel he entered the Kadosh Hakadashim the Temple s Holy of Holies In the days of the First Temple he placed the shovel between the poles of the Ark of the Covenant In the days of the Second Temple he put the shovel where the Ark would have been He waited until the chamber filled with smoke and left Sprinkling of bull s blood in the Holy of Holies The Kohen Gadol took the bowl with the bull s blood and entered the Most Holy Place again He sprinkled the bull s blood with his finger eight times before the Ark in the days of the First Temple where it would have been in the days of the Second The Kohen Gadol then left the Holy of Holies putting the bowl on a stand in front of the Parochet curtain separating the Holy from the Holy of Holies Goat for the Lord as a sin offering for Kohanim The Kohen Gadol went to the eastern end of the Israelite courtyard near the Nikanor Gate laid his hands semikha on the goat for the Lord and pronounced confession on behalf of the Kohanim priests The people prostrated themselves when he pronounced the Tetragrammaton He then slaughtered the goat and received its blood in another bowl Sprinkling of goat s blood in the Holy of Holies The Kohen Gadol took the bowl with the goat s blood and entered the Kadosh Hakadashim again He sprinkled the goat s blood with his finger eight times the same way he had sprinkled the bull s blood The blood was sprinkled before the Ark in the days of the First Temple where it would have been in the days of the Second Temple The Kohen Gadol then left the Kadosh Hakadashim putting the bowl on a stand in front of the Parochet curtain separating the Holy from the Holy of Holies Sprinkling of blood in the Holy Standing in the Hekhal Holy on the other side of the Parochet from the Holy of Holies the Kohen Gadol took the bull s blood from the stand and sprinkled it with his finger eight times in the direction of the Parochet He then took the bowl with the goat s blood and sprinkled it eight times in the same manner putting it back on the stand Smearing of blood on the Golden Incense Altar The Kohen Gadol removed the goat s blood from the stand and mixed it with the bull s blood Starting at the northeast corner he then smeared the mixture of blood on each of the four corners of the Golden Incense altar in the Haichal He then sprinkled the blood eight times on the altar Cliffs of Mount Azazel Goat for Azazel The Kohen Gadol left the Haichal and walked to the east side of the Azarah Israelite courtyard Near the Nikanor Gate he leaned his hands Semikha on the goat for Azazel and confessed the sins of the entire people of Israel The people prostrated themselves when he pronounced the Tetragrammaton While he made a general confession individuals in the crowd at the Temple would confess privately The Kohen Gadol then sent the goat off to the wilderness In practice to prevent its return to human habitation the goat was led to a cliff outside Jerusalem and pushed off its edge Preparation of sacrificial animals While the goat for Azazel was being led to the cliff the Kohen Gadol removed the insides of the bull and intertwined the bodies of the bull and goat Other people took the bodies to the Beit HaDeshen place of the ashes They were burned there after it was confirmed that the goat for Azazel had reached the wilderness Reading the Torah After it was confirmed that the goat for Azazel had been pushed off the cliff the Kohen Gadol passed through the Nikanor Gate into the Ezrat Nashim Women s Courtyard and read sections of the Torah describing Yom Kippur and its sacrifices Garment change 2 The Kohen Gadol removed his linen garments immersed in the mikveh in the Temple courtyard and changed into a second set of special golden garments He washed his hands and feet both before removing the linen garments and after putting on the golden ones Offering of rams The Kohen Gadol offered two rams as an olah offering slaughtering them on the north side of the mizbeach outer altar receiving their blood in a bowl carrying the bowl to the outer altar and dashing the blood on the northeast and southwest corners of the Outer Altar He dismembered the rams and burned the parts entirely on the outer altar He then offered the accompanying mincha grain offerings and nesachim wine libations Musaf offering The Kohen Gadol then offered the Musaf offering Burning of innards The Kohen Gadol placed the insides of the bull and goat on the outer altar and burned them entirely Garment change 3 The Kohen Gadol removed his golden garments immersed in the mikveh and changed to a new set of linen garments again washing his hands and feet twice Removal of incense from the Holy of Holies The Kohen Gadol returned to the Holy of Holies and removed the bowl of incense and the shovel Garment change 4 The Kohen Gadol removed his linen garments immersed in the mikveh and changed into a third set of golden garments again washing his hands and feet twice Evening Tamid offering The Kohen Gadol completed the afternoon portion of the regular tamid daily offering in the special golden garments He washed his hands and feet a tenth time The Kohen Gadol wore five sets of garments three golden and two white linen immersed in the mikveh five times and washed his hands and feet ten times Sacrifices included two daily lambs one bull two goats and two rams with accompanying mincha meal offerings wine libations and three incense offerings the regular two daily and an additional one for Yom Kippur The Kohen Gadol entered the Holy of Holies four times The Tetragrammaton was pronounced three times once for each confession 26 Observance in Israel Edit Ayalon Highway in Tel Aviv empty of cars on Yom Kippur 2004 Yom Kippur is a legal holiday in the modern state of Israel There are no radio or television broadcasts airports are shut down there is no public transportation and all shops and businesses are closed 29 In 2013 73 of the Jewish people of Israel said that they were intending to fast on Yom Kippur 30 It is very common in Israel to wish Tsom Kal an easy fast or Tsom Mo il a benefiting fast to everyone before Yom Kippur even if one does not know whether they will fast or not It is considered impolite to eat in public on Yom Kippur or to sound music or to drive a motor vehicle There is no legal prohibition on any of these but in practice such actions are almost universally avoided in Israel during Yom Kippur 31 except for emergency services Over the last few decades bicycle riding and inline skating on the empty streets have become common among secular Israeli youths especially on the eve of Yom Kippur in Tel Aviv 32 In 1973 an air raid siren was sounded on the afternoon of Yom Kippur and radio broadcasts were resumed to alert the public to the surprise attack on Israel by Egypt and Syria that launched the Yom Kippur War Observance by athletes Edit Sandy Koufax Gabe Carimi Some notable athletes have observed Yom Kippur even when it conflicted with playing their sport In baseball Sandy Koufax the Hall of Fame pitcher decided not to pitch Game 1 of the 1965 World Series because it fell on Yom Kippur Koufax garnered national attention for his decision as an example of the conflict between social pressures and personal beliefs 33 Hall of Fame first baseman Hank Greenberg attracted national attention in 1934 nearly three decades earlier when he refused to play baseball on Yom Kippur even though the Tigers were in the middle of a pennant race and he was leading the league in runs batted in 34 The Detroit Free Press columnist and poet Edgar A Guest wrote a poem titled Speaking of Greenberg which ended with the lines We shall miss him on the infield and shall miss him at the bat But he s true to his religion and I honor him for that 35 When Greenberg arrived in synagogue on Yom Kippur the service stopped suddenly and the congregation gave an embarrassed Greenberg a standing ovation 36 Los Angeles Dodgers outfielder Shawn Green similarly made headlines in 2001 for sitting out a game for the first time in 415 games then the longest streak among active players on Yom Kippur even though his team was in the middle of a playoff race 34 Other baseball players who have similarly sat out games on Yom Kippur include former Boston Red Sox and New York Yankees third baseman Kevin Youkilis former Houston Astros catcher and former Los Angeles Angels manager Brad Ausmus and outfielder Art Shamsky 37 38 39 Gabe Carimi the Consensus All American left tackle in American football who won the 2010 Outland Trophy as the nation s top collegiate interior lineman faced a conflict in his freshman year of college in 2007 That year Yom Kippur fell on a Saturday and he fasted until an hour before his football game against Iowa started that night 40 41 42 Carimi said Religion is a part of me and I don t want to just say I m Jewish I actually do make sacrifices that I know are hard choices 40 43 44 In 2004 Matt Bernstein standout fullback at University of Wisconsin Madison fasted on Yom Kippur then broke his fast on the sidelines before rushing for 123 yards in a game against Penn State 45 In 2011 golfer Laetitia Beck declined a request to join the University of North Carolina Tar Heels Invitational competition because it conflicted with Yom Kippur 46 47 Instead she spent the day fasting and praying 46 She said My Judaism is very important to me and on Yom Kippur no matter what I have to fast 46 Boris Gelfand Israel s top chess player played his game in the prestigious London Grand Prix Chess Tournament on 25 September 2012 eve of Yom Kippur earlier to avoid playing on the holiday 48 In 2013 the International Tennis Federation fined the Israel Tennis Association more than 13 000 for the inconvenience of having to reschedule a tennis match between the Israeli and Belgian teams that was originally scheduled on Yom Kippur 49 50 Dudi Sela Israel s 1 player quit his quarterfinal match in the third set of the 2017 Shenzhen Open so he could begin observing Yom Kippur by the time the sun set forfeiting a possible 34 000 in prize money and 90 rankings points 51 52 Professional wrestler Bill Goldberg has notably refused to wrestle a match on Yom Kippur 53 54 Recognition by the United Nations EditSince 2016 the United Nations has officially recognized Yom Kippur stating that from then on no official meetings would take place on the day 55 In addition the United Nations stated that beginning in 2016 they would have nine official holidays and seven floating holidays of which each employee would be able to choose one 55 It stated that the floating holidays will be Yom Kippur Day of Vesak Diwali Gurpurab Orthodox Christmas Orthodox Good Friday and Presidents Day 55 This was the first time the United Nations officially recognized any Jewish holiday 55 Modern scholarship EditAccording to textual scholars the biblical regulations covering Yom Kippur are spliced together from multiple source texts 56 57 as indicated by the duplication of the confession over the bullock 58 and the incongruity in one verse stating that the high priest should not enter the Holy of Holies with the inference that there are exceptions for certain explicitly identified festivals 59 and the next verse indicating that they can enter whenever they wish as long as a specific ritual is carried out first 56 Although Rashi tried to find a harmonistic explanation for this incongruity the Leviticus Rabbah maintains that it was indeed the case that the high priest could enter at any time if these rituals were carried out 60 Textual scholars argue that the ritual is composed from three sources and a couple of redactional additions 56 57 prerequisite rituals before the high priest can enter the Holy of Holies on any occasion namely a sin offering and a whole offering followed by the filling of the Holy of Holies with a cloud of incense while wearing linen garments 61 regulations which establish an annual day of fasting and rest during which the sanctuary and people are purified without stating the ritual for doing so 62 this regulation is very similar to the one in the Holiness Code 63 later elaborations of the ceremony 64 which include the sprinkling of the blood on the mercy seat and the use of a scapegoat sent to Azazel the same source also being responsible for small alterations to related regulations 65 the redactional additions 66 On the basis of their assumptions these scholars believe that the original ceremony was simply the ritual purification of the sanctuary from any accidental ritual impurity at the start of each new year as seen in the Book of Ezekiel Textual scholars date this original ceremony to before the priestly source but after JE 56 67 According to the Book of Ezekiel the sanctuary was to be cleansed by the sprinkling of bullock s blood on the first day of the first and of the seventh months 68 near the start of the civil year and of the ecclesiastical year respectively although the masoretic text of the Book of Ezekiel has the second of these cleansings on the seventh of the first month biblical scholars regard the Septuagint which has the second cleaning as being the first of the seventh month as being more accurate here 56 It appears that during the period that the Holiness Code and the Book of Ezekiel were written the new year began on the tenth day of the seventh month 69 70 and thus liberal biblical scholars believe that by the time the Priestly Code was compiled the date of the new year and of the day of atonement had swapped around 56 See also EditAshura Break fastReferences Edit Wells John C 2008 Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed Longman ISBN 978 1 4058 8118 0 Yom Kippur definition and meaning Collins Ennglish Dictionary www collinsdictionary com Retrieved 2021 01 16 Yom Kippur the meaning of its name Texas Jewish Post 2020 09 24 Retrieved 2021 01 16 Numbers 29 7 a b The High Holidays My Jewish Learning Retrieved September 27 2020 The 120 Day Version Of The Human Story chabad org Retrieved 2021 06 08 a b Yom Kippur Theology and Themes My Jewish Learning Retrieved September 27 2020 Yom Kippur Yisroel Cotlar How Many Sets of Prayers On Yom Kippur Chabad Lubavitch Media Center Retrieved September 27 2020 a b Yom Kippur Prayers The Jewish Agency for Israel Retrieved September 27 2020 Cohen S M Eisen A M The Jew Within Self Family and Community in America p 169 Indiana University Press 2000 For completely uninvolved Jews the question of synagogue attendance rarely arises They are unlikely ever to consider the matter except at Rosh Hashanha and Yom Kippur or to attend a bar or bat mitzvah See also Samuel C Heilman Synagogue Life 1976 Erev Yom Kippur The purpose of the day as seen through Talmudic anecdotes PDF PDF Retrieved March 25 2011 a b c Scherman Nosson Yom Kippur Its Significance Laws and Prayers New York Mesorah Publications 1989 Print a b Why Rabbis wear sneakers on their holiest day Article by Avi Rabinowitz NYU homepages Abrams Judith Yom Kippur A Family Service Minneapolis KAR BEN 1990 Print OU Customs for Erev Yom Kippur Retrieved September 21 2008 Translation of Philip Birnbaum fromHigh Holiday Prayer Book Hebrew Publishing Company NY 1951 Jewish Virtual Library Yom Kippur Retrieved September 21 2008 Halacha L Maaseh Yom Kippur 3 September 2015 Retrieved September 20 2015 a b Rabbi Daniel Kohn My Jewish Learning Prayer Services Retrieved May 22 2017 Green David B September 26 2011 Lawrence A Hoffman and the message of Kol Nidre Haaretz Retrieved September 14 2013 The significance of shofar to Yom Kippur is discussed at Archived copy Archived from the original on October 2 2009 Retrieved July 4 2009 CS1 maint archived copy as title link https reformjudaism org blog 2018 08 30 why we need good sermons now more ever Yoma 85b Maimonodes Mishneh Torah Laws of Teshuva 2 7 a b c Arnold Lustiger Michael Taubes Menachem Genack and Hershel Schachter Kasirer Edition Yom Kippur Machzor With Commentary Adapted from the Teachings of Rabbi Joseph B Soloveitchik New York K hal Publishing 2006 pp 588 589 summary 590 618 Rosh HaShanah and the Gregorian calendar Oztorah com Retrieved September 12 2012 Spiro Rabbi Ken Crash Course in Jewish History Part 12 The Golden Calf Aish HaTorah accessed April 29 2007 Sounds of The City Israel Insider October 14 2005 Archived from the original on February 17 2007 Nachshoni Kobi September 13 2013 Poll 73 of Israelis fast on Yom Kippur Yedioth Ahronoth Archived from the original on August 7 2020 Israel shuts down for Yom Kippur Public Radio International The World Yom Kippur Kids and Bikes in Tel Aviv Theworld org Retrieved 7 March 2015 Solomvits Sandor Yom Kippur and Sandy Koufax JewishSports com Archived from the original on October 18 2006 Retrieved August 2 2010 a b Dreier Peter November 13 2013 How Will Jewish Ballplayers Handle the Yom Kippur Quandry sic Huffingtonpost com Archived from the original on September 21 2019 Retrieved September 14 2013 Came Yom Kippur A Hank Greenberg Poem Baseball Almanac Archived from the original on January 21 2018 Retrieved July 20 2016 Merron Jeff September 26 2001 Green Koufax and Greenberg same dilemma different decisions ESPN Archived from the original on January 29 2019 Retrieved March 25 2011 Brown M Stephen One on One with Kevin Youkilis JewishSports com Archived from the original on May 5 2009 Retrieved June 4 2009 Gammons Peter September 29 2001 Apolitical blues ESPN Retrieved March 18 2010 Where Are They Now Art Shamsky Baseball Savvy September 14 2004 Retrieved September 10 2010 a b Hirsch Deborah December 27 2010 Gabe Carimi Star in shul and on the football field JTA Archived from the original on December 16 2018 Retrieved February 9 2011 Andrea Waxman October 5 2007 Yom Kippur then football Carimi fasts and then tackles The Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle Archived from the original on September 28 2011 Retrieved February 9 2011 Madeline Miller December 17 2010 The Biggest Thing in Jewish Sports UW Gridiron Great Gabe Carimi Hillel org Retrieved March 18 2011 Chris McCoskey February 25 2011 Combine Leftovers Detroit News Archived from the original on July 9 2011 Retrieved March 2 2011 Ellenport Craig February 24 2011 Why is this prospect different from other prospects NFL com Archived from the original on September 30 2017 Retrieved March 2 2011 Ivan Maisel September 27 2004 Bernstein feasted on Penn State after fasting ESPN com Retrieved October 7 2011 a b c Saval Malina October 14 2011 Golf Israelis abroad Beck follows in Koufax s footsteps Haaretz Retrieved September 17 2013 Soclof Adam October 7 2011 The original Sandy Koufax of women s golf Jewish Telegraphic Agency Retrieved September 17 2013 Gelfand and Grischuk winners in 4th round London Grand Prix ChessVibes Archived from the original on September 26 2013 Retrieved September 14 2013 Israeli tennis players fined for sitting out Yom Kippur The Times of Israel 12 August 2013 Retrieved 6 June 2015 Yom Kippur Day of Atonement Israeli Tennis Star Dudi Sela Quits Mid Match For Yom Kippur The Forward 2017 10 01 Archived from the original on 2020 09 27 Retrieved 2020 09 27 Vickers Craig 2017 09 29 Dudi Sela retires mid match in Shenzhen for Yom Kippur VAVEL Archived from the original on 2020 09 27 Retrieved 2020 09 27 Handler Judd The Hebrew Hulk San Diego Jewish Journal Archived from the original on October 3 2009 Rick Reilly Wrestling with Their Son s Career Sports Illustrated a b c d Tal Trachtman Alroy 19 December 2015 U N recognizes Yom Kippur as official holiday CNN com a b c d e f Singer Isidore et al eds 1901 1906 Atonement Day of The Jewish Encyclopedia New York Funk amp Wagnalls a b Cheyne and Black Encyclopedia Biblica full citation needed Leviticus 16 6 Leviticus 16 2 Leviticus Rabbah 21 Leviticus 16 1 16 3 4 16 12 13 16 34 b Leviticus 16 29 34 a Leviticus 23 27 31 Leviticus 16 5 16 7 10 16 14 28 Exodus 30 10 Leviticus 25 9 Leviticus 16 2 16 6 16 11 Friedman Richard Elliot 1989 Who wrote the Bible Perennial Library ISBN 9780060972141 Ezekiel 45 18 20 Leviticus 25 9 Ezekiel 40 1External links EditLook up Yom Kippur in Wiktionary the free dictionary Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yom Kippur Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur Prayers for Sephardic Jews From Our Collections Marking the New Year Online exhibition from Yad Vashem on the celebration of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur before during and after the Holocaust Dates for Yom Kippur Yom Kippur Prayers sung by Chazzanim More information on Yom Kippur Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yom Kippur amp oldid 1049544520, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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