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Youth suicide

"Teen suicide" redirects here. For the indie rock band, see Teen Suicide (band).
The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate.(January 2011) ()

Youth suicide is when a young person, generally categorized as someone below the legal age of majority, deliberately ends their own life. Rates of attempted and completed youth suicide in Western societies and other countries are high. Youth suicide attempts are more common among girls, but adolescent males are the ones who usually carry out suicide. Suicide rates in youths have nearly tripled between the 1960s and 1980s. For example, in Australia suicide is second only to motor vehicle accidents as its leading cause of death for people aged 15–25, and according to the National Institute for Mental Health, suicide is the third leading cause of death among teens in the United States.[full citation needed]

Contents

According to research conducted by the Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian in 2007, 39% of all youth suicides are completed by young people who have lost someone of influence or significance to them to suicide. The Commission terms this suicide contagion and makes several recommendations as to the importance of safeguarding young people and communities from suicide contagion.

In 2011 the Australian Federal Parliament Standing Committee for Health and Ageing Inquiry into Youth Suicide met in a round table forum with young representatives from three organizations at the forefront of preventing youth suicide. These organizations included Sunnykids, Inspire, and Boys Town. The Standing Committee has since released a discussion paper highlighting the findings of their inquiry and will seek to make final recommendations on the most effective means for reducing youth suicide.

Teens at risk

One of the problems facing teenagers at risk of suicide is getting psychiatric counseling when it is needed. One research at the beginning of 2020 shows that Compared with older adolescents, younger adolescents particularly agree that increased cyberbullying and despair are very important factors influencing suicide among adolescents. One study says, "In teenagers, depression is considered a major – if not the leading – cause of teen suicide." Factors and risks contributed to youth suicide are academic pressure, alcohol consumption, the loss of a valued relationship, frequent change of residency, and poor family patterns. Harassment is a leading cause of teen suicide, along with abuse. Gay teens or those unsure of their sexual identity are more likely to die by suicide, particularly if they have suffered bullying or harassment, as discussed next. The following campaigns have been started in hopes of giving teens hope and abolishing the feeling of isolation.

Lack of impulse control has been found to differentiate adolescent suicide attempters from a control group of adolescents with an acute illness (Slap, Vorters, Chaudhuri, & Centor, 1988). However, impulsivity does not characterize all suicide attempters, since group comparisons have found no differences between suicidal patients and psychiatric controls on a measure of cognitive impulsivity (Patsiokas, Clum, & Luscomb, 1979). Instead, impulsivity may be important in identifying high-risk subgroups.

Sexual minority youth and suicide

Youth that fall under the category of sexual minorities are at an elevated risk of depression and succumbing to self-harm. Among the population of sexual minority youth, on average, 28% explain having past experiences with suicidal actions and/or thoughts. Lesbian and gay youth are the group most likely to face negative experiences, leading to a higher likelihood of the development of suicidal thoughts according to mental care professionals. Bisexuality also carries a higher likelihood of suicidality with bisexuals being five times more likely to report suicidal thoughts and actions. Sexual minority youth also report a higher incidence of substance abuse when compared to heterosexuals. Overall, studies suggest that sexual minority youth carry a higher incidence of suicide and depression, and that reforms centered on alleviating minority stigma attenuate this disparity.

Previous exposure, attempts, and age impacting youth suicide

Exposure to suicide, previous attempts of suicide, and age are some of the most influential factors of young individuals and their probability of dying by suicide. Adolescent exposure to suicide through classmates has caused researchers to hypothesize suicide as a contagion. They note how a child's exposure to suicide predicts suicide ideation and attempts. Previous exposure to suicide through parental attempts have also been found to have a 3.5 increase in a youth's probability of having suicidal thoughts, with a 2.6 increased chance of them attempting suicide. Aggression in families and its transference can be one of the main causes of transmission of suicidal tendencies in families.

Previous attempts of suicide also play a major role in a youth attempting suicide again. On average, it has been recorded that the follow-up period for suicide-attempters was 3.88 years. Evidence shows those most at risk for suicide are those who previously attempted suicide, with research showing that they can have anywhere from a 40 to over a 100 times higher chance of dying by suicide compared to the general population.

Age and experience also factor in suicide. It has been found that older, more experienced populations take more time to plan, choose deadlier methods, and have greater suicidal intent. This results in them eventually committing suicide at a higher rate than their younger counterparts.

Bereavement among young people

The primary goals of suicide postvention include assisting the survivors of suicide with the grief process, along with identifying and referring those survivors who may be at risk for negative outcomes such as depressive and anxiety disorders, and suicidal behavior. With 42% of completed youth suicides being suicide bereavement (or contagion) related – further research and investment must be made into supporting this group of people. A few suggestions to make sure the support is effective include making the individuals feel connected and understood.[citation needed]

Two possible determinants to suicide attempts are lifetime sexual abuse and adult physical violence. Among participants aged 18–25, the odds ratios for lifetime sexual abuse and adult physical violence are 4.27 and 3.85, respectively. In other words, those who died by suicide are 327% more likely to have experienced lifetime sexual assault. Similarly, a suicide victim is 285% more likely to have suffered physical violence as an adult. Based on a survey done on American high school students, 16% reported considering suicide and 8% reported attempting suicide sometime within the 12 months before taking the survey. Between 1980 and 1994, the suicide rates of young black males doubled. American Indians and Alaska Natives die by suicide at a higher rate than any other ethnic group in the United States. In India, one-third of suicides are young people 15–29. In 2002, 154,000 suicides were recorded in India. In the United States, about 60 percent of suicides are carried out with a gun. Some Aboriginal teens and gay or lesbian teens are at high risk, depending on their community and their own self-esteem. Several campaigns have been started to give them hope and help them to feel less isolated.

One organization in Australia has found that young people who feel connected, supported, and understood are less likely to die by suicide. Reports on the attitudes of young people identified as at risk of suicide have been released. Such reports support the notion that connectedness, a sense of being supported and respected, is a protective factor for young people at risk of suicide. According to Pueblo Suicide Prevention Center (PSPC) for some reason kids today are experiencing more pressure.[citation needed]

For immediate help, contact SAMHSA's National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255).

Issues for communities

Intervention issues for communities to address include suicide contagion, developmental understanding of suicide, development and suicide risk, and the influence of culture. Key matters in postvention responses for young people include: community context, life stage relevance of responses, identification, and referral (Postvention Co-ordination), developing a suite of services, and creating ongoing options.

Crisis hotlines, such as the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline, enable people to get immediate emergency telephone counselling.

One can help prevent adolescent suicide by discouraging isolation, addressing a child's depression which is correlated with suicide, getting rid of any objects that a child could use to attempt suicide, and simply paying attention to what the child does or feels.

Schools are a great place to provide more education and support for suicide prevention. Since students spend the majority of their time at school, the school can be either a haven from or a source of suicidal triggers, and students' peers can heavily influence their state of mind. The school setting is an ideal environment to educate students on suicide and have support readily available.[citation needed]

Suicide Prevention Resource Center provides professional information and resources on suicide prevention.

Prevention resources for parents, guardians, social workers, teachers, school staff, peers:

National Suicide Prevention Lifeline for Youth provides resources and information for teens and adolescents such as:

Country Year of Data Rate of Males Rate of Females Total
Sri Lanka 1986 43.9 49.3 46.5
Lithuania 2002 38.4 8.8 23.9
Russian Federation 2002 38.5 8.3 23.6
Kazakhstan 2002 31.2 10.5 21.0
Luxembourg 2002 23.5 8.2 16.0
New Zealand 2000 22.3 8.2 15.3
El Salvador 1993 13.2 15.8 14.5
Belarus 2001 23.6 3.9 14.0
Estonia 2002 24.1 1.9 13.2
Turkmenistan 1998 16.6 8.8 12.8
Ukraine 2000 19.6 4.9 12.4
Ireland 2000 19.8 4.3 12.3
Mauritius 2000 10.1 12.5 11.3
Norway 2001 15.3 6.2 10.9
Canada 2000 16.3 5.2 10.8
Latvia 2002 16.9 4.4 10.8
Kyrgyzstan 2002 15.2 4.8 10.0
Austria 2002 15.1 3.8 9.6
Trinidad and Tobago 1994 8.9 10.5 9.6
Finland 2002 15.0 3.8 9.5
Uzbekistan 2000 12.5 6.4 9.5
Belgium 1997 14.5 3.9 9.3
Cuba 1996 6.1 12.5 9.2
Ecuador 1991 6.9 11.4 9.1
Australia 2001 13.8 3.8 8.9
Singapore 2001 9.2 7.8 8.5
Poland 2001 14.1 2.4 8.4
Switzerland 2000 12.6 4.0 8.4
Croatia 2002 14.0 2.1 8.2
USA 2000 13.0 2.7 8.0
Slovenia 1987 12.0 3.1 7.6
Hungary 2002 11.2 3.8 7.5
Japan 2000 8.8 3.8 6.4
Uruguay 1990 8.3 3.9 6.2
Bulgaria 2002 9.2 2.3 5.8
Czech Republic 2001 9.5 1.8 5.7
Argentina 1996 7.1 4.0 5.6
Costa Rica 1995 7.1 4.0 5.6
Germany 2001 8.7 2.4 5.6
Thailand 1994 6.1 5.1 5.6
Colombia 1994 6.7 4.2 5.5
Venezuela 1994 7.1 3.8 5.5
Republic of Korea 2001 5.9 4.9 5.4
Hong Kong 1999 5.1 5.3 5.2
France 1999 7.5 2.5 5.0
Denmark 1999 9.0 0.7 4.9
Israel 1999 8.7 0.0 4.9
Romania 2002 7.0 2.2 4.7
Netherlands 2000 7.4 1.8 4.6
Sweden 2001 5.7 2.8 4.3
Brazil* 1995 5.7 2.6 4.2
Puerto Rico 1992 8.3 0.0 4.2
United Kingdom 1999 6.5 1.8 4.2
Republic of Moldova 2002 7.1 1.1 4.1
China* 1999 3.2 4.8 4.0
Slovakia 2002 5.8 1.9 3.9
Chile 1994 6.2 1.3 3.8
Mexico 1995 5.1 2.3 3.7
Spain 2000 5.3 1.4 3.4
Panama 1987 4.6 1.6 3.1
Albania 2001 2.8 3.3 3.0
Dominican Republic 1985 2.7 3.2 2.9
Italy 2000 3.6 1.7 2.7
Macedonia 2000 1.2 3.7 2.4
Tajikistan 1999 3.3 0.9 2.1
Portugal 2000 2.6 0.9 1.8
Greece 1999 2.7 0.6 1.7
Peru 1983 1.3 0.7 1.0

Information taken from World Psychiatry, the official journal of the World Psychiatric Association. Numbers are per 100,000.

  1. "Youth Suicide Risk and Preventive Interventions: A Review of the Past 10 Years". Research Update Review.
  2. Kastenbaum, Robert J. (2012). Death, Society, and Human Experience. Boston: Pearson. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-205-00108-8.
  3. Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian
  4. National Institute [for] Mental Health
  5. Iype, George. South India: World's suicide capital. Rediff, 2004-04-15. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
  6. SunnyKids 2010
  7. Federal Parliament Health and Ageing Standing Committee Inquiry into Youth Suicide Archived January 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  8. [1]The Globe and Mail, 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
  9. "Contemporary Characteristics and Lethality Correlates of Serious Suicide Attempts in Children and Adolescents". login.proxy.library.nyu.edu. doi:10.1111/sltb.12615. Retrieved2020-10-27.
  10. [2]"Teen Suicide Causes and Issues," Retrieved 2012-04-26.
  11. Kastenbaum, Robert J. (2012). Death, Society, and Human Experience. Boston: Pearson. pp. 199–200. ISBN 978-0-205-00108-8.
  12. Rick Mercer joins the It Gets Better campaign. CBC News, 2010-11-02. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
  13. Born This Way Paul V. creates a safe online haven for LGBT teens as a suicide prevention measure. Huffington Post, 2011-10-12. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
  14. [3] Kiwi Commons created the “I Get Bullied Too!” campaign to help amplify the voices of bullying and digital abuse victims, 2011-10-01. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  15. "Stop Youth Suicide Campaign". www.stopyouthsuicide.com. Retrieved2018-01-28.
  16. Marshal, Michael P.; Dietz, Laura J.; Friedman, Mark S.; Stall, Ron; Smith, Helen A.; McGinley, James; Thoma, Brian C.; Murray, Pamela J.; D'Augelli, Anthony R. (August 2011). "Suicidality and Depression Disparities Between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review". Journal of Adolescent Health. 49 (2): 115–123. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.02.005. PMC3649127. PMID 21783042.
  17. Kennedy, Andrew; Genç, Murat; Owen, P. Dorian (2021). "The Association Between Same-Sex Marriage Legalization and Youth Deaths by Suicide: A Multimethod Counterfactual Analysis". Journal of Adolescent Health. 68 (6): 1176–1182. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.01.033. ISSN 1054-139X. PMID 33812751.
  18. Swanson, Sonja; Colman, Ian. "Association between exposure to suicide and suicidality outcomes in youth". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 185.10: 870.
  19. Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas (2012). "Exposure to Parental Mortality and Markers of Morbidity, and the Risks of Attempted and Completed Suicide in Offspring: an Analysis of Sensitive Life Periods". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 66 (3): 233–239. doi:10.1136/jech.2010.109595. PMID 20924054.
  20. Hawton, K., Saunders, K. E., & O'Connor, R. C. (2012). Self-harm and suicide in adolescents. The Lancet, 379(9834), 2373–2382.
  21. Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Borge (2007). "Risk Of Repetition Of Suicide Attempt, Suicide Or All Deaths After An Episode Of Attempted Suicide: A Register-Based Survival Analysis". Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 41.3 (3): 257–265. doi:10.1080/00048670601172749. PMID 17464707.
  22. Upadhyaya, Ajaya. "Attempted Suicide in Older Depressed Patients: Effect of Cognitive Functioning". The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: 317–20.
  23. Gysin-Maillart, Anja (2016). "A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-Months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP)". PLOS Medicine. 13 (3): e1001968. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001968. PMC4773217. PMID 26930055.
  24. Fraser, Sarah; Geofroy, Dominique; Chachamovich, Eduardo (3 April 2015). "Changing Rates of Suicide Ideation and Attempts Among Inuit Youth: A Gender-Based Analysis of Risk and Protective Factors". Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 45 (2): 141–156. doi:10.1111/sltb.12122. PMID 25255825.
  25. "Suicide Among Youth | Gateway to Health Communication | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved2016-10-26.
  26. Woodward, John (2005). Teen Suicide. Greenhaven: Szumski. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7377-2428-8.
  27. Head High Fact Sheet 1 Archived August 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  28. "Home". suicidepreventionlifeline.org. Retrieved2019-11-20.
  29. "Teen suicide: What parents need to know – Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org. Retrieved2016-10-26.
  30. "The Trevor Project — Saving Young LGBTQ Lives". The Trevor Project. Retrieved2019-11-20.
  31. "You Matter". youmatter.suicidepreventionlifeline.org. Retrieved2019-11-20.
  32. "StopBullying.gov". StopBullying.gov. Retrieved2019-11-20.
  33. "Home – loveisrespect". Loveisrespect.org. Retrieved2019-11-20.
  34. WASSERMAN, DANUTA; CHENG, QI; JIANG, GUO-XIN (June 2005). "Global suicide rates among young people aged 15–19". World Psychiatry. 4 (2): 114–120. ISSN 1723-8617. PMC1414751. PMID 16633527.

Youth suicide
Youth suicide Language Watch Edit Teen suicide redirects here For the indie rock band see Teen Suicide band The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject You may improve this article discuss the issue on the talk page or create a new article as appropriate January 2011 Learn how and when to remove this template message Youth suicide is when a young person generally categorized as someone below the legal age of majority deliberately ends their own life Rates of attempted and completed youth suicide in Western societies and other countries are high Youth suicide attempts are more common among girls but adolescent males are the ones who usually carry out suicide 1 Suicide rates in youths have nearly tripled between the 1960s and 1980s 2 For example in Australia suicide is second only to motor vehicle accidents as its leading cause of death for people aged 15 25 3 and according to the National Institute for Mental Health suicide is the third leading cause of death among teens in the United States 4 full citation needed 5 Contents 1 Suicide contagion 1 1 Teens at risk 1 2 Sexual minority youth and suicide 1 3 Previous exposure attempts and age impacting youth suicide 1 4 Bereavement among young people 2 Epidemiology 3 Intervention 3 1 Issues for communities 4 Prevention 5 Table of youth suicide rates per 100 000 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksSuicide contagion EditAccording to research conducted by the Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian in 2007 39 of all youth suicides are completed by young people who have lost someone of influence or significance to them to suicide The Commission terms this suicide contagion and makes several recommendations as to the importance of safeguarding young people and communities from suicide contagion In 2011 the Australian Federal Parliament Standing Committee for Health and Ageing Inquiry into Youth Suicide met in a round table forum with young representatives from three organizations at the forefront of preventing youth suicide These organizations included Sunnykids 6 Inspire and Boys Town The Standing Committee has since released a discussion paper highlighting the findings of their inquiry 7 and will seek to make final recommendations on the most effective means for reducing youth suicide Teens at risk Edit One of the problems facing teenagers at risk of suicide is getting psychiatric counseling when it is needed 8 One research at the beginning of 2020 shows that Compared with older adolescents younger adolescents particularly agree that increased cyberbullying and despair are very important factors influencing suicide among adolescents 9 One study says In teenagers depression is considered a major if not the leading cause of teen suicide 10 Factors and risks contributed to youth suicide are academic pressure alcohol consumption the loss of a valued relationship frequent change of residency and poor family patterns 11 Harassment is a leading cause of teen suicide along with abuse Gay teens or those unsure of their sexual identity are more likely to die by suicide particularly if they have suffered bullying or harassment as discussed next The following campaigns have been started in hopes of giving teens hope and abolishing the feeling of isolation It Gets Better 12 Born This Way 13 I Get Bullied Too 14 Stop Youth Suicide 15 Lack of impulse control has been found to differentiate adolescent suicide attempters from a control group of adolescents with an acute illness Slap Vorters Chaudhuri amp Centor 1988 However impulsivity does not characterize all suicide attempters since group comparisons have found no differences between suicidal patients and psychiatric controls on a measure of cognitive impulsivity Patsiokas Clum amp Luscomb 1979 Instead impulsivity may be important in identifying high risk subgroups Sexual minority youth and suicide Edit Youth that fall under the category of sexual minorities are at an elevated risk of depression and succumbing to self harm Among the population of sexual minority youth on average 28 explain having past experiences with suicidal actions and or thoughts 16 Lesbian and gay youth are the group most likely to face negative experiences leading to a higher likelihood of the development of suicidal thoughts according to mental care professionals 16 Bisexuality also carries a higher likelihood of suicidality with bisexuals being five times more likely to report suicidal thoughts and actions 16 Sexual minority youth also report a higher incidence of substance abuse when compared to heterosexuals 16 Overall studies suggest that sexual minority youth carry a higher incidence of suicide and depression and that reforms centered on alleviating minority stigma attenuate this disparity 17 Previous exposure attempts and age impacting youth suicide Edit Exposure to suicide previous attempts of suicide and age are some of the most influential factors of young individuals and their probability of dying by suicide Adolescent exposure to suicide through classmates has caused researchers to hypothesize suicide as a contagion They note how a child s exposure to suicide predicts suicide ideation and attempts 18 Previous exposure to suicide through parental attempts have also been found to have a 3 5 increase in a youth s probability of having suicidal thoughts with a 2 6 increased chance of them attempting suicide 19 Aggression in families and its transference can be one of the main causes of transmission of suicidal tendencies in families 20 Previous attempts of suicide also play a major role in a youth attempting suicide again On average it has been recorded that the follow up period for suicide attempters was 3 88 years 21 Evidence shows those most at risk for suicide are those who previously attempted suicide with research showing that they can have anywhere from a 40 to over a 100 times higher chance of dying by suicide compared to the general population 22 Age and experience also factor in suicide It has been found that older more experienced populations take more time to plan choose deadlier methods and have greater suicidal intent This results in them eventually committing suicide at a higher rate than their younger counterparts 23 Bereavement among young people Edit The primary goals of suicide postvention include assisting the survivors of suicide with the grief process along with identifying and referring those survivors who may be at risk for negative outcomes such as depressive and anxiety disorders and suicidal behavior With 42 of completed youth suicides being suicide bereavement or contagion related further research and investment must be made into supporting this group of people A few suggestions to make sure the support is effective include making the individuals feel connected and understood citation needed Epidemiology EditTwo possible determinants to suicide attempts are lifetime sexual abuse and adult physical violence 24 Among participants aged 18 25 the odds ratios for lifetime sexual abuse and adult physical violence are 4 27 and 3 85 24 respectively In other words those who died by suicide are 327 more likely to have experienced lifetime sexual assault Similarly a suicide victim is 285 more likely to have suffered physical violence as an adult Based on a survey done on American high school students 16 reported considering suicide and 8 reported attempting suicide sometime within the 12 months before taking the survey 25 Between 1980 and 1994 the suicide rates of young black males doubled American Indians and Alaska Natives die by suicide at a higher rate than any other ethnic group in the United States 26 In India one third of suicides are young people 15 29 In 2002 154 000 suicides were recorded in India In the United States about 60 percent of suicides are carried out with a gun Some Aboriginal teens and gay or lesbian teens are at high risk depending on their community and their own self esteem Several campaigns have been started to give them hope and help them to feel less isolated Intervention EditOne organization in Australia has found that young people who feel connected supported and understood are less likely to die by suicide Reports on the attitudes of young people identified as at risk of suicide have been released 27 Such reports support the notion that connectedness a sense of being supported and respected is a protective factor for young people at risk of suicide According to Pueblo Suicide Prevention Center PSPC for some reason kids today are experiencing more pressure citation needed For immediate help contact SAMHSA s National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1 800 273 TALK 8255 28 Issues for communities Edit Intervention issues for communities to address include suicide contagion developmental understanding of suicide development and suicide risk and the influence of culture Key matters in postvention responses for young people include community context life stage relevance of responses identification and referral Postvention Co ordination developing a suite of services and creating ongoing options Prevention Edit Crisis hotlines such as the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline enable people to get immediate emergency telephone counselling One can help prevent adolescent suicide by discouraging isolation addressing a child s depression which is correlated with suicide getting rid of any objects that a child could use to attempt suicide and simply paying attention to what the child does or feels 29 Schools are a great place to provide more education and support for suicide prevention Since students spend the majority of their time at school the school can be either a haven from or a source of suicidal triggers and students peers can heavily influence their state of mind The school setting is an ideal environment to educate students on suicide and have support readily available citation needed Suicide Prevention Resource Center provides professional information and resources on suicide prevention Prevention resources for parents guardians social workers teachers school staff peers Sibshops Youth Mental Health First Aid More can be found on U S Department of Health amp Human Services website for Mental Health in Adolescent National Suicide Prevention Lifeline for Youth provides resources and information for teens and adolescents such as The Trevor Project 30 You Matter 31 StopBullying gov 32 Love is Respect 33 Ditch the LabelTable of youth suicide rates per 100 000 EditCountry Year of Data Rate of Males Rate of Females TotalSri Lanka 1986 43 9 49 3 46 5Lithuania 2002 38 4 8 8 23 9Russian Federation 2002 38 5 8 3 23 6Kazakhstan 2002 31 2 10 5 21 0Luxembourg 2002 23 5 8 2 16 0New Zealand 2000 22 3 8 2 15 3El Salvador 1993 13 2 15 8 14 5Belarus 2001 23 6 3 9 14 0Estonia 2002 24 1 1 9 13 2Turkmenistan 1998 16 6 8 8 12 8Ukraine 2000 19 6 4 9 12 4Ireland 2000 19 8 4 3 12 3Mauritius 2000 10 1 12 5 11 3Norway 2001 15 3 6 2 10 9Canada 2000 16 3 5 2 10 8Latvia 2002 16 9 4 4 10 8Kyrgyzstan 2002 15 2 4 8 10 0Austria 2002 15 1 3 8 9 6Trinidad and Tobago 1994 8 9 10 5 9 6Finland 2002 15 0 3 8 9 5Uzbekistan 2000 12 5 6 4 9 5Belgium 1997 14 5 3 9 9 3Cuba 1996 6 1 12 5 9 2Ecuador 1991 6 9 11 4 9 1Australia 2001 13 8 3 8 8 9Singapore 2001 9 2 7 8 8 5Poland 2001 14 1 2 4 8 4Switzerland 2000 12 6 4 0 8 4Croatia 2002 14 0 2 1 8 2USA 2000 13 0 2 7 8 0Slovenia 1987 12 0 3 1 7 6Hungary 2002 11 2 3 8 7 5Japan 2000 8 8 3 8 6 4Uruguay 1990 8 3 3 9 6 2Bulgaria 2002 9 2 2 3 5 8Czech Republic 2001 9 5 1 8 5 7Argentina 1996 7 1 4 0 5 6Costa Rica 1995 7 1 4 0 5 6Germany 2001 8 7 2 4 5 6Thailand 1994 6 1 5 1 5 6Colombia 1994 6 7 4 2 5 5Venezuela 1994 7 1 3 8 5 5Republic of Korea 2001 5 9 4 9 5 4Hong Kong 1999 5 1 5 3 5 2France 1999 7 5 2 5 5 0Denmark 1999 9 0 0 7 4 9Israel 1999 8 7 0 0 4 9Romania 2002 7 0 2 2 4 7Netherlands 2000 7 4 1 8 4 6Sweden 2001 5 7 2 8 4 3Brazil 1995 5 7 2 6 4 2Puerto Rico 1992 8 3 0 0 4 2United Kingdom 1999 6 5 1 8 4 2Republic of Moldova 2002 7 1 1 1 4 1China 1999 3 2 4 8 4 0Slovakia 2002 5 8 1 9 3 9Chile 1994 6 2 1 3 3 8Mexico 1995 5 1 2 3 3 7Spain 2000 5 3 1 4 3 4Panama 1987 4 6 1 6 3 1Albania 2001 2 8 3 3 3 0Dominican Republic 1985 2 7 3 2 2 9Italy 2000 3 6 1 7 2 7Macedonia 2000 1 2 3 7 2 4Tajikistan 1999 3 3 0 9 2 1Portugal 2000 2 6 0 9 1 8Greece 1999 2 7 0 6 1 7Peru 1983 1 3 0 7 1 0 Information taken from World Psychiatry the official journal of the World Psychiatric Association 34 Numbers are per 100 000 See also EditSuicide among LGBT youth Depression in childhood and adolescence List of suicides that have been attributed to bullyingReferences Edit Youth Suicide Risk and Preventive Interventions A Review of the Past 10 Years Research Update Review Kastenbaum Robert J 2012 Death Society and Human Experience Boston Pearson p 198 ISBN 978 0 205 00108 8 Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian National Institute for Mental Health Iype George South India World s suicide capital Rediff 2004 04 15 Retrieved 2011 10 13 SunnyKids 2010 Federal Parliament Health and Ageing Standing Committee Inquiry into Youth Suicide Archived January 8 2011 at the Wayback Machine 1 The Globe and Mail 2011 09 28 Retrieved 2011 10 13 Contemporary Characteristics and Lethality Correlates of Serious Suicide Attempts in Children and Adolescents login proxy library nyu edu doi 10 1111 sltb 12615 Retrieved 2020 10 27 2 Teen Suicide Causes and Issues Retrieved 2012 04 26 Kastenbaum Robert J 2012 Death Society and Human Experience Boston Pearson pp 199 200 ISBN 978 0 205 00108 8 Rick Mercer joins the It Gets Better campaign CBC News 2010 11 02 Retrieved 2011 10 13 Born This Way Paul V creates a safe online haven for LGBT teens as a suicide prevention measure Huffington Post 2011 10 12 Retrieved 2011 10 13 3 Kiwi Commons created the I Get Bullied Too campaign to help amplify the voices of bullying and digital abuse victims 2011 10 01 Retrieved 2011 12 02 Stop Youth Suicide Campaign www stopyouthsuicide com Retrieved 2018 01 28 a b c d Marshal Michael P Dietz Laura J Friedman Mark S Stall Ron Smith Helen A McGinley James Thoma Brian C Murray Pamela J D Augelli Anthony R August 2011 Suicidality and Depression Disparities Between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth A Meta Analytic Review Journal of Adolescent Health 49 2 115 123 doi 10 1016 j jadohealth 2011 02 005 PMC 3649127 PMID 21783042 Kennedy Andrew Genc Murat Owen P Dorian 2021 The Association Between Same Sex Marriage Legalization and Youth Deaths by Suicide A Multimethod Counterfactual Analysis Journal of Adolescent Health 68 6 1176 1182 doi 10 1016 j jadohealth 2021 01 033 ISSN 1054 139X PMID 33812751 Swanson Sonja Colman Ian Association between exposure to suicide and suicidality outcomes in youth Canadian Medical Association Journal 185 10 870 Niederkrotenthaler Thomas 2012 Exposure to Parental Mortality and Markers of Morbidity and the Risks of Attempted and Completed Suicide in Offspring an Analysis of Sensitive Life Periods Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 66 3 233 239 doi 10 1136 jech 2010 109595 PMID 20924054 Hawton K Saunders K E amp O Connor R C 2012 Self harm and suicide in adolescents The Lancet 379 9834 2373 2382 Christiansen Erik Jensen Borge 2007 Risk Of Repetition Of Suicide Attempt Suicide Or All Deaths After An Episode Of Attempted Suicide A Register Based Survival Analysis Australian amp New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 41 3 3 257 265 doi 10 1080 00048670601172749 PMID 17464707 Upadhyaya Ajaya Attempted Suicide in Older Depressed Patients Effect of Cognitive Functioning The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 317 20 Gysin Maillart Anja 2016 A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide A 24 Months Follow Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program ASSIP PLOS Medicine 13 3 e1001968 doi 10 1371 journal pmed 1001968 PMC 4773217 PMID 26930055 a b Fraser Sarah Geofroy Dominique Chachamovich Eduardo 3 April 2015 Changing Rates of Suicide Ideation and Attempts Among Inuit Youth A Gender Based Analysis of Risk and Protective Factors Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior 45 2 141 156 doi 10 1111 sltb 12122 PMID 25255825 Suicide Among Youth Gateway to Health Communication CDC www cdc gov Retrieved 2016 10 26 Woodward John 2005 Teen Suicide Greenhaven Szumski p 10 ISBN 978 0 7377 2428 8 Head High Fact Sheet 1 Archived August 23 2011 at the Wayback Machine Home suicidepreventionlifeline org Retrieved 2019 11 20 Teen suicide What parents need to know Mayo Clinic www mayoclinic org Retrieved 2016 10 26 The Trevor Project Saving Young LGBTQ Lives The Trevor Project Retrieved 2019 11 20 You Matter youmatter suicidepreventionlifeline org Retrieved 2019 11 20 StopBullying gov StopBullying gov Retrieved 2019 11 20 Home loveisrespect Loveisrespect org Retrieved 2019 11 20 WASSERMAN DANUTA CHENG QI JIANG GUO XIN June 2005 Global suicide rates among young people aged 15 19 World Psychiatry 4 2 114 120 ISSN 1723 8617 PMC 1414751 PMID 16633527 External links EditYour Life Counts Canada Suicide Prevention Lifeline U S The It Gets Better Project created by Dan Savage Reducing Youth Suicide in Queensland Report on early intervention programs aimed at preventing youth suicide Australia Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Youth suicide amp oldid 1044688230, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

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