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Iota subscript

The iota subscript is a diacritic mark in the Greek alphabet shaped like a small vertical stroke or miniature iotaι⟩ placed below the letter. It can occur with the vowel letters etaη⟩, omega ⟨ω⟩, and alphaα⟩. It represents the former presence of an[i] offglide after the vowel, forming a so‐called "long diphthong". Such diphthongs (i.e.,ηι, ωι, ᾱι)—phonologically distinct from the corresponding normal or "short" diphthongs (i.e.,ει, οι, ᾰι )—were a feature of ancient Greek in the pre-classical and classical eras.

Iota subscripts in the wordᾠδῇ, ("ode", dative)

The offglide was gradually lost in pronunciation, a process that started already during the classical period and continued during the Hellenistic period, with the result that, from approximately the 1st century BC onwards, the former long diphthongs were no longer distinguished in pronunciation from the simple long vowels (long monophthongs)η, ω, ᾱ respectively.

During the Roman and Byzantine eras, the iota, now mute, was sometimes still written as a normal letter but was often simply left out. The iota subscript was invented by Byzantine philologists in the 12th century AD as an editorial symbol marking the places where such spelling variation occurred.

The alternative practice, of writing the mute iota not under, but next to the preceding vowel, is known as iota adscript. In mixed-case environments, it is represented either as a slightly reduced iota (smaller than regular lowercase iota), or as a full-sized lowercase iota. In the latter case, it can be recognized as iota adscript by the fact that it never carries any diacritics (breathing marks, accents).

In uppercase-only environments, it is represented again either as slightly reduced iota (smaller than regular lowercase iota), or as a full-sized uppercase Iota. In digital environments, and for linguistic reasons also in all other environments, the representation as a slightly reduced iota is recommended. There are Unicode codepoints for all Greek vowels with iota adscript (for example,U+1FBCGREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA WITH PROSGEGRAMMENI), allowing for easy implementation of that recommendation in digital environments.

Contents

In Greek, the subscript is calledὑπογεγραμμένη (hupogegramménē), the perfect passive participle form of the verbὑπογράφω (hupográphō), "to write below". Analogously, the adscript is calledπροσγεγραμμένη (prosgegramménē), from the verbπροσγράφω (prosgráphō), "to write next (to something), to add in writing".

The Greek names are grammatically feminine participle forms because in medieval Greek the name of the letter iota, to which they implicitly refer, was sometimes construed as a feminine noun (unlike in classical and in modern Greek, where it is neuter). The Greek terms, transliterated according to their modern pronunciation as ypogegrammeni and prosgegrammeni respectively, were also chosen for use in character names in the computer encoding standard Unicode.

As a phonological phenomenon, the original diphthongs denoted by ⟨ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ⟩ are traditionally called "long diphthongs". They existed in the Greek language up into the classical period. From the classical period onwards, they changed to simple vowels (monophthongs), but sometimes continued to be written as diphthongs. In the medieval period, these spellings were replaced by spellings with an iota subscript, to mark former diphthongs which were no longer pronounced. In some English works these are referred to as "improper diphthongs".

Archaizing spelling with adscripts instead of subscripts. In pre-classical times, ancient Greek had long-vowel diphthongs, which evolved into monophthongs, mostly during the classical period and after. They continued to be written as diphthongs until the medieval period, when the iota subscript was introduced, reflecting the change in pronunciation.
Titlecase
Uppercase
Different styles of treating mute iota with capital letters

The iota subscript occurs most frequently in certain inflectional affixes of ancient Greek, especially in the dative endings of many nominal forms (e.g.τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ, τῇ πολιτείᾳ, τῇ γλώσσῃ) as well as in certain verb forms of the subjunctive mood (e.g.λύσῃς, -ῃ). Besides these it also occurs in the roots of certain words and names, for instanceᾠδή, ode (and its derivatives:ᾠδεῖον, odeon;τραγῳδία, tragedy etc.);ᾍδης, Hades;Θρᾴκη, Thrace.

The rare long diphthongῡι might logically have been treated the same way, and the works of Eustathius of Thessalonica provide an instance ofυ with iota subscript (in the wordὑπόγυͅον), but this never became the convention (the same word being spelled by other writers asὑπόγυιον orὑπόγυον).

The iota subscript is today considered an obligatory feature in the spelling of ancient Greek, but its usage is subject to some variation. In some modern editions of classical texts, the original pronunciation of long diphthongs is represented by the use of iota adscript, with accents and breathing marks placed on the first vowel. The same is generally true for works dealing with epigraphy, paleography or other philological contexts where adherence to original historical spellings and linguistic correctness is considered important.

Different conventions exist for the treatment of subscript/adscript iota with uppercase letters. In Western printing, the most common practice is to use subscript diacritics only in lowercase environments and to use an adscript (i.e. a normal full-sized iota glyph) instead whenever the host letter is capitalized. When this happens in a mixed-case spelling environment (i.e. with only the first letter of a word capitalized, as in proper names and at the beginning of a sentence), then the adscript iota regularly takes the shape of the normal lowercase iota letter (e.g.ᾠδεῖονὨιδεῖον). In an all-capitals environment, the adscript is also regularly capitalized (ΩΙΔΕΙΟΝ). In Greece, a more common convention is to print subscript diacritics both with lowercase and uppercase letters alike. Yet another, intermediate convention is to use lowercase adscript iotas both for mixed-case and for all-capitals words (e.g.ΩιΔΕΙΟΝ), or to use a special glyph in the shape of a smaller capital iota in the latter case (ΩΙΔΕΙΟΝ).

In modern Greek, subscript iota was generally retained in use in the spelling of the archaizing Katharevousa. It can also be found regularly in older printed Demotic in the 19th and early 20th century, but it is often absent from the modern spelling of present-day standard Greek. Even when present-day Greek is spelled in the traditional polytonic system, the number of instances where a subscript could be written is much smaller than in older forms of the language, because most of its typical grammatical environments no longer occur: the old dative case is not used in modern Greek except in a few fossilized phrases (e.g.ἐν τῷ μεταξύ "in the meantime";δόξα τῷ θεῷ "thank God!"), and the old spellings with-ῃς/ῃ in subjunctive verbs have been analogically replaced by those of the indicatives with-εις/-ει (e.g.θα γράφῃςθα γράφεις). In the monotonic standard orthography, subscript iota is not used.

In transliteration of Greek into the Latin alphabet, the iota subscript is often omitted. The Chicago Manual of Style, however, recommends the iota subscript be "transliterated by an i on the line, following the vowel it is associated with (ἀνθρώπῳ, anthrṓpōi)." (11.131 in the 16th edition, 10.131 in the 15th.)

In the Unicode standard, iota subscript is represented by a non-spacing combining diacritic character U+0345 "Combining Greek Ypogegrammeni". There is also a spacing clone of this character (U+037A,ͺ), as well as 36 precomposed characters, representing each of the usual combinations of iota subscript with lowercaseα,η andω, with and without any of the accent and breathing diacritics. In addition, for capitalized ("titlecase") use, Unicode provides a corresponding set of 27 precomposed code points with "prosgegrammeni" (). Despite their name, which implies the use of an adscript glyph, these code points are defined as being equivalent to a combination of the base letter and the combining subscript character U+0345, just like their lowercase equivalents. They may be variously realized with either a subscript diacritic or a full-sized adscript iota glyph, depending on the font design. For use in all-capitals ("uppercase"), Unicode additionally stipulates a special case-mapping rule according to which lowercase letters should be mapped to combinations of the uppercase letter and uppercase iota (ΑΙ). This rule not only replaces the representation of a monophthong with that of a diphthong, but it also destroys the reversibility of any capitalization process in digital environments, as the combination of uppercase letter and uppercase iota would normally be converted back to lowercase letter and lowercase iota. It is therefore strongly recommended, both for the integrity of text and for the practical compatibility with digital environments, that lowercase letter and iota subscript should be capitalized in all situations and contexts as uppercase letter and iota adscript. A future revision of the above-mentioned Unicode stipulation is linguistically stipulated and digitally inevitable, as its application is both destructive to the text and impractical in digital applications.

In the ASCII-based encoding standard Beta Code, the iota subscript is represented by the pipe character "|" placed after the letter.

  1. Woodard, Roger D. (2008). "Attic Greek". The Ancient Languages of Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-139-46932-6.
  2. McLean, Bradley H. (2011). New Testament Greek: an introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 20.
  3. Metzger, Bruce Manning (1981).Manuscripts of the Greek bible: an introduction to Greek palaeography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-19-502924-6.
  4. Sihler, Andrew L. (2008). New comparative grammar of Greek and Latin. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 59.
  5. Dickey, Eleanor (2007). Ancient Greek scholarship. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 256.
  6. Babiniotis, Georgios. προσγράφω. Lexiko tis Neas Ellinikis Glossas.
  7. Babiniotis, Georgios. υπογράφω. Lexiko tis Neas Ellinikis Glossas.
  8. Mastronarde, Donald J (1993).Introduction to Attic Greek. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 9f.
  9. Smyth, Herbert W. (1920). Greek grammar for colleges. New York: American Book Company. p. 9.;
  10. Mounce, William D. (November 28, 2009). Basics of Biblical Greek (3rd ed.). Zondervan. p. 10. ISBN 978-0310287681.
  11. von Ostermann, George Frederick; Giegengack, Augustus E. (1936). Manual of foreign languages for the use of printers and translators. United States. Government Printing Office. p. 81.
  12. Eustathius of Thessalonica, Commentary on the Iliad, III 439.
  13. Ritter, R. M. (2005). New Hart's Rules: The Handbook of Style for Writers and Editors. OUP Oxford. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-19-165049-9.
  14. Nicholas, Nick. "Titlecase and Adscripts". Archived from the original on 26 October 2015. Retrieved5 August 2012.
  15. The difference in number between uppercase and lowercase precomposed characters is due to the fact that there are no uppercase combinations with only an accent but no breathing mark, because such combinations do not occur in normal Greek orthography (uppercase letters with accents are used only word-initially, and word-initial vowel letters always have a breathing mark).
  16. Thesaurus Linguae Graecae. "The beta code manual". Retrieved5 August 2012.

Iota subscript
Iota subscript Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Ypogegrammeni The iota subscript is a diacritic mark in the Greek alphabet shaped like a small vertical stroke or miniature iota i placed below the letter It can occur with the vowel letters eta h omega w and alpha a It represents the former presence of an i offglide after the vowel forming a so called long diphthong Such diphthongs i e hi wi ᾱi phonologically distinct from the corresponding normal or short diphthongs i e ei oi ᾰi were a feature of ancient Greek in the pre classical and classical eras Iota subscripts in the word ᾠdῇ ode dative The offglide was gradually lost in pronunciation a process that started already during the classical period and continued during the Hellenistic period with the result that from approximately the 1st century BC onwards the former long diphthongs were no longer distinguished in pronunciation from the simple long vowels long monophthongs h w ᾱ respectively 1 During the Roman and Byzantine eras the iota now mute was sometimes still written as a normal letter but was often simply left out The iota subscript was invented by Byzantine philologists in the 12th century AD as an editorial symbol marking the places where such spelling variation occurred 2 3 4 The alternative practice of writing the mute iota not under but next to the preceding vowel is known as iota adscript In mixed case environments it is represented either as a slightly reduced iota smaller than regular lowercase iota or as a full sized lowercase iota In the latter case it can be recognized as iota adscript by the fact that it never carries any diacritics breathing marks accents In uppercase only environments it is represented again either as slightly reduced iota smaller than regular lowercase iota or as a full sized uppercase Iota In digital environments and for linguistic reasons also in all other environments the representation as a slightly reduced iota is recommended There are Unicode codepoints for all Greek vowels with iota adscript for example U 1FBC ᾼ GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA WITH PROSGEGRAMMENI allowing for easy implementation of that recommendation in digital environments Contents 1 Terminology 2 Usage 3 Transliteration 4 Computer encoding 5 See also 6 ReferencesTerminology EditIn Greek the subscript is called ὑpogegrammenh hupogegrammene the perfect passive participle form of the verb ὑpografw hupographō to write below Analogously the adscript is called prosgegrammenh prosgegrammene from the verb prosgrafw prosgraphō to write next to something to add in writing 5 6 The Greek names are grammatically feminine participle forms because in medieval Greek the name of the letter iota to which they implicitly refer was sometimes construed as a feminine noun unlike in classical and in modern Greek where it is neuter 7 The Greek terms transliterated according to their modern pronunciation as ypogegrammeni and prosgegrammeni respectively were also chosen for use in character names in the computer encoding standard Unicode As a phonological phenomenon the original diphthongs denoted by ᾳ ῃ ῳ are traditionally called long diphthongs 8 9 They existed in the Greek language up into the classical period From the classical period onwards they changed to simple vowels monophthongs but sometimes continued to be written as diphthongs In the medieval period these spellings were replaced by spellings with an iota subscript to mark former diphthongs which were no longer pronounced In some English works these are referred to as improper diphthongs 10 11 Usage Edit Archaizing spelling with adscripts instead of subscripts In pre classical times ancient Greek had long vowel diphthongs which evolved into monophthongs mostly during the classical period and after They continued to be written as diphthongs until the medieval period when the iota subscript was introduced reflecting the change in pronunciation Titlecase UppercaseDifferent styles of treating mute iota with capital letters The iota subscript occurs most frequently in certain inflectional affixes of ancient Greek especially in the dative endings of many nominal forms e g tῷ ἀn8rwpῳ tῇ politeiᾳ tῇ glwssῃ as well as in certain verb forms of the subjunctive mood e g lysῃs ῃ Besides these it also occurs in the roots of certain words and names for instance ᾠdh ode and its derivatives ᾠdeῖon odeon tragῳdia tragedy etc ᾍdhs Hades 8rᾴkh Thrace The rare long diphthong ῡi might logically have been treated the same way and the works of Eustathius of Thessalonica provide an instance of y with iota subscript in the word ὑpogy on 12 but this never became the convention the same word being spelled by other writers as ὑpogyion or ὑpogyon The iota subscript is today considered an obligatory feature in the spelling of ancient Greek but its usage is subject to some variation In some modern editions of classical texts the original pronunciation of long diphthongs is represented by the use of iota adscript with accents and breathing marks placed on the first vowel 13 The same is generally true for works dealing with epigraphy paleography or other philological contexts where adherence to original historical spellings and linguistic correctness is considered important Different conventions exist for the treatment of subscript adscript iota with uppercase letters In Western printing the most common practice is to use subscript diacritics only in lowercase environments and to use an adscript i e a normal full sized iota glyph instead whenever the host letter is capitalized When this happens in a mixed case spelling environment i e with only the first letter of a word capitalized as in proper names and at the beginning of a sentence then the adscript iota regularly takes the shape of the normal lowercase iota letter e g ᾠdeῖon Ὠideῖon In an all capitals environment the adscript is also regularly capitalized WIDEION In Greece a more common convention is to print subscript diacritics both with lowercase and uppercase letters alike Yet another intermediate convention is to use lowercase adscript iotas both for mixed case and for all capitals words e g WiDEION or to use a special glyph in the shape of a smaller capital iota in the latter case WI DEION 14 In modern Greek subscript iota was generally retained in use in the spelling of the archaizing Katharevousa It can also be found regularly in older printed Demotic in the 19th and early 20th century but it is often absent from the modern spelling of present day standard Greek Even when present day Greek is spelled in the traditional polytonic system the number of instances where a subscript could be written is much smaller than in older forms of the language because most of its typical grammatical environments no longer occur the old dative case is not used in modern Greek except in a few fossilized phrases e g ἐn tῷ meta3y in the meantime do3a tῷ 8eῷ thank God and the old spellings with ῃs ῃ in subjunctive verbs have been analogically replaced by those of the indicatives with eis ei e g 8a grafῃs 8a grafeis In the monotonic standard orthography subscript iota is not used Transliteration EditIn transliteration of Greek into the Latin alphabet the iota subscript is often omitted The Chicago Manual of Style however recommends the iota subscript be transliterated by an i on the line following the vowel it is associated with ἀn8rwpῳ anthrṓpōi 11 131 in the 16th edition 10 131 in the 15th Computer encoding EditIn the Unicode standard iota subscript is represented by a non spacing combining diacritic character U 0345 Combining Greek Ypogegrammeni There is also a spacing clone of this character U 037A ͺ as well as 36 precomposed characters representing each of the usual combinations of iota subscript with lowercase a h and w with and without any of the accent and breathing diacritics In addition for capitalized titlecase use Unicode provides a corresponding set of 27 precomposed code points with prosgegrammeni ᾳ ᾼ 15 Despite their name which implies the use of an adscript glyph these code points are defined as being equivalent to a combination of the base letter and the combining subscript character U 0345 just like their lowercase equivalents They may be variously realized with either a subscript diacritic or a full sized adscript iota glyph depending on the font design For use in all capitals uppercase Unicode additionally stipulates a special case mapping rule according to which lowercase letters should be mapped to combinations of the uppercase letter and uppercase iota ᾳ AI 14 This rule not only replaces the representation of a monophthong with that of a diphthong but it also destroys the reversibility of any capitalization process in digital environments as the combination of uppercase letter and uppercase iota would normally be converted back to lowercase letter and lowercase iota It is therefore strongly recommended both for the integrity of text and for the practical compatibility with digital environments that lowercase letter and iota subscript should be capitalized in all situations and contexts as uppercase letter and iota adscript A future revision of the above mentioned Unicode stipulation is linguistically stipulated and digitally inevitable as its application is both destructive to the text and impractical in digital applications In the ASCII based encoding standard Beta Code the iota subscript is represented by the pipe character placed after the letter 16 See also EditGreek diacritics HypodiastoleReferences Edit Woodard Roger D 2008 Attic Greek The Ancient Languages of Europe Cambridge Cambridge University Press p 19 ISBN 978 1 139 46932 6 McLean Bradley H 2011 New Testament Greek an introduction Cambridge Cambridge University Press p 20 Metzger Bruce Manning 1981 Manuscripts of the Greek bible an introduction to Greek palaeography Oxford Oxford University Press p 28 ISBN 978 0 19 502924 6 Sihler Andrew L 2008 New comparative grammar of Greek and Latin Oxford Oxford University Press p 59 Dickey Eleanor 2007 Ancient Greek scholarship Oxford Oxford University Press p 256 Babiniotis Georgios prosgrafw Lexiko tis Neas Ellinikis Glossas Babiniotis Georgios ypografw Lexiko tis Neas Ellinikis Glossas Mastronarde Donald J 1993 Introduction to Attic Greek Berkeley University of California Press p 9f Smyth Herbert W 1920 Greek grammar for colleges New York American Book Company p 9 Mounce William D November 28 2009 Basics of Biblical Greek 3rd ed Zondervan p 10 ISBN 978 0310287681 von Ostermann George Frederick Giegengack Augustus E 1936 Manual of foreign languages for the use of printers and translators United States Government Printing Office p 81 Eustathius of Thessalonica Commentary on the Iliad III 439 Ritter R M 2005 New Hart s Rules The Handbook of Style for Writers and Editors OUP Oxford p 217 ISBN 978 0 19 165049 9 a b Nicholas Nick Titlecase and Adscripts Archived from the original on 26 October 2015 Retrieved 5 August 2012 The difference in number between uppercase and lowercase precomposed characters is due to the fact that there are no uppercase combinations with only an accent but no breathing mark because such combinations do not occur in normal Greek orthography uppercase letters with accents are used only word initially and word initial vowel letters always have a breathing mark Thesaurus Linguae Graecae The beta code manual Retrieved 5 August 2012 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Iota subscript amp oldid 1050303090, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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