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Yttrium(III) oxide

Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3. It is an air-stable, white solid substance.

Yttrium(III) oxide
Names
IUPAC name
Yttrium(III) oxide.
Other names
Yttria,
diyttrium trioxide,
yttrium sesquioxide
Identifiers
  • 1314-36-9 Y
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.013.849
EC Number
  • 215-233-5
RTECS number
  • ZG3850000
UNII
  • InChI=1S/3O.2Y
    Key: SIWVEOZUMHYXCS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • O=[Y]O[Y]=O
Properties
Y2O3
Molar mass 225.81 g/mol
Appearance White solid.
Density 5.010 g/cm3, solid
Melting point 2,425 °C (4,397 °F; 2,698 K)
Boiling point 4,300 °C (7,770 °F; 4,570 K)
insoluble
Solubility in alcohol
acid
soluble
Structure
Cubic (bixbyite), cI80
Ia3 (No. 206)
Octahedral
Thermochemistry
99.08 J/mol·K
-1905.310 kJ/mol
-1816.609 kJ/mol
Hazards
None listed.
R-phrases(outdated) Not hazardous
S-phrases(outdated) ‹See TfM›S24/25
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
>10,000 mg/kg (rat, oral)
>6000 mg/kg (mouse, oral)
Related compounds
Other anions
Yttrium(III) sulfide
Other cations
Scandium(III) oxide,
Lanthanum(III) oxide
Related compounds
Yttrium barium
copper oxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Yverify (what is YN ?)
Infobox references

The thermal conductivity of yttrium oxide is 27 W/(m·K).

Contents

Phosphors

Yttria is widely used to make Eu:YVO4 and Eu:Y2O3 phosphors that give the red color in color TV picture tubes.

Yttria lasers

Y2O3 is a prospective solid-state laser material. In particular, lasers with ytterbium as dopant allow the efficient operation both in continuous operation and in pulsed regimes. At high concentration of excitations (of order of 1%) and poor cooling, the quenching of emission at laser frequency and avalanche broadband emission takes place. (Yttria-based lasers are not to be confused with YAG lasers using yttrium aluminum garnet, a widely used crystal host for rare earth laser dopants).

Gas Lighting

The original use of the mineral yttria and the purpose of its extraction from mineral sources was as part of the process of making gas mantles and other products for turning the flames of artificially-produced gases (initially hydrogen, later coal gas, paraffin, or other products) into human-visible light. This use is almost obsolete - thorium and cerium oxides are larger components of such products these days.

Dental ceramics

Yttrium oxide is used to stabilize the Zirconia in late-generation porcelain-free metal-free dental ceramics. This is a very hard ceramic used as a strong base material in some full ceramic restorations. The zirconia used in dentistry is zirconium oxide which has been stabilized with the addition of yttrium oxide. The full name of zirconia used in dentistry is "yttria-stabilized zirconia" or YSZ.

Microwave filters

Yttrium oxide is also used to make yttrium iron garnets, which are very effective microwave filters.

Superconductors

Y2O3 is used to make the high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7, known as "1-2-3" to indicate the ratio of the metal constituents:

2 Y2O3 + 8 BaO + 12 CuO + O2 → 4 YBa2Cu3O7

This synthesis is typically conducted at 800 °C.

Inorganic synthesis

Yttrium oxide is an important starting point for inorganic compounds. For organometallic chemistry it is converted to YCl3 in a reaction with concentrated hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride.

Yttriaite-(Y), approved as a new mineral species in 2010, is the natural form of yttria. It is exceedingly rare, occurring as inclusions in native tungsten particles in a placer deposit of the Bol’shaja Pol’ja (Russian:Большая Полья) river, Prepolar Ural, Siberia. As a chemical component of other minerals, the oxide yttria was first isolated in 1789 by Johan Gadolin, from rare-earth minerals in a mine at the Swedish town of Ytterby, near Stockholm.

  1. Yong-Nian Xu; Zhong-quan Gu; W. Y. Ching (1997). "Electronic, structural, and optical properties of crystalline yttria". Phys. Rev. B56 (23): 14993–15000. Bibcode:1997PhRvB..5614993X. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.56.14993.
  2. R. Robie, B. Hemingway, and J. Fisher, “Thermodynamic Properties of Minerals and Related Substances at 298.15K and 1bar Pressure and at Higher Temperatures,” US Geol. Surv., vol. 1452, 1978. [1]
  3. "Yttrium compounds (as Y)". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  4. P. H. Klein & W. J. Croft (1967). "Thermal conductivity , Diffusivity, and Expansion of Y2O3, Y3Al5O12, and LaF3 in the Range 77-300 K". J. Appl. Phys. 38 (4): 1603. Bibcode:1967JAP....38.1603K. doi:10.1063/1.1709730.
  5. J. Kong; D.Y.Tang; B. Zhao; J.Lu; K.Ueda; H.Yagi; T.Yanagitani (2005). "9.2-W diode-pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser". Applied Physics Letters. 86 (16): 161116. Bibcode:2005ApPhL..86p1116K. doi:10.1063/1.1914958.
  6. M.Tokurakawa; K.Takaichi; A.Shirakawa; K.Ueda; H.Yagi; T.Yanagitani; A.A. Kaminskii (2007). "Diode-pumped 188 fs mode-locked Yb3+:Y2O3 ceramic laser". Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 (7): 071101. Bibcode:2007ApPhL..90g1101T. doi:10.1063/1.2476385.
  7. J.-F.Bisson; D.Kouznetsov; K.Ueda; S.T.Fredrich-Thornton; K.Petermann; G.Huber (2007). "Switching of emissivity and photoconductivity in highly doped Yb3+:Y2O3 and Lu2O3 ceramics". Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 (20): 201901. Bibcode:2007ApPhL..90t1901B. doi:10.1063/1.2739318.
  8. Shen, edited by James (2013). Advanced ceramics for dentistry (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/BH. p. 271. ISBN 978-0123946195.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  9. Mindat, http://www.mindat.org/min-40471.html

Yttrium(III) oxide
Yttrium III oxide Language Watch Edit Yttrium oxide also known as yttria is Y2O3 It is an air stable white solid substance Yttrium III oxide NamesIUPAC name Yttrium III oxide Other names Yttria diyttrium trioxide yttrium sesquioxideIdentifiersCAS Number 1314 36 9 Y3D model JSmol Interactive imageChemSpider 140159ECHA InfoCard 100 013 849EC Number 215 233 5PubChem CID 518711RTECS number ZG3850000UNII X8071685XTCompTox Dashboard EPA DTXSID5051573InChI InChI 1S 3O 2YKey SIWVEOZUMHYXCS UHFFFAOYSA NSMILES O Y O Y OPropertiesChemical formula Y2O3Molar mass 225 81 g molAppearance White solid Density 5 010 g cm3 solidMelting point 2 425 C 4 397 F 2 698 K Boiling point 4 300 C 7 770 F 4 570 K Solubility in water insolubleSolubility in alcohol acid solubleStructureCrystal structure Cubic bixbyite cI80 1 Space group Ia3 No 206 Coordination geometry OctahedralThermochemistryStd molar entropy So298 99 08 J mol K 2 Std enthalpy of formation DfH 298 1905 310 kJ mol 2 Gibbs free energy DfG 1816 609 kJ mol 2 HazardsEU classification DSD outdated None listed R phrases outdated Not hazardousS phrases outdated See TfM S24 25Lethal dose or concentration LD LC LDLo lowest published gt 10 000 mg kg rat oral gt 6000 mg kg mouse oral 3 Related compoundsOther anions Yttrium III sulfideOther cations Scandium III oxide Lanthanum III oxideRelated compounds Yttrium barium copper oxideExcept where otherwise noted data are given for materials in their standard state at 25 C 77 F 100 kPa Y verify what is Y N Infobox references The thermal conductivity of yttrium oxide is 27 W m K 4 Contents 1 Uses 1 1 Phosphors 1 2 Yttria lasers 1 3 Gas Lighting 1 4 Dental ceramics 1 5 Microwave filters 1 6 Superconductors 1 7 Inorganic synthesis 2 Natural occurrence 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksUses EditPhosphors Edit Yttria is widely used to make Eu YVO4 and Eu Y2O3 phosphors that give the red color in color TV picture tubes Yttria lasers Edit Y2O3 is a prospective solid state laser material In particular lasers with ytterbium as dopant allow the efficient operation both in continuous operation 5 and in pulsed regimes 6 At high concentration of excitations of order of 1 and poor cooling the quenching of emission at laser frequency and avalanche broadband emission takes place 7 Yttria based lasers are not to be confused with YAG lasers using yttrium aluminum garnet a widely used crystal host for rare earth laser dopants Gas Lighting Edit The original use of the mineral yttria and the purpose of its extraction from mineral sources was as part of the process of making gas mantles and other products for turning the flames of artificially produced gases initially hydrogen later coal gas paraffin or other products into human visible light This use is almost obsolete thorium and cerium oxides are larger components of such products these days Dental ceramics Edit Yttrium oxide is used to stabilize the Zirconia in late generation porcelain free metal free dental ceramics This is a very hard ceramic used as a strong base material in some full ceramic restorations 8 The zirconia used in dentistry is zirconium oxide which has been stabilized with the addition of yttrium oxide The full name of zirconia used in dentistry is yttria stabilized zirconia or YSZ Microwave filters Edit Yttrium oxide is also used to make yttrium iron garnets which are very effective microwave filters Superconductors Edit Y2O3 is used to make the high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 known as 1 2 3 to indicate the ratio of the metal constituents 2 Y2O3 8 BaO 12 CuO O2 4 YBa2Cu3O7 This synthesis is typically conducted at 800 C Inorganic synthesis Edit Yttrium oxide is an important starting point for inorganic compounds For organometallic chemistry it is converted to YCl3 in a reaction with concentrated hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride Natural occurrence EditYttriaite Y approved as a new mineral species in 2010 is the natural form of yttria It is exceedingly rare occurring as inclusions in native tungsten particles in a placer deposit of the Bol shaja Pol ja Russian Bolshaya Polya river Prepolar Ural Siberia As a chemical component of other minerals the oxide yttria was first isolated in 1789 by Johan Gadolin from rare earth minerals in a mine at the Swedish town of Ytterby near Stockholm 9 See also EditYttraloxReferences Edit Yong Nian Xu Zhong quan Gu W Y Ching 1997 Electronic structural and optical properties of crystalline yttria Phys Rev B56 23 14993 15000 Bibcode 1997PhRvB 5614993X doi 10 1103 PhysRevB 56 14993 a b c R Robie B Hemingway and J Fisher Thermodynamic Properties of Minerals and Related Substances at 298 15K and 1bar Pressure and at Higher Temperatures US Geol Surv vol 1452 1978 1 Yttrium compounds as Y Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations IDLH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH P H Klein amp W J Croft 1967 Thermal conductivity Diffusivity and Expansion of Y2O3 Y3Al5O12 and LaF3 in the Range 77 300 K J Appl Phys 38 4 1603 Bibcode 1967JAP 38 1603K doi 10 1063 1 1709730 J Kong D Y Tang B Zhao J Lu K Ueda H Yagi T Yanagitani 2005 9 2 W diode pumped Yb Y2O3 ceramic laser Applied Physics Letters 86 16 161116 Bibcode 2005ApPhL 86p1116K doi 10 1063 1 1914958 M Tokurakawa K Takaichi A Shirakawa K Ueda H Yagi T Yanagitani A A Kaminskii 2007 Diode pumped 188 fs mode locked Yb3 Y2O3 ceramic laser Appl Phys Lett 90 7 071101 Bibcode 2007ApPhL 90g1101T doi 10 1063 1 2476385 J F Bisson D Kouznetsov K Ueda S T Fredrich Thornton K Petermann G Huber 2007 Switching of emissivity and photoconductivity in highly doped Yb3 Y2O3 and Lu2O3 ceramics Appl Phys Lett 90 20 201901 Bibcode 2007ApPhL 90t1901B doi 10 1063 1 2739318 Shen edited by James 2013 Advanced ceramics for dentistry 1st ed Amsterdam Elsevier BH p 271 ISBN 978 0123946195 CS1 maint extra text authors list link Mindat http www mindat org min 40471 htmlExternal links EditYttrium oxide information at Webelements Retrieved from https en 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