fbpx
Wikipedia

Yttrium aluminium garnet

"YAG" redirects here. For the IATA airport code, see Fort Frances Municipal Airport. For the YMCA sponsored program, see YMCA Youth and Government.

Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group. It is a cubic yttrium aluminium oxide phase, with other examples being YAlO3 (YAP) in a hexagonal or an orthorhombic, perovskite-like form, and the monoclinic Y4Al2O9 (YAM).

Yttrium aluminium garnet
General
Categorysynthetic mineral
Formula
(repeating unit)
Y3Al5O12
Crystal systemCubic
Identification
ColorUsually colorless, but may be pink, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple
CleavageNone
FractureConchoidal to uneven
Mohs scale hardness8.5
LusterVitreous to subadamantine
Specific gravity4.5–4.6
Polish lusterVitreous to subadamantine
Optical propertiesSingle refractive
Refractive index1.833±0.010
BirefringenceNone
PleochroismNone
Dispersion0.028
Ultraviolet fluorescenceColorless stones - inert to moderate orange in long wave, inert to weak orange in short wave; blue and pink stones - inert; yellow-green stones - very strong yellow in long and short wave also phosphoresces; green stones - strong red in long wave, weak red in short wave
References

YAG, like garnet and sapphire, has no uses as a laser medium when pure. However, after being doped with an appropriate ion, YAG is commonly used as a host material in various solid-state lasers. Rare earth elements such as neodymium and erbium can be doped into YAG as active laser ions, yielding Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers, respectively. Cerium-doped YAG (Ce:YAG) is used as a phosphor in cathode ray tubes and white light-emitting diodes, and as a scintillator.

Contents

YAG for a period was used in jewelry as a diamond and other gemstone simulant. Colored variants and their doping elements include: green (chromium), blue (cobalt), red (manganese), yellow (titanium), blue/pink/purple (neodymium, depending on light source), pink, and orange. As faceted gems they are valued (as synthetics) for their clarity, durability, high refractive index and dispersion, and occasionally properties like simulating Alexandrite's color-changing property. The critical angle of YAG is 33 degrees. YAG cuts like natural garnet, with polishing being performed with alumina or diamond (50,000 or 100,000 grit) on common polishing laps. YAG has low heat sensitivity.

As a synthetic gemstone YAG has numerous varietal and trade names, as well as a number of misnomers. Synonymous names include: alexite, amamite, circolite, dia-bud, diamite, diamogem, diamonair, diamone, diamonique, diamonite, diamonte, di'yag, geminair, gemonair, kimberly, Linde simulated diamond, nier-gem, regalair, replique, somerset, triamond, YAIG, and yttrium garnet. Production for the gem trade decreased after the introduction of synthetic cubic zirconia; as of 1995[update] there was little production. Some demand exists as synthetic garnet, and for designs where the very high refractive index of cubic zirconia is not desirable.[citation needed]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(April 2013) ()

Nd:YAG

Main article: Nd:YAG laser
Nd:YAG laser rod 0.5 cm in diameter.

Neodymium-doped YAG (Nd:YAG) was developed in the early 1960s, and the first working Nd:YAG laser was invented in 1964. Neodymium-YAG is the most widely used active laser medium in solid-state lasers, being used for everything from low-power continuous-wave lasers to high-power Q-switched (pulsed) lasers with power levels measured in the kilowatts. The thermal conductivity of Nd:YAG is higher and its fluorescence lifetime is about twice as long as that of Nd:YVO4 crystals, however it is not as efficient and is less stable, requiring more precisely controlled temperatures. The best absorption band of Nd:YAG for pumping the laser is centered at 807.5 nm, and is 1 nm wide.

Most Nd:YAG lasers produce infrared light at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Light at this wavelength is rather dangerous to vision, since it can be focused by the eye's lens onto the retina, but the light is invisible and does not trigger the blink reflex. Nd:YAG lasers can also be used with frequency doubling or frequency tripling crystals, to produce green light with a wavelength of 532 nm or ultraviolet light at 355 nm, respectively.

The dopant concentration in commonly used Nd:YAG crystals usually varies between 0.5 and 1.4 molar percent. Higher dopant concentration is used for pulsed lasers; lower concentration is suitable for continuous-wave lasers. Nd:YAG is pinkish-purple, with lighter-doped rods being less intensely colored than heavier-doped ones. Since its absorption spectrum is narrow, the hue depends on the light under which it is observed.

Nd:Cr:YAG

YAG doped with neodymium and chromium (Nd:Cr:YAG or Nd/Cr:YAG) has absorption characteristics which are superior to Nd:YAG. This is because energy is absorbed by the broad absorption bands of the Cr3+ dopant and then transferred to Nd3+ by dipole-dipole interactions. This material has been suggested for use in solar-pumped lasers, which could form part of a solar power satellite system.

Er:YAG

Main article: Er:YAG laser

Erbium-doped YAG (Er:YAG) is an active laser medium lasing at 2940 nm. Its absorption bands suitable for pumping are wide and located between 600 and 800 nm, allowing for efficient flashlamp pumping. The dopant concentration used is high: about 50% of the yttrium atoms are replaced. The Er:YAG laser wavelength couples well into water and body fluids, making this laser especially useful for medicine and dentistry uses; it is used for treatment of tooth enamel and in cosmetic surgery. Er:YAG is used for noninvasive monitoring of blood sugar. The mechanical properties of Er:YAG are essentially the same as Nd:YAG. Er:YAG operates at wavelengths where the threshold for eye damage is relatively high (since the light is absorbed before striking the retina), works well at room temperature, and has high slope efficiency. Er:YAG is pale green.

Yb:YAG

Ytterbium-doped YAG (Yb:YAG) is an active laser medium lasing at 1030 nm, with a broad, 18 nm wide absorption band at 940 nm. It is one of the most useful media for high-power diode-pumped solid state lasers. The dopant levels used range between 0.2% and 30% of replaced yttrium atoms. Yb:YAG has very low fractional heating, very high slope efficiency, and no excited-state absorption or up-conversion, high mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. Yb:YAG can be pumped by reliable InGaAs laser diodes at 940 or 970 nm.

Yb:YAG is a good substitute for 1064 nm Nd:YAG in high-power applications, and its frequency-doubled 515 nm version can replace the 514 nm argon lasers.

Nd:Ce:YAG

Neodymium-cerium double-doped YAG (Nd:Ce:YAG, or Nd,Ce:YAG) is an active laser medium material very similar to Nd:YAG. The added cerium atoms strongly absorb in the ultraviolet region and transfer their energy to the neodymium atoms, increasing the pumping efficiency; the result is lower thermal distortion and higher power output than Nd:YAG at the same pumping level. The lasing wavelength, 1064 nm, is the same as for Nd:YAG. The material has a good resistance to damage caused by UV from the pump source, and low lasing threshold. Usually 1.1–1.4% of Y atoms are replaced with Nd, and 0.05–0.1% with Ce.

Ho:Cr:Tm:YAG

Holmium-chromium-thulium triple-doped YAG (Ho:Cr:Tm:YAG, or Ho,Cr,Tm:YAG) is an active laser medium material with high efficiency. It lases at 2080 nm and can be pumped by a flashlamp or a laser diode. It is widely used in military, medicine, and meteorology. It works well at room temperature, has high slope efficiency, and operates at a wavelength where the threshold for eye damage is relatively high. When pumped by a diode, the 785 nm band for Tm3+ ion can be used. Other major pump bands are located between 400 and 800 nm. The dopant levels used are 0.35 atom.% Ho, 5.8 atom.% Tm, and 1.5 at.% Cr. The rods have green color, imparted by chromium(III).

Tm:YAG

Thulium-doped YAG (Tm:YAG) is an active laser medium that operates between 1930 and 2040 nm. It is suitable for diode pumping. A dual-mode Tm:YAG laser emits two frequencies separated by 1 GHz.

Cr4+:YAG

Chromium (IV)-doped YAG (Cr:YAG) provides a large absorption cross section in the 0.9-1.2 micrometer spectral region, which makes it an attractive choice as a passive Q-switch for Nd-doped lasers. The resulting devices are solid-state, compact and low-cost. Cr:YAG has high damage threshold, good thermal conductivity, good chemical stability, resists ultraviolet radiation, and is easily machinable. It is replacing more traditional Q-switching materials like lithium fluoride and organic dyes. The dopant levels used range between 0.5 and 3 percent (molar). Cr:YAG can be used for passive Q-switching of lasers that operate at wavelengths between 1000 and 1200 nm, such as those based on Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, Nd:YVO4, and Yb:YAG.

Cr:YAG can be also used as a laser gain medium itself, producing tunable lasers with outputs adjustable between 1350 and 1550 nm. The Cr:YAG laser can generate ultrashort pulses (in the femtoseconds range) when it is pumped at 1064 nm by a Nd:YAG laser.

Cr:YAG has been demonstrated in an application of non-linear optics as a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror in a Nd:YAG "loop resonator".[citation needed] Such a mirror provides compensation of both phase and polarization aberrations induced into the loop resonator.

Dy:YAG

Dysprosium-doped YAG (Dy:YAG) is a temperature-sensitive phosphor used in temperature measurements. The phosphor is excited by a laser pulse and its temperature-dependent fluorescence is observed. Dy:YAG is sensitive in ranges of 300–1700 K. The phosphor can be applied directly to the measured surface, or to an end of an optical fiber. It has also been studied as a single-phase white emitting phosphor in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes.

Sm:YAG

Samarium-doped YAG (Sm:YAG) is a temperature-sensitive phosphor similar to Dy:YAG.

Tb:YAG

Terbium-doped YAG (Tb:YAG) is a phosphor used in cathode ray tubes. It emits at yellow-green color, at 544 nm.

Ce:YAG

Cerium(III)-doped YAG (Ce:YAG or YAG:Ce) is a phosphor, or a scintillator when in pure single-crystal form, with a wide range of uses. It emits yellow light when subjected to blue or ultraviolet light or to x-rays. It is used in white light-emitting diodes as a coating on a high-brightness blue InGaN diode, converting part of the blue light into yellow, which together then appear as white. Such an arrangement gives less than ideal color rendering. The output brightness decreases with increasing temperature, further altering device color output.[citation needed]

Ce:YAG is also used in some mercury-vapor lamps as one of the phosphors, often together with Eu:Y(P,V)O4 (yttrium phosphate-vanadate). It is also used as a phosphor in cathode ray tubes, where it emits green (530 nm) to yellow-green (550 nm) light. When excited by electrons, it has virtually no afterglow (70 ns decay time). It is suitable for use in photomultipliers.

Ce:YAG is used in PET scanners, high-energy gamma radiation and charged particle detectors, and high-resolution imaging screens for gamma, x-rays, beta radiation and ultraviolet radiation.

Ce:YAG can be further doped with gadolinum.

  1. Gemological Institute of America, GIA Gem Reference Guide 1995, ISBN 0-87311-019-6
  2. "YAlO
    3
    ; YAP (YAlO
    3
    ht) Crystal Structure"
    . Springer Materials. Retrieved2019-12-23.
    .
  3. "Y
    4
    Al
    2
    O
    9
    ; YAM (Y
    4
    Al
    2
    O
    9
    rt) Crystal Structure"
    . Springer Materials. Retrieved2020-01-28.
  4. Sim, S.M.; Keller, K.A.; Mah, T.I. (2000). "Phase formation in yttrium aluminium garnet powders synthesized by chemical methods". Journal of Materials Science. 35 (3): 713–717. Bibcode:2000JMatS..35..713S. doi:10.1023/A:1004709401795. S2CID 92455146.
  5. Kalisky, Yehoshua (1997). "Hosts for Solid State Luminescent Systems". In Rotman, Stanley R. (ed.). Wide-Gap Luminescent Materials: Theory and Applications: Theory and Applications. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9780792398370.
  6. Rice, Addison. "How to Spot a Fake Diamond: What These 13 Tests Really Mean!". International Gem Society. Retrieved2021-02-15.
  7. V. Lupei, , A. Lupei "Nd:YAG at its 50th anniversary: Still to learn" Journal of Luminescence 2015, doi:10.1016/j.jlumin.2015.04.018
  8. "ND:YAG crystal (neodymium doped yttrium aluminium garnet)". Red Optronics.
  9. Z. J. Kiss and R. J. Pressley (1996). "Crystalline solid lasers". Proceedings of the IEEE. 54 (10): 1236. doi:10.1109/PROC.1966.5112.
  10. Saiki, T; Imasaki, K; Motokoshi, S; Yamanaka, C; Fujita, H; Nakatsuka, M; Izawa, Y (2006). "Disk-type Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic lasers pumped by arc-metal-halide-lamp". Optics Communications. 268 (1): 155. Bibcode:2006OptCo.268..155S. doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2006.07.002.
  11. Grant-Jacob, James A.; Beecher, Stephen J.; Parsonage, Tina L.; Hua, Ping; Mackenzie, Jacob I.; Shepherd, David P.; Eason, Robert W. (2016-01-01). "An 115 W Yb:YAG planar waveguide laser fabricated via pulsed laser deposition"(PDF). Optical Materials Express. 6 (1): 91. Bibcode:2016OMExp...6...91G. doi:10.1364/ome.6.000091. ISSN 2159-3930.
  12. Beecher, Stephen J.; Grant-Jacob, James A.; Hua, Ping; Shepherd, David; Eason, Robert W.; Mackenzie, Jacob I. (2016-10-30). "Laser Performance of Yb-doped-Garnet Thin Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition". Lasers Congress 2016 (ASSL, LSC, LAC). Optical Society of America: AM3A.3. doi:10.1364/assl.2016.am3a.3. ISBN 978-1-943580-20-0.
  13. Koechner, Walter (2006). Solid-state laser engineering. Springer. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-387-29094-2.
  14. Paschotta, Rüdiger. "Chromium-doped gain media". Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology. RP Photonics. RetrievedApril 2, 2011.
  15. Goss, L.P.; Smith, A.A.; Post, M.E. (1989). "Surface thermometry by laser-induced fluorescence". Review of Scientific Instruments. 60 (12): 3702–3706. Bibcode:1989RScI...60.3702G. doi:10.1063/1.1140478.
  16. Carreira, J. F. C. (2017). "YAG:Dy – Based single white light emitting phosphor produced by solution combustion synthesis". Journal of Luminescence. 183: 251–258. Bibcode:2017JLum..183..251C. doi:10.1016/j.jlumin.2016.11.017.
  17. G. Blasse and A. Bril, "A new phosphor for flying-spot cathode-ray tubes for color televisions", Appl. Phys. Lett., 11, 1967, 53-54 doi:10.1063/1.1755025

Yttrium aluminium garnet
Yttrium aluminium garnet Language Watch Edit YAG redirects here For the IATA airport code see Fort Frances Municipal Airport For the YMCA sponsored program see YMCA Youth and Government Yttrium aluminium garnet YAG Y3Al5O12 is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group It is a cubic yttrium aluminium oxide phase with other examples being YAlO3 YAP 2 in a hexagonal or an orthorhombic perovskite like form and the monoclinic Y4Al2O9 YAM 3 4 Yttrium aluminium garnetGeneralCategorysynthetic mineralFormula repeating unit Y3Al5O12Crystal systemCubicIdentificationColorUsually colorless but may be pink red orange yellow green blue purpleCleavageNoneFractureConchoidal to unevenMohs scale hardness8 5LusterVitreous to subadamantineSpecific gravity4 5 4 6Polish lusterVitreous to subadamantineOptical propertiesSingle refractiveRefractive index1 833 0 010BirefringenceNonePleochroismNoneDispersion0 028Ultraviolet fluorescenceColorless stones inert to moderate orange in long wave inert to weak orange in short wave blue and pink stones inert yellow green stones very strong yellow in long and short wave also phosphoresces green stones strong red in long wave weak red in short waveReferences 1 YAG like garnet and sapphire has no uses as a laser medium when pure However after being doped with an appropriate ion YAG is commonly used as a host material in various solid state lasers 5 Rare earth elements such as neodymium and erbium can be doped into YAG as active laser ions yielding Nd YAG and Er YAG lasers respectively Cerium doped YAG Ce YAG is used as a phosphor in cathode ray tubes and white light emitting diodes and as a scintillator Contents 1 Gemstone YAG 2 Technical use varieties 2 1 Nd YAG 2 2 Nd Cr YAG 2 3 Er YAG 2 4 Yb YAG 2 5 Nd Ce YAG 2 6 Ho Cr Tm YAG 2 7 Tm YAG 2 8 Cr4 YAG 2 9 Dy YAG 2 10 Sm YAG 2 11 Tb YAG 2 12 Ce YAG 3 See also 4 ReferencesGemstone YAG EditYAG for a period was used in jewelry as a diamond and other gemstone simulant Colored variants and their doping elements include 1 green chromium blue cobalt red manganese yellow titanium blue pink purple neodymium depending on light source pink and orange As faceted gems they are valued as synthetics for their clarity durability high refractive index and dispersion and occasionally properties like simulating Alexandrite s color changing property The critical angle of YAG is 33 degrees YAG cuts like natural garnet with polishing being performed with alumina or diamond 50 000 or 100 000 grit on common polishing laps YAG has low heat sensitivity 6 As a synthetic gemstone YAG has numerous varietal and trade names as well as a number of misnomers Synonymous names include alexite amamite circolite dia bud diamite diamogem diamonair diamone diamonique diamonite diamonte di yag geminair gemonair kimberly Linde simulated diamond nier gem regalair replique somerset triamond YAIG and yttrium garnet Production for the gem trade decreased after the introduction of synthetic cubic zirconia as of 1995 update there was little production 1 Some demand exists as synthetic garnet and for designs where the very high refractive index of cubic zirconia is not desirable citation needed Technical use varieties EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed April 2013 Learn how and when to remove this template message Nd YAG Edit Main article Nd YAG laser Nd YAG laser rod 0 5 cm in diameter Neodymium doped YAG Nd YAG was developed in the early 1960s and the first working Nd YAG laser was invented in 1964 Neodymium YAG is the most widely used active laser medium in solid state lasers being used for everything from low power continuous wave lasers to high power Q switched pulsed lasers with power levels measured in the kilowatts 7 The thermal conductivity of Nd YAG is higher and its fluorescence lifetime is about twice as long as that of Nd YVO4 crystals however it is not as efficient and is less stable requiring more precisely controlled temperatures The best absorption band of Nd YAG for pumping the laser is centered at 807 5 nm and is 1 nm wide 8 Most Nd YAG lasers produce infrared light at a wavelength of 1064 nm Light at this wavelength is rather dangerous to vision since it can be focused by the eye s lens onto the retina but the light is invisible and does not trigger the blink reflex Nd YAG lasers can also be used with frequency doubling or frequency tripling crystals to produce green light with a wavelength of 532 nm or ultraviolet light at 355 nm respectively The dopant concentration in commonly used Nd YAG crystals usually varies between 0 5 and 1 4 molar percent Higher dopant concentration is used for pulsed lasers lower concentration is suitable for continuous wave lasers Nd YAG is pinkish purple with lighter doped rods being less intensely colored than heavier doped ones Since its absorption spectrum is narrow the hue depends on the light under which it is observed Nd Cr YAG Edit YAG doped with neodymium and chromium Nd Cr YAG or Nd Cr YAG has absorption characteristics which are superior to Nd YAG This is because energy is absorbed by the broad absorption bands of the Cr3 dopant and then transferred to Nd3 by dipole dipole interactions 9 This material has been suggested for use in solar pumped lasers which could form part of a solar power satellite system 10 Er YAG Edit Main article Er YAG laser Erbium doped YAG Er YAG is an active laser medium lasing at 2940 nm Its absorption bands suitable for pumping are wide and located between 600 and 800 nm allowing for efficient flashlamp pumping The dopant concentration used is high about 50 of the yttrium atoms are replaced The Er YAG laser wavelength couples well into water and body fluids making this laser especially useful for medicine and dentistry uses it is used for treatment of tooth enamel and in cosmetic surgery Er YAG is used for noninvasive monitoring of blood sugar The mechanical properties of Er YAG are essentially the same as Nd YAG Er YAG operates at wavelengths where the threshold for eye damage is relatively high since the light is absorbed before striking the retina works well at room temperature and has high slope efficiency Er YAG is pale green Yb YAG Edit Ytterbium doped YAG Yb YAG is an active laser medium lasing at 1030 nm with a broad 18 nm wide absorption band at 940 nm 11 It is one of the most useful media for high power diode pumped solid state lasers The dopant levels used range between 0 2 and 30 of replaced yttrium atoms Yb YAG has very low fractional heating very high slope efficiency 12 and no excited state absorption or up conversion high mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity Yb YAG can be pumped by reliable InGaAs laser diodes at 940 or 970 nm Yb YAG is a good substitute for 1064 nm Nd YAG in high power applications and its frequency doubled 515 nm version can replace the 514 nm argon lasers Nd Ce YAG Edit Neodymium cerium double doped YAG Nd Ce YAG or Nd Ce YAG is an active laser medium material very similar to Nd YAG The added cerium atoms strongly absorb in the ultraviolet region and transfer their energy to the neodymium atoms increasing the pumping efficiency the result is lower thermal distortion and higher power output than Nd YAG at the same pumping level The lasing wavelength 1064 nm is the same as for Nd YAG The material has a good resistance to damage caused by UV from the pump source and low lasing threshold Usually 1 1 1 4 of Y atoms are replaced with Nd and 0 05 0 1 with Ce Ho Cr Tm YAG Edit Holmium chromium thulium triple doped YAG Ho Cr Tm YAG or Ho Cr Tm YAG is an active laser medium material with high efficiency It lases at 2080 nm and can be pumped by a flashlamp or a laser diode 13 It is widely used in military medicine and meteorology It works well at room temperature has high slope efficiency and operates at a wavelength where the threshold for eye damage is relatively high When pumped by a diode the 785 nm band for Tm3 ion can be used 13 Other major pump bands are located between 400 and 800 nm The dopant levels used are 0 35 atom Ho 5 8 atom Tm and 1 5 at Cr The rods have green color imparted by chromium III Tm YAG Edit Thulium doped YAG Tm YAG is an active laser medium that operates between 1930 and 2040 nm It is suitable for diode pumping A dual mode Tm YAG laser emits two frequencies separated by 1 GHz Cr4 YAG Edit Chromium IV doped YAG Cr YAG provides a large absorption cross section in the 0 9 1 2 micrometer spectral region which makes it an attractive choice as a passive Q switch for Nd doped lasers The resulting devices are solid state compact and low cost Cr YAG has high damage threshold good thermal conductivity good chemical stability resists ultraviolet radiation and is easily machinable It is replacing more traditional Q switching materials like lithium fluoride and organic dyes The dopant levels used range between 0 5 and 3 percent molar Cr YAG can be used for passive Q switching of lasers that operate at wavelengths between 1000 and 1200 nm such as those based on Nd YAG Nd YLF Nd YVO4 and Yb YAG Cr YAG can be also used as a laser gain medium itself producing tunable lasers with outputs adjustable between 1350 and 1550 nm The Cr YAG laser can generate ultrashort pulses in the femtoseconds range when it is pumped at 1064 nm by a Nd YAG laser 14 Cr YAG has been demonstrated in an application of non linear optics as a self pumped phase conjugate mirror in a Nd YAG loop resonator citation needed Such a mirror provides compensation of both phase and polarization aberrations induced into the loop resonator Dy YAG Edit Dysprosium doped YAG Dy YAG is a temperature sensitive phosphor used in temperature measurements The phosphor is excited by a laser pulse and its temperature dependent fluorescence is observed Dy YAG is sensitive in ranges of 300 1700 K 15 The phosphor can be applied directly to the measured surface or to an end of an optical fiber It has also been studied as a single phase white emitting phosphor in phosphor converted white light emitting diodes 16 Sm YAG Edit Samarium doped YAG Sm YAG is a temperature sensitive phosphor similar to Dy YAG Tb YAG Edit Terbium doped YAG Tb YAG is a phosphor used in cathode ray tubes It emits at yellow green color at 544 nm Ce YAG Edit Cerium III doped YAG Ce YAG or YAG Ce is a phosphor or a scintillator when in pure single crystal form with a wide range of uses It emits yellow light when subjected to blue or ultraviolet light or to x rays 17 It is used in white light emitting diodes as a coating on a high brightness blue InGaN diode converting part of the blue light into yellow which together then appear as white Such an arrangement gives less than ideal color rendering The output brightness decreases with increasing temperature further altering device color output citation needed Ce YAG is also used in some mercury vapor lamps as one of the phosphors often together with Eu Y P V O4 yttrium phosphate vanadate It is also used as a phosphor in cathode ray tubes where it emits green 530 nm to yellow green 550 nm light When excited by electrons it has virtually no afterglow 70 ns decay time It is suitable for use in photomultipliers Ce YAG is used in PET scanners high energy gamma radiation and charged particle detectors and high resolution imaging screens for gamma x rays beta radiation and ultraviolet radiation Ce YAG can be further doped with gadolinum See also EditYttrium iron garnet Micro Pulling Down Nd YAG laser Er YAG laserReferences Edit a b c Gemological Institute of America GIA Gem Reference Guide 1995 ISBN 0 87311 019 6 YAlO3 YAP YAlO3 ht Crystal Structure Springer Materials Retrieved 2019 12 23 Y4 Al2 O9 YAM Y4 Al2 O9 rt Crystal Structure Springer Materials Retrieved 2020 01 28 Sim S M Keller K A Mah T I 2000 Phase formation in yttrium aluminium garnet powders synthesized by chemical methods Journal of Materials Science 35 3 713 717 Bibcode 2000JMatS 35 713S doi 10 1023 A 1004709401795 S2CID 92455146 Kalisky Yehoshua 1997 Hosts for Solid State Luminescent Systems In Rotman Stanley R ed Wide Gap Luminescent Materials Theory and Applications Theory and Applications Springer Science amp Business Media ISBN 9780792398370 Rice Addison How to Spot a Fake Diamond What These 13 Tests Really Mean International Gem Society Retrieved 2021 02 15 V Lupei A Lupei Nd YAG at its 50th anniversary Still to learn Journal of Luminescence 2015 doi 10 1016 j jlumin 2015 04 018 ND YAG crystal neodymium doped yttrium aluminium garnet Red Optronics Z J Kiss and R J Pressley 1996 Crystalline solid lasers Proceedings of the IEEE 54 10 1236 doi 10 1109 PROC 1966 5112 Saiki T Imasaki K Motokoshi S Yamanaka C Fujita H Nakatsuka M Izawa Y 2006 Disk type Nd Cr YAG ceramic lasers pumped by arc metal halide lamp Optics Communications 268 1 155 Bibcode 2006OptCo 268 155S doi 10 1016 j optcom 2006 07 002 Grant Jacob James A Beecher Stephen J Parsonage Tina L Hua Ping Mackenzie Jacob I Shepherd David P Eason Robert W 2016 01 01 An 115 W Yb YAG planar waveguide laser fabricated via pulsed laser deposition PDF Optical Materials Express 6 1 91 Bibcode 2016OMExp 6 91G doi 10 1364 ome 6 000091 ISSN 2159 3930 Beecher Stephen J Grant Jacob James A Hua Ping Shepherd David Eason Robert W Mackenzie Jacob I 2016 10 30 Laser Performance of Yb doped Garnet Thin Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition Lasers Congress 2016 ASSL LSC LAC Optical Society of America AM3A 3 doi 10 1364 assl 2016 am3a 3 ISBN 978 1 943580 20 0 a b Koechner Walter 2006 Solid state laser engineering Springer p 49 ISBN 978 0 387 29094 2 Paschotta Rudiger Chromium doped gain media Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology RP Photonics Retrieved April 2 2011 Goss L P Smith A A Post M E 1989 Surface thermometry by laser induced fluorescence Review of Scientific Instruments 60 12 3702 3706 Bibcode 1989RScI 60 3702G doi 10 1063 1 1140478 Carreira J F C 2017 YAG Dy Based single white light emitting phosphor produced by solution combustion synthesis Journal of Luminescence 183 251 258 Bibcode 2017JLum 183 251C doi 10 1016 j jlumin 2016 11 017 G Blasse and A Bril A new phosphor for flying spot cathode ray tubes for color televisions Appl Phys Lett 11 1967 53 54 doi 10 1063 1 1755025 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yttrium aluminium garnet amp oldid 1053808277, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.