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Yucatán Peninsula

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The Yucatán Peninsula (, alsoUK: ,US: ; Spanish: Península de Yucatán pronounced ) is a large peninsula in southeastern Mexico and adjacent portions of Belize and Guatemala. The peninsula extends towards the northeast, separating the Gulf of Mexico to the north and west of the peninsula from the Caribbean Sea to the east. The Yucatán Channel, between the northeastern corner of the peninsula and Cuba, connects the two bodies of water.

Yucatán Peninsula
Satellite image of the Yucatán Peninsula
Geography
LocationNorth America
Coordinates19°22′00″N89°12′00″W /19.36667°N 89.20000°W /19.36667; -89.20000Coordinates: 19°22′00″N89°12′00″W /19.36667°N 89.20000°W /19.36667; -89.20000
Adjacent bodies of water

The peninsula is approximately 181,000 km2 (70,000 sq mi) in area. It has low relief, and is almost entirely composed of porous limestone.

The peninsula lies east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the narrowest point in Mexico separating the Atlantic Ocean, including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, from the Pacific Ocean. Some consider the isthmus to be the geographic boundary between Central America and the rest of North America, placing the peninsula in Central America. Politically all of Mexico, including the Yucatán, is generally considered part of North America, while Guatemala and Belize are considered part of Central America.

Contents

The proper derivation of the word Yucatán is widely debated. 17th century Franciscan historian Diego López de Cogolludo offers two theories in particular. In the first one, Francisco Hernández de Córdoba, having first arrived to the peninsula in 1517, inquired the name of a certain settlement and the response in Yucatec Mayan was "I don't understand", which sounded like yucatán to the Spaniards. There are many possibilities of what the natives could have actually said, among which "mathan cauyi athán", "tectecán", "ma'anaatik ka t'ann" and "ci u t'ann". This origin story was first told by Hernán Cortés in his letters to Charles V. Later 16th century historians Motolinia and Francisco López de Gómara also repeat this version. In some versions the expedition is not the one captained by Córdoba but instead the one a year later captained by Juan de Grijalva. The second major theory is that the name is in some way related to the yuca crop, as written by Bernal Díaz del Castillo. Others theories claim that it is a derivative of Chontal Tabascan word yokat'an meaning speaker of the Yoko ochoco language, or an incorrect Nahuatl term yokatlan as supposedly "place of richness" (yohcāuh cannot be paired with tlán).

Pre-human

The Yucatán Peninsula is the site of the Chicxulub crater impact, which was created 66 million years ago by an asteroid of about 10 to 15 kilometers (6 to 9 miles) in diameter at the end of the Cretaceous Period.

Prehistory

In 2020, an underwater archaeological expedition led by Jerónimo Avilés excavated Chan Hol cave, near the Tulum archaeological site in the state of Quintana Roo on the peninsula, and revealed the skeleton of a woman approximately 30 years of age who lived at least 9,900 years ago. According to craniometric measurements, the skull is believed to conform to the mesocephalic pattern, like the other three skulls found in Tulum caves. Three different scars on the skull of the woman showed that she was hit with something hard and her skull bones were broken. Her skull also had crater-like deformations and tissue deformities that appeared to be caused by a bacterial relative of syphilis.

According to study lead researcher Wolfgang Stinnesbeck, "It really looks as if this woman had a very hard time and an extremely unhappy end of her life. Obviously, this is speculative, but given the traumas and the pathological deformations on her skull, it appears a likely scenario that she may have been expelled from her group and was killed in the cave, or was left in the cave to die there”.[citation needed]

The newly discovered skeleton was 140 meters away from the Chan Hol 2 site. Although archaeologists assumed the divers found the remains of the missing Chan Hol 2, the analysis proved that these assumptions were erroneous in a short time. Stinnesbeck compared the new bones to old photographs of Chan Hol 2 and showed that the two skeletons represent different individuals.

Due to their distinctive features, study co-researcher Samuel Rennie suggest the existence of at least two morphologically diverse groups of people living separately in Mexico during the transition from Pleistocene to Holocene.

Maya

Main article: Maya civilization
Relief map of the Yucatán Peninsula showing major Mayan archeological sites.

The Yucatán Peninsula constitutes a significant proportion of the ancient Maya lowlands and was the central location of the Mayan Civilization. The Mayan culture also extended south of the Yucatán Peninsula into Guatemala, Honduras and into the highlands of Chiapas. There are many Maya archaeological sites throughout the peninsula; some of the better-known are Chichen Itza, Coba, Tulum and Uxmal. Indigenous Maya and Mestizos of partial Maya descent make up a sizable portion of the region's population, and Mayan languages are widely spoken there.

Spanish conquest

Sediment off the Yucatán Peninsula.

The peninsula is the exposed portion of the larger Yucatán Platform, all of which is composed of carbonate and soluble rocks, being mostly limestone although dolomite and evaporites are also present at various depths. The whole of the Yucatán Peninsula is an unconfined flat lying karst landscape. Sinkholes, known locally as cenotes, are widespread in the northern lowlands.

According to the Alvarez hypothesis, the mass extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs at the transition from the Cretaceous to the Paleogene Period, the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary (K–Pg boundary), 65 million years ago was caused by an asteroid impact somewhere in the greater Caribbean Basin. The deeply buried Chicxulub crater is centered off the north coast of the peninsula near the town of Chicxulub. The now-famous "Ring of Cenotes," a geologic structure composed of sinkholes arranged in a semi-circle, outlines one of the shock-waves from this impact event in the ~66 million year old rock. The existence of the crater has been supported by evidence including the aforementioned "Ring of Cenotes", as well as the presence of impact debris such as shocked quartz and tektites, a type of glass formed during meteorite impacts.

The Arrowsmith Bank is a submerged bank located off the northeastern end of the peninsula.

The peninsula has a tropical climate, which ranges from semi-arid in the northwest to humid in the south. Average annual rainfall ranges from less than 800 mm (30 inches) in the driest parts of the northwest up to 2,000 mm (80 inches) in the Petén Basin to the south. Rainfall varies seasonally, with August and September generally the driest months.

Like much of the Caribbean, the peninsula lies within the Atlantic Hurricane Belt, and with its almost uniformly flat terrain it is vulnerable to these large storms coming from the east, and the area has been devastated by many hurricanes, such as Hurricane Gilbert, Hurricane Emily, Hurricane Wilma, and Hurricane Dean.

Strong storms called nortes can quickly descend on the Yucatán Peninsula any time of year. Although these storms pummel the area with heavy rains and high winds, they tend to be short-lived, clearing after about an hour. The average percentage of days with rain per month ranges from a monthly low of 7% in April to a high of 25% in October. Breezes can have a cooling effect, humidity is generally high, particularly in the remaining rainforest areas.

Due to the extreme karst nature of the whole peninsula, the northern half is devoid of rivers. Where lakes and swamps are present, the water is marshy and generally unpotable. Due to its coastal location, the whole of the peninsula is underlain by an extensive contiguous density stratified coastal aquifer, where a fresh water lens formed from meteoric water floats on top of intruding saline water from the coastal margins. The thousands of sinkholes known as cenotes throughout the region provide access to the groundwater system. The cenotes have long been relied on by ancient and contemporary Maya people.

The vegetation and plant communities of the peninsula vary from north to south. The Yucatán dry forests occupy the dry northwestern peninsula, and include dry forests and scrublands and cactus scrub. The Yucatán moist forests occur across the middle and east of the peninsula, and are characterized by semi-deciduous forests where 25 to 50% of the trees lose their leaves during the summer dry season. The Belizian pine forests are found in several enclaves across central Belize. The southernmost portion of the peninsula is in the Petén–Veracruz moist forests ecoregion, an evergreen rain forest.

Northern Guatemala (El Petén), Mexico (Campeche and Quintana Roo), and western Belize are still occupied by the largest continuous tracts of tropical rainforest in Central America. However, these forests are suffering extensive deforestation.

Mangroves occur along the coast, with the Usumacinta mangroves around the Laguna de Términos in the southwest, the Ría Lagartos mangroves along the northern shore of the peninsula, and the Mayan Corridor mangroves and Belizean Coast mangroves to the east along the Caribbean Sea.

The Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System is an immense coral barrier reef which stretches over 1,100 km (700 miles) along the eastern coast of the peninsula.

The peninsula comprises the Mexican states of Yucatán, Campeche, and Quintana Roo, as well as Guatemala's Petén Department and almost the whole of Belize.

Cantarell
Location of the "Ring of Cenotes" on the Yucatan Peninsula.

In the late historic and early modern eras, the Yucatán Peninsula was largely a cattle ranching, logging, chicle and henequen production area. Since the 1970s, the Yucatán Peninsula has reoriented its economy towards tourism, especially in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Aside from tourism, another source of income that is important in the Peninsula is logging as well as chicle industries specifically in Belize. Oil was also found in certain parts of the Yucatán, bringing in more economic opportunities. Once a small fishing village, Cancún in the northeast of the peninsula has grown into a thriving city. The Riviera Maya, which stretches along the east coast of the peninsula between Cancún and Tulum, houses over 50,000 beds. The best-known locations are the former fishing town of Playa del Carmen, the ecological parks Xcaret and Xel-Há and the Maya ruins of Tulum and Coba.

Population throughout the Yucatan Peninsula is very different throughout each part of the Peninsula. Population density and ethnic composition are two factors that play into the total population. The most populated area is Mérida in Yucatan state as well as the areas that surround that region. The least populated part of the peninsula is Quintana Roo which is a state located in the Southeastern part of Mexico. In terms of ethnic composition, a majority of the population consisted of both Maya and Mestizos.

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  6. Scheffel, Richard L.; Wernet, Susan J., eds. (1980). Natural Wonders of the World. United States of America: Reader's Digest Association, Inc. p. 420. ISBN 0-89577-087-3.
  7. Mayr, Renate Johanna (2014). Belize : tracking the path of its history : from the heart of the Maya Empire to a retreat for buccaneers, a safe-haven for ex-pirates and pioneers, a crown colony and a modern nation. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 36. ISBN 9783643904812. RetrievedFebruary 9, 2020.
  8. Kane, Njord (2016). The Maya: The Story of a People. Spangenhelm Publishing. ISBN 9781943066049. RetrievedFebruary 9, 2020.
  9. González, John Morán; Lomas, Laura (2018). The Cambridge History of Latina/o American Literature. Cambridge University Press. p. 36. ISBN 9781316873670. RetrievedFebruary 9, 2020.
  10. Cartas y relaciones de Hernan Cortés al emperador Carlos V (in Spanish). Paris: A. Chaix y ca. 1866. p. 1 footnote 2. Retrieved2010-12-13.
  11. "Ibero-American Electronic Text Series: Primera Carta de Relación, PREÁMBULO" (in Spanish). Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. 1945. Retrieved2010-12-13.
  12. Hajovsky, Ric (2011). "How Yucatan got its name". Everything Cozumel. RetrievedFebruary 3, 2020.
  13. Beding, Silvio A. (2016). The Christopher Columbus encyclopedia. Springer. p. 304. ISBN 9781349125739. RetrievedFebruary 9, 2020.
  14. Renne, P. R.; Deino, A. L.; Hilgen, F. J.; Kuiper, K. F.; Mark, D. F.; Mitchell, W. S.; Morgan, L. E.; Mundil, R.; Smit, J. (2013). "Time Scales of Critical Events Around the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary". Science. 339 (6120): 684–687. Bibcode:2013Sci...339..684R. doi:10.1126/science.1230492. PMID 23393261. S2CID 6112274.
  15. Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Rennie, Samuel R.; Olguín, Jerónimo Avilés; Stinnesbeck, Sarah R.; Gonzalez, Silvia; Frank, Norbert; Warken, Sophie; Schorndorf, Nils; Krengel, Thomas; Morlet, Adriana Velázquez; González, Arturo González (2020-02-05). "New evidence for an early settlement of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico: The Chan Hol 3 woman and her meaning for the Peopling of the Americas". PLOS ONE. 15 (2): e0227984. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0227984. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC7001910. PMID 32023279.
  16. PLOS (2020-02-05). "9,900-Year-Old Skeleton Discovered in Submerged Mexican Cave Has a Distinctive Skull". SciTechDaily. Retrieved2020-03-19.
  17. February 2020, Laura Geggel-Associate Editor 05. "9,900-year-old skeleton of horribly disfigured woman found in Mexican cave". livescience.com. Retrieved2020-03-19.
  18. "Yucatan map".
  19. Yarris, Lynn (2010-03-09). "Alvarez Theory on Dinosaur Die-Out Upheld: Experts Find Asteroid Guilty of Killing the Dinosaurs". News Center. Retrieved2020-12-08.
  20. "Chicxulub Crater and Ring of Cenotes". Karst Geochemistry and Hydrogeology. 2018-04-04. Retrieved2020-12-08.
  21. Arrowsmith Bank, Undersea Features - Geographical Names
  22. Torrescano-Valle, Nuria, et al. (2015). "Physical Settings, Environmental History with an Outlook on Global Change." In Islebe, Gerald Alexander, Sophie Calmé, et al. (eds.) Biodiversity and Conservation of the Yucatán Peninsula. Springer International Publishing, 2015. ISBN 978-3-319-06529-8.
  23. [1]
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  26. Heilprin, Angelo (1891). "Observations on the Flora of Northern Yucatan". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 29 (136): 137–144. JSTOR 982931.
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  • Juan Luis Pena Chapa, Manuel Martin Castillo, and Juan Carlos Gonzalez Avila, The Performance of the Economy of the Yucatan Peninsula from 1970–1993 [2]
  • Marcio L. Teixeira,The Impact of the Geologic History of the Yucatán Peninsula on the Present Day Aquifer,2004 [3]
  • Angelo Heilprin,Observations on the Flora of Northern Yucatan [4]

Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatan Peninsula Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Yucatan region This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Yucatan Peninsula news newspapers books scholar JSTOR February 2016 Learn how and when to remove this template message The Yucatan Peninsula ˌ j uː k e ˈ t ɑː n 1 also UK ˌ j ʊ k 2 US ˈ t ae n ˌ j uː k ɑː ˈ t ɑː n 1 3 4 Spanish Peninsula de Yucatan pronounced jukaˈtan is a large peninsula in southeastern Mexico and adjacent portions of Belize and Guatemala The peninsula extends towards the northeast separating the Gulf of Mexico to the north and west of the peninsula from the Caribbean Sea to the east The Yucatan Channel between the northeastern corner of the peninsula and Cuba connects the two bodies of water Yucatan PeninsulaSatellite image of the Yucatan PeninsulaGeographyLocationNorth AmericaCoordinates19 22 00 N 89 12 00 W 19 36667 N 89 20000 W 19 36667 89 20000 Coordinates 19 22 00 N 89 12 00 W 19 36667 N 89 20000 W 19 36667 89 20000Adjacent bodies of waterBay of Campeche West Caribbean Sea East Gulf of Honduras Southeast Gulf of Mexico North Yucatan Channel Northeast The peninsula is approximately 181 000 km2 70 000 sq mi in area It has low relief and is almost entirely composed of porous limestone 5 6 The peninsula lies east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec the narrowest point in Mexico separating the Atlantic Ocean including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea from the Pacific Ocean Some consider the isthmus to be the geographic boundary between Central America and the rest of North America placing the peninsula in Central America 5 Politically all of Mexico including the Yucatan is generally considered part of North America while Guatemala and Belize are considered part of Central America Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2 1 Pre human 2 2 Prehistory 2 3 Maya 2 4 Spanish conquest 3 Geology 4 Climate 5 Water resources 6 Ecology 7 Governance 8 Economy 9 Population 10 References 11 External linksEtymology EditThe proper derivation of the word Yucatan is widely debated 17th century Franciscan historian Diego Lopez de Cogolludo offers two theories in particular 7 In the first one Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba having first arrived to the peninsula in 1517 inquired the name of a certain settlement and the response in Yucatec Mayan was I don t understand which sounded like yucatan to the Spaniards 7 8 There are many possibilities of what the natives could have actually said among which mathan cauyi athan tectecan ma anaatik ka t ann and ci u t ann 7 8 9 This origin story was first told by Hernan Cortes in his letters to Charles V 10 11 12 Later 16th century historians Motolinia and Francisco Lopez de Gomara also repeat this version 12 In some versions the expedition is not the one captained by Cordoba but instead the one a year later captained by Juan de Grijalva 13 The second major theory is that the name is in some way related to the yuca crop as written by Bernal Diaz del Castillo 7 12 Others theories claim that it is a derivative of Chontal Tabascan word yokat an meaning speaker of the Yoko ochoco language or an incorrect Nahuatl term yokatlan as supposedly place of richness yohcauh cannot be paired with tlan 12 History EditPre human Edit The Yucatan Peninsula is the site of the Chicxulub crater impact which was created 66 million years ago by an asteroid of about 10 to 15 kilometers 6 to 9 miles in diameter at the end of the Cretaceous Period 14 Prehistory Edit In 2020 an underwater archaeological expedition led by Jeronimo Aviles excavated Chan Hol cave near the Tulum archaeological site in the state of Quintana Roo on the peninsula and revealed the skeleton of a woman approximately 30 years of age who lived at least 9 900 years ago According to craniometric measurements the skull is believed to conform to the mesocephalic pattern like the other three skulls found in Tulum caves Three different scars on the skull of the woman showed that she was hit with something hard and her skull bones were broken Her skull also had crater like deformations and tissue deformities that appeared to be caused by a bacterial relative of syphilis 15 According to study lead researcher Wolfgang Stinnesbeck It really looks as if this woman had a very hard time and an extremely unhappy end of her life Obviously this is speculative but given the traumas and the pathological deformations on her skull it appears a likely scenario that she may have been expelled from her group and was killed in the cave or was left in the cave to die there citation needed The newly discovered skeleton was 140 meters away from the Chan Hol 2 site Although archaeologists assumed the divers found the remains of the missing Chan Hol 2 the analysis proved that these assumptions were erroneous in a short time Stinnesbeck compared the new bones to old photographs of Chan Hol 2 and showed that the two skeletons represent different individuals 16 Due to their distinctive features study co researcher Samuel Rennie suggest the existence of at least two morphologically diverse groups of people living separately in Mexico during the transition from Pleistocene to Holocene 17 Maya Edit Main article Maya civilization Relief map of the Yucatan Peninsula showing major Mayan archeological sites The Yucatan Peninsula constitutes a significant proportion of the ancient Maya lowlands and was the central location of the Mayan Civilization The Mayan culture also extended south of the Yucatan Peninsula into Guatemala Honduras and into the highlands of Chiapas 6 There are many Maya archaeological sites throughout the peninsula some of the better known are Chichen Itza Coba Tulum and Uxmal 18 Indigenous Maya and Mestizos of partial Maya descent make up a sizable portion of the region s population and Mayan languages are widely spoken there Spanish conquest Edit Main article Spanish conquest of YucatanGeology Edit Sediment off the Yucatan Peninsula The peninsula is the exposed portion of the larger Yucatan Platform all of which is composed of carbonate and soluble rocks being mostly limestone although dolomite and evaporites are also present at various depths The whole of the Yucatan Peninsula is an unconfined flat lying karst landscape 6 Sinkholes known locally as cenotes are widespread in the northern lowlands According to the Alvarez hypothesis the mass extinction of the non avian dinosaurs at the transition from the Cretaceous to the Paleogene Period the Cretaceous Paleogene boundary K Pg boundary 65 million years ago was caused by an asteroid impact somewhere in the greater Caribbean Basin 19 The deeply buried Chicxulub crater is centered off the north coast of the peninsula near the town of Chicxulub The now famous Ring of Cenotes a geologic structure composed of sinkholes arranged in a semi circle outlines one of the shock waves from this impact event in the 66 million year old rock The existence of the crater has been supported by evidence including the aforementioned Ring of Cenotes as well as the presence of impact debris such as shocked quartz and tektites a type of glass formed during meteorite impacts 20 The Arrowsmith Bank is a submerged bank located off the northeastern end of the peninsula 21 Climate EditThe peninsula has a tropical climate which ranges from semi arid in the northwest to humid in the south Average annual rainfall ranges from less than 800 mm 30 inches in the driest parts of the northwest up to 2 000 mm 80 inches in the Peten Basin to the south Rainfall varies seasonally with August and September generally the driest months 22 Like much of the Caribbean the peninsula lies within the Atlantic Hurricane Belt and with its almost uniformly flat terrain it is vulnerable to these large storms coming from the east and the area has been devastated by many hurricanes such as Hurricane Gilbert Hurricane Emily Hurricane Wilma and Hurricane Dean Strong storms called nortes can quickly descend on the Yucatan Peninsula any time of year Although these storms pummel the area with heavy rains and high winds they tend to be short lived clearing after about an hour The average percentage of days with rain per month ranges from a monthly low of 7 in April to a high of 25 in October Breezes can have a cooling effect humidity is generally high particularly in the remaining rainforest areas 23 Water resources EditDue to the extreme karst nature of the whole peninsula the northern half is devoid of rivers Where lakes and swamps are present the water is marshy and generally unpotable Due to its coastal location the whole of the peninsula is underlain by an extensive contiguous density stratified coastal aquifer where a fresh water lens formed from meteoric water floats on top of intruding saline water from the coastal margins The thousands of sinkholes known as cenotes throughout the region provide access to the groundwater system The cenotes have long been relied on by ancient and contemporary Maya people 6 24 Ecology EditThe vegetation and plant communities of the peninsula vary from north to south The Yucatan dry forests occupy the dry northwestern peninsula and include dry forests and scrublands and cactus scrub The Yucatan moist forests occur across the middle and east of the peninsula and are characterized by semi deciduous forests where 25 to 50 of the trees lose their leaves during the summer dry season The Belizian pine forests are found in several enclaves across central Belize The southernmost portion of the peninsula is in the Peten Veracruz moist forests ecoregion an evergreen rain forest 25 Northern Guatemala El Peten Mexico Campeche and Quintana Roo and western Belize are still occupied by the largest continuous tracts of tropical rainforest in Central America However these forests are suffering extensive deforestation 26 Mangroves occur along the coast with the Usumacinta mangroves around the Laguna de Terminos in the southwest the Ria Lagartos mangroves along the northern shore of the peninsula and the Mayan Corridor mangroves and Belizean Coast mangroves to the east along the Caribbean Sea 25 The Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System is an immense coral barrier reef which stretches over 1 100 km 700 miles along the eastern coast of the peninsula Governance EditThe peninsula comprises the Mexican states of Yucatan Campeche and Quintana Roo as well as Guatemala s Peten Department and almost the whole of Belize 27 Economy Edit Cantarell Location of the Ring of Cenotes on the Yucatan Peninsula In the late historic and early modern eras the Yucatan Peninsula was largely a cattle ranching logging chicle and henequen production area Since the 1970s the Yucatan Peninsula has reoriented its economy towards tourism especially in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo Aside from tourism another source of income that is important in the Peninsula is logging as well as chicle industries specifically in Belize Oil was also found in certain parts of the Yucatan bringing in more economic opportunities 28 Once a small fishing village Cancun in the northeast of the peninsula has grown into a thriving city The Riviera Maya which stretches along the east coast of the peninsula between Cancun and Tulum houses over 50 000 beds The best known locations are the former fishing town of Playa del Carmen the ecological parks Xcaret and Xel Ha and the Maya ruins of Tulum and Coba Population EditPopulation throughout the Yucatan Peninsula is very different throughout each part of the Peninsula Population density and ethnic composition are two factors that play into the total population The most populated area is Merida in Yucatan state as well as the areas that surround that region The least populated part of the peninsula is Quintana Roo which is a state located in the Southeastern part of Mexico In terms of ethnic composition a majority of the population consisted of both Maya and Mestizos 29 References Edit a b Yucatan Collins English Dictionary HarperCollins Retrieved 26 July 2019 Yucatan Lexico UK Dictionary Oxford University Press Retrieved 26 July 2019 Yucatan The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 5th ed Boston Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Retrieved 26 July 2019 Yucatan Merriam Webster Dictionary Retrieved 26 July 2019 a b McColl R W 2005 Encyclopedia of World Geography New York Facts On File pp 1002 1003 ISBN 0816057869 a b c d Scheffel Richard L Wernet Susan J eds 1980 Natural Wonders of the World United States of America Reader s Digest Association Inc p 420 ISBN 0 89577 087 3 a b c d Mayr Renate Johanna 2014 Belize tracking the path of its history from the heart of the Maya Empire to a retreat for buccaneers a safe haven for ex pirates and pioneers a crown colony and a modern nation LIT Verlag Munster p 36 ISBN 9783643904812 Retrieved February 9 2020 a b Kane Njord 2016 The Maya The Story of a People Spangenhelm Publishing ISBN 9781943066049 Retrieved February 9 2020 Gonzalez John Moran Lomas Laura 2018 The Cambridge History of Latina o American Literature Cambridge University Press p 36 ISBN 9781316873670 Retrieved February 9 2020 Cartas y relaciones de Hernan Cortes al emperador Carlos V in Spanish Paris A Chaix y ca 1866 p 1 footnote 2 Retrieved 2010 12 13 Ibero American Electronic Text Series Primera Carta de Relacion PREAMBULO in Spanish Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System 1945 Retrieved 2010 12 13 a b c d Hajovsky Ric 2011 How Yucatan got its name Everything Cozumel Retrieved February 3 2020 Beding Silvio A 2016 The Christopher Columbus encyclopedia Springer p 304 ISBN 9781349125739 Retrieved February 9 2020 Renne P R Deino A L Hilgen F J Kuiper K F Mark D F Mitchell W S Morgan L E Mundil R Smit J 2013 Time Scales of Critical Events Around the Cretaceous Paleogene Boundary Science 339 6120 684 687 Bibcode 2013Sci 339 684R doi 10 1126 science 1230492 PMID 23393261 S2CID 6112274 Stinnesbeck Wolfgang Rennie Samuel R Olguin Jeronimo Aviles Stinnesbeck Sarah R Gonzalez Silvia Frank Norbert Warken Sophie Schorndorf Nils Krengel Thomas Morlet Adriana Velazquez Gonzalez Arturo Gonzalez 2020 02 05 New evidence for an early settlement of the Yucatan Peninsula Mexico The Chan Hol 3 woman and her meaning for the Peopling of the Americas PLOS ONE 15 2 e0227984 doi 10 1371 journal pone 0227984 ISSN 1932 6203 PMC 7001910 PMID 32023279 PLOS 2020 02 05 9 900 Year Old Skeleton Discovered in Submerged Mexican Cave Has a Distinctive Skull SciTechDaily Retrieved 2020 03 19 February 2020 Laura Geggel Associate Editor 05 9 900 year old skeleton of horribly disfigured woman found in Mexican cave livescience com Retrieved 2020 03 19 Yucatan map Yarris Lynn 2010 03 09 Alvarez Theory on Dinosaur Die Out Upheld Experts Find Asteroid Guilty of Killing the Dinosaurs News Center Retrieved 2020 12 08 Chicxulub Crater and Ring of Cenotes Karst Geochemistry and Hydrogeology 2018 04 04 Retrieved 2020 12 08 Arrowsmith Bank Undersea Features Geographical Names Torrescano Valle Nuria et al 2015 Physical Settings Environmental History with an Outlook on Global Change In Islebe Gerald Alexander Sophie Calme et al eds Biodiversity and Conservation of the Yucatan Peninsula Springer International Publishing 2015 ISBN 978 3 319 06529 8 1 BBC Planet Earth part 4 Caves a b Olson D M E Dinerstein et al 2001 Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World A New Map of Life on Earth BioScience 51 11 933 938 doi 10 1641 0006 3568 2001 051 0933 TEOTWA 2 0 CO 2 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Heilprin Angelo 1891 Observations on the Flora of Northern Yucatan Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 29 136 137 144 JSTOR 982931 Yucatan Peninsula Encyclopaedia Britannica Retrieved 7 August 2018 Yucatan Peninsula peninsula Central America Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 2020 12 10 Yucatan Peninsula peninsula Central America Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 2020 12 10 Juan Luis Pena Chapa Manuel Martin Castillo and Juan Carlos Gonzalez Avila The Performance of the Economy of the Yucatan Peninsula from 1970 1993 2 Marcio L Teixeira The Impact of the Geologic History of the Yucatan Peninsula on the Present Day Aquifer 2004 3 Angelo Heilprin Observations on the Flora of Northern Yucatan 4 External links Edit Media related to Yucatan Peninsula at Wikimedia Commons Yucatan Peninsula travel guide from Wikivoyage Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yucatan Peninsula amp oldid 1050934380, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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