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Yudhishthira

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In the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata, Yudhishtira (Sanskrit: युधिष्ठिर, IAST: Yudhiṣṭhira) is the first among the five Pandava brothers. He was the son of the king Pandu of Kuru and his first wife, Kunti and was blessed to the couple by the god Dharma, who is often identified with the death god Yama. In the epic, Yudhishthira becomes the emperor of Indraprastha and later of Kuru Kingdom (Hastinapura).

Yudhishthira
Emperor Yudhishthira and Empress Draupadi seated on the throne surrounded by other Pandavas
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From his childhood, Yudhishthira was greatly influenced by his uncle Vidura and his grandfather Bhishma, and believed in virtues of dharma. He was trained by two warrior-sages—Kripa and Drona. Later, Yudhisthira was appointed as the crown prince of Hastinapura but was replaced by Duryodhana. Because of Kunti's misunderstanding, Yudhishthira and his brothers were married to Draupadi, the princess of Panchala. Dhritarashtra, on Bhishma's request, divided his kingdom to end the succession dispute between Yudhishthira and Duryodhana. The eldest son of Pandu was given a barren land to rule, but he developed the magnificent city of Indraprastha.

After he performed Rajasuya, he became the emperor and was invited to play Pachisi, a game of dice by his jealous cousin, Duryodhana and his uncle, Shakuni. There Shakuni, who was a master at the game, represented Duryodhan against Yudhishthira and deceitfully made him gamble his kingdom, fame, wealth, his brothers, Draupadi and even himself. After the game the Pandavas and Draupadi were sent in exile for thirteen years, with the last year being an incognito. During his exile, he was tested by his spiritual father and for incognito, Yudhishthira disguised himself as Kanka and served the king of Matsya Kingdom.

Yudhishthira was the leader of the successful Pandava side in the Kurukshetra War and defeated many warriors including Shalya. At the end of the epic, he was the only one among his brothers to ascend to heaven with his mortal body.

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Statue of Yudhishthira

The word Yudhishthira means "the one who is steady in the war", from the words, yuddha (युद्ध) meaning 'war', and sthira (स्थिर) meaning 'steady'. His other names are-

  • Bharata Vanshi (भारत वंशी) – descendant of Bharata
  • Ajatashatru (अजातशत्रु) – one who is born without enemies
  • Dharmanandana (धर्म नंदन) or Dharmaputra - The son of Dharma (Righteousness) or Yamraj
  • Dharmaraja or Dharmaraya or Dharmaja (धर्मराज) - Lord of Dharma.
  • Panduputra (पांडुपुत्र) - Son of Pandu.
  • Pandavagrajah - Eldest of Pandavas.
  • Jyesthakaunteya - Eldest son of Kunti.
  • Sarvabhouma/Samrat Chakravarthi - Emperor of the complete planet Earth.
  • Kanka - another name for Yudhisthira given by Draupadi for the 13th year in exile.
Pandu Shoots the Ascetic Kindama

Once a Brahmin rishi, Kindama and his wife were enjoying nature in the forest when Yudhishthira's father Pandu accidentally shot at them, mistaking them for deer. Before dying, Kindama cursed the king to die when he engages in intercourse with any woman. Due to this curse, Pandu was unable to become a father. As an additional penance for the murder, Pandu abdicated the throne of Hastinapura, and his blind brother Dhritarashtra took over the reins of the kingdom.

After knowing the curse of Pandu, Kunti told him that he could be the father of the child and told her boon of sage Durvasa. Then Pandu requested Kunti to apply her boon and suggested to call Dharma to get a truthful, knowledgeable and justice knowing son who can rule Hastinapur. On the full moon of May (Sanskrit: Jyeshth masa) first and the eldest of the Pandavas, Yudhishthira was born.

Yudhishthira's four younger brothers were Bhima, (born by invoking Vayu); Arjuna, (born by invoking Indra); and the twins Nakula and Sahadeva (born by invoking Aśvins). If Karna, the son of Kunti born before her marriage by invoking Surya, is counted, Yudhishthira would be the second-eldest of Kunti's children.[citation needed]

Yudhishthira was trained in religion, science, administration and military arts by the Kuru preceptors, Kripa and Drona. Specifically, he became a master in using the spear and war chariot. It is said that his spear was so strong that it could penetrate a stone wall as though it were a piece of paper. His chariot always flew at a 4 finger distance above the ground due to his piety.

Wedding of Draupadi with Pandavas.

After Yudhishthira and his brothers had completed their studies, they returned to Hastinapura. Duryodhana along with Shakuni planned to kill them and sent Yudhishthira, his siblings and his mother to a palace made of lac, called Lakshagriha.

One night, Shakuni's man, Purochana set it on fire. However, the princes and their mother survived. They were heartbroken and decided to hide from Hastinapura. Later, Arjuna attended Draupadi's swayamvar and won her hand in marriage. But due to Kunti's misunderstanding, Draupadi became the common wife of all the Pandavas. Later at Indraprastha, Draupadi bore Yudhishthira a son, Prativindhya. Although Yudhishthira had another wife named Devika, Draupadi was his chief consort as well as the empress.

Yudhishthira was married to Devika in a self-choice marriage ceremony, arranged by her father Govasena, who was the king of Sivi Kingdom. They had a son, Yaudheya. According to Puranas, Yaudheya was also the name of the son of Prativindhya. The Bhagavata Purana, as well as Vishnu Purana, also mention Pauravi as one of the wives of Yudhishthira. A son named Devaka was born to this couple.

Division of Hastinapura

When the Pandavas returned to Hastinapura after hiding, there was conflict between Yudhishthira and Duryodhana regarding as the crown prince of Hastinapura. Yudhishthira was originally made the crown prince of Hastinapura, but after the event of Lakshagriha, people thought that he was dead, and Duryodhana was made the new crown prince of Hastinapura. On Bhishma's advice, Dhritarashtra gave half of the kingdom to Pandavas to rule. However the land was under the control of Takshaka. Pandavas defeated Takshaka and with the help of Mayasura, they built a magnificent city named Indraprastha.

Rajasuya yagna

King Yudhishthira Performs the Rajasuya Sacrifice

Some years after his coronation at Indraprastha, Yudhishthira set out to perform the Rajasuya yagna.

Arjuna, Bhima, Nakula, and Sahadeva led armies across the four corners of the world to obtain tributes from all kingdoms for Yudhishthira's sacrifice. The non-compliant Magadha king, Jarasandha was defeated by Bhima and Krishna. At his sacrifice, Yudhishthira chose Krishna as his honored guest. At the yajna, many kings were present there, including Duryodhana and Shishupala. Shishupala was beheaded by Krishna for his evil deeds. An annoyed and jealous Duryodhana returned to Hastinapura.

Draupadi's vastraharan at game of dice.

Yudhishthira was challenged to play a game of dice in Hastinapura by his cousin, Duryodhana. Duryodhana invited him because he was jealous of Yudhishthira's wealth and power that he witnessed at the Rajasuya. Shakuni used the dice made from the bones of his father, which always ensured that he got the number he wanted and Yudhisthira was allowed to bet whatever he had he was proud of and had right over. After losing his brothers and his empire, he bet himself and also his wife which lead to the Vastraharan. Later, he lost his kingdom in the game again and was forced into exile for 13 years, which included one year in anonymity.

Yaksha Prashna

Main article: Yaksha Prashna
Yudhisthira answering the questions of Yaksha

During their exile, the 4 other Pandavas happened upon a lake, which was haunted by a Yaksha. The Yaksha challenged the brothers to answer his moral questions before drinking the water; the four Pandavas laughed and drank the water anyway. As a result, they choked on the water and died. Yudhishthira went in last, answered many questions put forth to him by the Yaksha and revived his brothers. He asked for any other wish as he was impressed and told him he could ask for wealth, strength, power, anything he wished. Yudhishthira said he already got the strength, wealth and power when all his four brothers were revived and said he could not ask for any other wish. Sahadeva said if you do not use this wish, we might be in trouble in the future. Arjuna knowing that his brother Sahadeva knows the future told Yudhishthira to ask another wish. Bhima and Nakula also knew that Sahadeva and Arjuna were very smart and told him to use his wish. Later Yama, his father told him to ask for a wish. Yudhishthira said, "Asking for 1 or 2 boons is not being greedy but asking for 3 or more boons is being greedy and it is one of the gravest sins. My brothers are insisting me to ask for a wish and the person who is ready to give me a boon, my father also wants me to ask for another boon. I do not ask for being the wealthiest man nor being the most powerful man. All I ask is that me, my brothers and Draupadi should not be recognized during the 13th year of exile."This story is often cited as an example of Yudhishthira's upright principles. The Yaksha later identified himself as Yudhishthira's father, Dharma and pointed them to the kingdom of Matsya to spend their last year in exile anonymously.

Agyatvāsa (Incognito)

Along with his brothers, Yudhishthira spent his last year of exile in the kingdom of Matsya. He disguised himself as a Brahmin named Kank (among themselves Pandavas called him Jaya) and taught the game of dice to the king.

When the period of exile was completed, Duryodhana refused to return Yudhishthira's kingdom. Yudhishthira made numerous diplomatic efforts to retrieve his kingdom peacefully but in vain. He was convinced by Krishna to wage war.

The flag of Yudhishthira's chariot bore the image of a golden Moon with planets around it. Two large and beautiful kettle-drums, called Nanda and Upananda, were tied to it. Before the war started, Yudhishthira stepped down from his chariot to take blessings from his grandsire Bhishma, teachers Drona and Kripa and uncle Shalya, who all were in his opposite side in the war showing his respect towards his elders. He also asked the willing Kauravas to join his side. On his request one of Dhritrasthara sons, Yuyutsu joined the war on the side of Pandavas.

Yudhishthira was described to be an excellent car-warrior and a master at spear-fighting. Yudhishthira defeated many warriors in the War, such as Srutayudha and Duryodhana.

On the fifteenth day of the war, Yudhishthira was approached by Drona, the Kauravas' then-Supreme Commander and his mentor, in the latter' inquiry on the death of his son Ashwatthama when he heard the name claimed to have died at Bhima's hand. Torn between his duty to cripple Drona and upholding his moral, Yudhistira opted to half truth where he confirmed the death of Ashwatthama the elephant, but omitted the contextual part that it was an elephant and not the Bhrama's son. This was effective in the former purpose of crippling Drona, but also caused his own chariot to finally fall down to the ground, instead of slightly levitating as it had been before this incident.

On the seventeenth day, when Arjuna retreated from Karna's onslaught, Yudhistira lost his composure and heavily insulted Arjuna. Arjuna became enraged and unknowlingly drew his sword, but soon realized himself and apologized to his lord and brother. Yudhistira returned the apology, and sent Arjuna back to his archnemesis.

On the last day of the war, Yudhistira killed Madra king Shalya and his brother Madrasena. It is said that Yudhistira was highly energetic for the day, and engaged in a fierce duel against the Kaurvas' final supreme commander, before slaying his uncle.

With the battlefield cleared of the Kauravas but no sight of Duryodhana, Yudhistira received a report that his nemesis went into hiding in a nearby swamp. The Pandavas brothers and Krishna thus went to the swamp, and taunted Duryodhana off his refuge. Yudhistira proposed a final challenge to Duryodhana, to a battle against any of the Pandavas under any weapon of Duryodhana's desire.

With Dhurayodhana choosing Bhima, the other Pandavas brothers, Krishna and Balarama witnessed the Gadayudh between the mace fighters. When Bhima finally defeated Duryodhana ad started insulting his nemesis, Yudhistira became sufficiently displeased with his brother's disrespect and ordered Bhima off the battleground. Ultimately, Yudhistira heard out Duryodhana's final conversation and lamentation, before leaving the fallen Kauravas' overlord on his deathbed.

Yudhishthira kills Shalya with Shakti Spear of Shiva
Yudhisthira arrives in Hastinapur at the end of war

After getting victory in the war, Yudhishthira was crowned as the Emperor of Hastinapura for 36 years. He performed Ashwamedha on Krishna and Vyasa's insistence. In this sacrifice, a horse was released to wander for a year, and Yudhishthira's brother Arjuna led the Pandava army, following the horse. The kings of all the countries where the horse wandered were asked to submit to Yudhishthira's rule or face war. All paid tribute, once again establishing Yudhishthira as the undisputed Emperor of Bharat Varsha.

Yudhishthira and His Dog, Ascending

Upon the onset of the Kali Yuga and the departure of Krishna, Yudhishthira and his brothers retired, leaving the throne to their only descendant to survive the war of Kurukshetra, Arjuna's grandson, Parikshit. Giving up all their belongings and ties, the Pandavas, accompanied by a dog, made their final journey of pilgrimage to the Himalayas. Among the Pandavas and Draupadi, one-by-one died on the way to reach the top, starting from Draupadi. Finally, it was Yudhishthira who was able to reach the top, with the dog accompanying him.

On reaching the top, Indra asked him to abandon the dog before entering the Heaven. But Yudhishthira refused to do so, citing the dog's unflinching loyalty as a reason. Indra said he let his family die, but Yudhishthira said he could not prevent their deaths, but to abandon a poor creature was a great sin. It turned out that the dog was his god-father Dharma Deva in disguise. He then went to heaven and found his Kaurava cousins but not his brothers and Draupadi. He asked Yamraj about this. Yamaraj took him to hell and told him of the sins of Pandavas and their wife. Yudhishthira decides that he would rather live in hell with good people than in heaven with bad people. This is another test and after this the Pandavas and Draupadi attain heaven.

There are three other stories relating to whether Yudhishthira went to heaven or hell.

In the first story he attains hell. While the Pandavas and Draupadi are walking to heaven, Draupadi and his brothers die one by one but Yudhishthira does not look back. He feels as if he has left all his mortal ties by not doing so. When he reaches heaven and does not find Draupadi and his brothers there but finds his Kaurava cousins he asks Yamaraj angrily about his brothers and wife. Yamaraj takes him to hell and tells him about his family's sins. Yudhishthira gets angry as he feels the sins of his family to be small compared to the sins of his cousins. Yamaraj tells him that since he has not renounced mortal ties and is still angry at his cousins, he has attained hell.

In the second story he attains heaven. He reaches heaven and asks Yamaraj about his brothers and Draupadi politely and asks about his cousins as well. Yamaraj takes him to hell and tells him of his family's sins. Yamaraj tells Yudhishthira that he too had to experience hell once for his lie or half lie to Drona about Ashwathama's death. Other's believe it was because he hesitated to lie and thought of human rather than universal Dharma. Yamaraj assures Yudhishthira that his brothers and Draupadi will join him in heaven once they have atoned for their sins.

In the third story Yudhishthira attains heaven. He himself tells his brothers and Draupadi of their sins. When he has to go through hell he only questions how long he has to be there. He knew his sin. He eventually attains heaven with his brothers and Draupadi.

Yudhistira in hell listening sounds of relatives

Yudhishthira's curse

After he was made aware that Karna was his elder brother, Yudhishthira cursed all women with not being able to hide any secrets. Had Yudhishthira's mother Kunti not kept that fact a secret, the war might have been averted, with millions spared.

He was master in spear-fighting and chariot racing. Yudhishthira was a polyglot, knowing unusual languages. He was known for his honesty, justice, sagacity, tolerance, good behavior and discernment.

Dhritarashtra said to Sanjaya "The son of Kunti and Pandu, Yudhishthira, is virtuous and brave and eschews deeds that bring on shame. Endued with great energy, he hath been wronged by Duryodhana. If he were not high-minded, they would in wrath burn the Dhritarashtras. I do not so much dread Arjuna or Bhima or Krishna or the twin brothers as I dread the wrath of the king, O Suta, when his wrath is excited. His austerities are great; he is devoted to Brahmacharya practices. His heart's wishes will certainly be fulfilled. When I think of his wrath, O Sanjaya, and consider how just it is, I am filled with alarm."

Yudhishthira acquired deep spiritual knowledge from Lord Shiva and many prominent sages including Vyasa, Parashurama, Bhrigu, Savarni Manu, Narada, Markandeya, Asita Devala and Dhaumya. (Mahabharata Sabha Parva Section 77).[citation needed]

Being an important person in epic Mahabharata, Yudhishthira's role has been enacted by various actors over the years.

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  2. www.wisdomlib.org (26 December 2010). "Yudhishthira, Yudhiṣṭhira, Yudhisthira: 15 definitions". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved8 September 2020.
  3. Agarwala 1979, p. 167.
  4. Abbott & Godbole 1988, p. 402.
  5. Lochtefeld 2002, pp. 194–196.
  6. "The five pandavas and the story of their birth". aumamen.com. Retrieved31 August 2020.
  7. Mittal 2006, p. 477.
  8. "Pandava : Apart from Draupadi, Yudhishthira had one more wife Devika". newstrend.news. 4 November 2018. Retrieved28 April 2020.
  9. Bandyopadhyay 2016.
  10. "Yaudheya, Yaudheyā: 15 definitions". 2 July 2016.
  11. "Devaka: 17 definitions". 13 August 2014.
  12. "Hastinapur will be surprised by the secret of the city of Mahabharata". 13 July 2018.
  13. Valmiki & Vyasa 2018.
  14. Wheeler 1884.
  15. Vyas 1992.
  16. Walker 2019.
  17. Hudson 2013.
  18. Sehgal 1999.
  19. Kishore 2001.
  20. Kapoor 2002, p. 4462.
  21. "The Mahabharata, Book 14: Aswamedha Parva Index". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved9 June 2020.
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Bibliography

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Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira Language Watch Edit This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Yudhishthira news newspapers books scholar JSTOR October 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message In the Hindu epic the Mahabharata Yudhishtira Sanskrit य ध ष ठ र IAST Yudhiṣṭhira is the first among the five Pandava brothers He was the son of the king Pandu of Kuru and his first wife Kunti and was blessed to the couple by the god Dharma who is often identified with the death god Yama In the epic Yudhishthira becomes the emperor of Indraprastha and later of Kuru Kingdom Hastinapura YudhishthiraEmperor Yudhishthira and Empress Draupadi seated on the throne surrounded by other PandavasPersonal InformationAffiliationPandavasMahabharata kingWeaponSpearFamilyParents Dharmaraja Spiritual Father Kunti Mother Pandu Father Madri Step Mother Brothers Kunti Karna by SuryaBhima by VayuArjuna by IndraStep Brothers Madri Nakula by AshvinsSahadeva by AshvinsSpouseDraupadiDevika 1 ChildrenSons Prativindhya by DraupadiYaudheya by DevikaRelativesKauravas Paternal Cousins Krishna Balarama Maternal Cousins From his childhood Yudhishthira was greatly influenced by his uncle Vidura and his grandfather Bhishma and believed in virtues of dharma He was trained by two warrior sages Kripa and Drona Later Yudhisthira was appointed as the crown prince of Hastinapura but was replaced by Duryodhana Because of Kunti s misunderstanding Yudhishthira and his brothers were married to Draupadi the princess of Panchala Dhritarashtra on Bhishma s request divided his kingdom to end the succession dispute between Yudhishthira and Duryodhana The eldest son of Pandu was given a barren land to rule but he developed the magnificent city of Indraprastha After he performed Rajasuya he became the emperor and was invited to play Pachisi a game of dice by his jealous cousin Duryodhana and his uncle Shakuni There Shakuni who was a master at the game represented Duryodhan against Yudhishthira and deceitfully made him gamble his kingdom fame wealth his brothers Draupadi and even himself After the game the Pandavas and Draupadi were sent in exile for thirteen years with the last year being an incognito During his exile he was tested by his spiritual father and for incognito Yudhishthira disguised himself as Kanka and served the king of Matsya Kingdom Yudhishthira was the leader of the successful Pandava side in the Kurukshetra War and defeated many warriors including Shalya At the end of the epic he was the only one among his brothers to ascend to heaven with his mortal body Contents 1 Etymology 2 Birth and upbringing 3 Marriage and children 4 Ruling the Indraprastha 4 1 Division of Hastinapura 4 2 Rajasuya yagna 5 The game of dice 6 Exile 6 1 Yaksha Prashna 6 2 Agyatvasa Incognito 7 Kurukshetra war 8 Reign after the war 9 Retirement and ascent to heaven 9 1 Yudhishthira s curse 10 Skills 11 In the media 12 References 12 1 Bibliography 13 External linksEtymology Edit Statue of Yudhishthira The word Yudhishthira means the one who is steady in the war from the words yuddha य द ध meaning war and sthira स थ र meaning steady 2 His other names are Bharata Vanshi भ रत व श descendant of Bharata 3 Ajatashatru अज तशत र one who is born without enemies 4 Dharmanandana धर म न दन or Dharmaputra The son of Dharma Righteousness or Yamraj Dharmaraja or Dharmaraya or Dharmaja धर मर ज Lord of Dharma Panduputra प ड प त र Son of Pandu Pandavagrajah Eldest of Pandavas Jyesthakaunteya Eldest son of Kunti Sarvabhouma Samrat Chakravarthi Emperor of the complete planet Earth Kanka another name for Yudhisthira given by Draupadi for the 13th year in exile Birth and upbringing Edit Pandu Shoots the Ascetic Kindama Once a Brahmin rishi Kindama and his wife were enjoying nature in the forest when Yudhishthira s father Pandu accidentally shot at them mistaking them for deer Before dying Kindama cursed the king to die when he engages in intercourse with any woman Due to this curse Pandu was unable to become a father As an additional penance for the murder Pandu abdicated the throne of Hastinapura and his blind brother Dhritarashtra took over the reins of the kingdom 5 After knowing the curse of Pandu Kunti told him that he could be the father of the child and told her boon of sage Durvasa Then Pandu requested Kunti to apply her boon and suggested to call Dharma to get a truthful knowledgeable and justice knowing son who can rule Hastinapur On the full moon of May Sanskrit Jyeshth masa first and the eldest of the Pandavas Yudhishthira was born 6 Yudhishthira s four younger brothers were Bhima born by invoking Vayu Arjuna born by invoking Indra and the twins Nakula and Sahadeva born by invoking Asvins If Karna the son of Kunti born before her marriage by invoking Surya is counted Yudhishthira would be the second eldest of Kunti s children citation needed Yudhishthira was trained in religion science administration and military arts by the Kuru preceptors Kripa and Drona Specifically he became a master in using the spear and war chariot It is said that his spear was so strong that it could penetrate a stone wall as though it were a piece of paper His chariot always flew at a 4 finger distance above the ground due to his piety 7 Marriage and children Edit Wedding of Draupadi with Pandavas After Yudhishthira and his brothers had completed their studies they returned to Hastinapura Duryodhana along with Shakuni planned to kill them and sent Yudhishthira his siblings and his mother to a palace made of lac called Lakshagriha Lakshagruh One night Shakuni s man Purochana set it on fire However the princes and their mother survived They were heartbroken and decided to hide from Hastinapura Later Arjuna attended Draupadi s swayamvar and won her hand in marriage But due to Kunti s misunderstanding Draupadi became the common wife of all the Pandavas Later at Indraprastha Draupadi bore Yudhishthira a son Prativindhya Although Yudhishthira had another wife named Devika 8 Draupadi was his chief consort as well as the empress 9 Yudhishthira was married to Devika in a self choice marriage ceremony arranged by her father Govasena who was the king of Sivi Kingdom They had a son Yaudheya According to Puranas Yaudheya was also the name of the son of Prativindhya 10 The Bhagavata Purana as well as Vishnu Purana also mention Pauravi as one of the wives of Yudhishthira A son named Devaka was born to this couple 11 Ruling the Indraprastha EditDivision of Hastinapura Edit When the Pandavas returned to Hastinapura after hiding there was conflict between Yudhishthira and Duryodhana regarding as the crown prince of Hastinapura Yudhishthira was originally made the crown prince of Hastinapura but after the event of Lakshagriha people thought that he was dead and Duryodhana was made the new crown prince of Hastinapura On Bhishma s advice Dhritarashtra gave half of the kingdom to Pandavas to rule However the land was under the control of Takshaka Pandavas defeated Takshaka and with the help of Mayasura they built a magnificent city named Indraprastha 12 13 14 Rajasuya yagna Edit King Yudhishthira Performs the Rajasuya Sacrifice Some years after his coronation at Indraprastha Yudhishthira set out to perform the Rajasuya yagna 15 Arjuna Bhima Nakula and Sahadeva led armies across the four corners of the world to obtain tributes from all kingdoms for Yudhishthira s sacrifice The non compliant Magadha king Jarasandha was defeated by Bhima and Krishna At his sacrifice Yudhishthira chose Krishna as his honored guest At the yajna many kings were present there including Duryodhana and Shishupala Shishupala was beheaded by Krishna for his evil deeds An annoyed and jealous Duryodhana returned to Hastinapura 16 The game of dice Edit Draupadi s vastraharan at game of dice Yudhishthira was challenged to play a game of dice in Hastinapura by his cousin Duryodhana Duryodhana invited him because he was jealous of Yudhishthira s wealth and power that he witnessed at the Rajasuya Shakuni used the dice made from the bones of his father which always ensured that he got the number he wanted and Yudhisthira was allowed to bet whatever he had he was proud of and had right over After losing his brothers and his empire he bet himself and also his wife which lead to the Vastraharan Later he lost his kingdom in the game again and was forced into exile for 13 years which included one year in anonymity 17 Exile EditYaksha Prashna Edit Main article Yaksha Prashna Yudhisthira answering the questions of Yaksha During their exile the 4 other Pandavas happened upon a lake which was haunted by a Yaksha The Yaksha challenged the brothers to answer his moral questions before drinking the water the four Pandavas laughed and drank the water anyway As a result they choked on the water and died Yudhishthira went in last answered many questions put forth to him by the Yaksha and revived his brothers He asked for any other wish as he was impressed and told him he could ask for wealth strength power anything he wished Yudhishthira said he already got the strength wealth and power when all his four brothers were revived and said he could not ask for any other wish Sahadeva said if you do not use this wish we might be in trouble in the future Arjuna knowing that his brother Sahadeva knows the future told Yudhishthira to ask another wish Bhima and Nakula also knew that Sahadeva and Arjuna were very smart and told him to use his wish Later Yama his father told him to ask for a wish Yudhishthira said Asking for 1 or 2 boons is not being greedy but asking for 3 or more boons is being greedy and it is one of the gravest sins My brothers are insisting me to ask for a wish and the person who is ready to give me a boon my father also wants me to ask for another boon I do not ask for being the wealthiest man nor being the most powerful man All I ask is that me my brothers and Draupadi should not be recognized during the 13th year of exile This story is often cited as an example of Yudhishthira s upright principles 18 The Yaksha later identified himself as Yudhishthira s father Dharma and pointed them to the kingdom of Matsya to spend their last year in exile anonymously Agyatvasa Incognito Edit Along with his brothers Yudhishthira spent his last year of exile in the kingdom of Matsya He disguised himself as a Brahmin named Kank among themselves Pandavas called him Jaya and taught the game of dice to the king 19 Kurukshetra war EditWhen the period of exile was completed Duryodhana refused to return Yudhishthira s kingdom Yudhishthira made numerous diplomatic efforts to retrieve his kingdom peacefully but in vain He was convinced by Krishna to wage war The flag of Yudhishthira s chariot bore the image of a golden Moon with planets around it Two large and beautiful kettle drums called Nanda and Upananda were tied to it 20 Before the war started Yudhishthira stepped down from his chariot to take blessings from his grandsire Bhishma teachers Drona and Kripa and uncle Shalya who all were in his opposite side in the war showing his respect towards his elders He also asked the willing Kauravas to join his side On his request one of Dhritrasthara sons Yuyutsu joined the war on the side of Pandavas Yudhishthira was described to be an excellent car warrior and a master at spear fighting Yudhishthira defeated many warriors in the War such as Srutayudha and Duryodhana On the fifteenth day of the war Yudhishthira was approached by Drona the Kauravas then Supreme Commander and his mentor in the latter inquiry on the death of his son Ashwatthama when he heard the name claimed to have died at Bhima s hand Torn between his duty to cripple Drona and upholding his moral Yudhistira opted to half truth where he confirmed the death of Ashwatthama the elephant but omitted the contextual part that it was an elephant and not the Bhrama s son This was effective in the former purpose of crippling Drona but also caused his own chariot to finally fall down to the ground instead of slightly levitating as it had been before this incident On the seventeenth day when Arjuna retreated from Karna s onslaught Yudhistira lost his composure and heavily insulted Arjuna Arjuna became enraged and unknowlingly drew his sword but soon realized himself and apologized to his lord and brother Yudhistira returned the apology and sent Arjuna back to his archnemesis On the last day of the war Yudhistira killed Madra king Shalya and his brother Madrasena It is said that Yudhistira was highly energetic for the day and engaged in a fierce duel against the Kaurvas final supreme commander before slaying his uncle With the battlefield cleared of the Kauravas but no sight of Duryodhana Yudhistira received a report that his nemesis went into hiding in a nearby swamp The Pandavas brothers and Krishna thus went to the swamp and taunted Duryodhana off his refuge Yudhistira proposed a final challenge to Duryodhana to a battle against any of the Pandavas under any weapon of Duryodhana s desire With Dhurayodhana choosing Bhima the other Pandavas brothers Krishna and Balarama witnessed the Gadayudh between the mace fighters When Bhima finally defeated Duryodhana ad started insulting his nemesis Yudhistira became sufficiently displeased with his brother s disrespect and ordered Bhima off the battleground Ultimately Yudhistira heard out Duryodhana s final conversation and lamentation before leaving the fallen Kauravas overlord on his deathbed Yudhishthira kills Shalya with Shakti Spear of ShivaReign after the war Edit Yudhisthira arrives in Hastinapur at the end of war After getting victory in the war Yudhishthira was crowned as the Emperor of Hastinapura for 36 years He performed Ashwamedha on Krishna and Vyasa s insistence In this sacrifice a horse was released to wander for a year and Yudhishthira s brother Arjuna led the Pandava army following the horse The kings of all the countries where the horse wandered were asked to submit to Yudhishthira s rule or face war All paid tribute once again establishing Yudhishthira as the undisputed Emperor of Bharat Varsha 21 Retirement and ascent to heaven Edit Yudhishthira and His Dog Ascending Upon the onset of the Kali Yuga and the departure of Krishna Yudhishthira and his brothers retired leaving the throne to their only descendant to survive the war of Kurukshetra Arjuna s grandson Parikshit Giving up all their belongings and ties the Pandavas accompanied by a dog made their final journey of pilgrimage to the Himalayas Among the Pandavas and Draupadi one by one died on the way to reach the top starting from Draupadi Finally it was Yudhishthira who was able to reach the top with the dog accompanying him On reaching the top Indra asked him to abandon the dog before entering the Heaven But Yudhishthira refused to do so citing the dog s unflinching loyalty as a reason Indra said he let his family die but Yudhishthira said he could not prevent their deaths but to abandon a poor creature was a great sin It turned out that the dog was his god father Dharma Deva in disguise 22 He then went to heaven and found his Kaurava cousins but not his brothers and Draupadi He asked Yamraj about this Yamaraj took him to hell and told him of the sins of Pandavas and their wife Yudhishthira decides that he would rather live in hell with good people than in heaven with bad people This is another test and after this the Pandavas and Draupadi attain heaven There are three other stories relating to whether Yudhishthira went to heaven or hell In the first story he attains hell While the Pandavas and Draupadi are walking to heaven Draupadi and his brothers die one by one but Yudhishthira does not look back He feels as if he has left all his mortal ties by not doing so When he reaches heaven and does not find Draupadi and his brothers there but finds his Kaurava cousins he asks Yamaraj angrily about his brothers and wife Yamaraj takes him to hell and tells him about his family s sins Yudhishthira gets angry as he feels the sins of his family to be small compared to the sins of his cousins Yamaraj tells him that since he has not renounced mortal ties and is still angry at his cousins he has attained hell In the second story he attains heaven He reaches heaven and asks Yamaraj about his brothers and Draupadi politely and asks about his cousins as well Yamaraj takes him to hell and tells him of his family s sins Yamaraj tells Yudhishthira that he too had to experience hell once for his lie or half lie to Drona about Ashwathama s death Other s believe it was because he hesitated to lie and thought of human rather than universal Dharma Yamaraj assures Yudhishthira that his brothers and Draupadi will join him in heaven once they have atoned for their sins In the third story Yudhishthira attains heaven He himself tells his brothers and Draupadi of their sins When he has to go through hell he only questions how long he has to be there He knew his sin He eventually attains heaven with his brothers and Draupadi Yudhistira in hell listening sounds of relatives Yudhishthira s curse Edit After he was made aware that Karna was his elder brother Yudhishthira cursed all women with not being able to hide any secrets Had Yudhishthira s mother Kunti not kept that fact a secret the war might have been averted with millions spared 23 Skills EditHe was master in spear fighting and chariot racing Yudhishthira was a polyglot knowing unusual languages He was known for his honesty justice sagacity tolerance good behavior and discernment 24 Dhritarashtra said to Sanjaya The son of Kunti and Pandu Yudhishthira is virtuous and brave and eschews deeds that bring on shame Endued with great energy he hath been wronged by Duryodhana If he were not high minded they would in wrath burn the Dhritarashtras I do not so much dread Arjuna or Bhima or Krishna or the twin brothers as I dread the wrath of the king O Suta when his wrath is excited His austerities are great he is devoted to Brahmacharya practices His heart s wishes will certainly be fulfilled When I think of his wrath O Sanjaya and consider how just it is I am filled with alarm 25 Yudhishthira acquired deep spiritual knowledge from Lord Shiva and many prominent sages including Vyasa Parashurama Bhrigu Savarni Manu Narada Markandeya Asita Devala and Dhaumya Mahabharata Sabha Parva Section 77 citation needed In the media EditBeing an important person in epic Mahabharata Yudhishthira s role has been enacted by various actors over the years In the Hindi film Draupadi 1931 Elizer played the character In the Tamil film Karnan 1964 Prem Kumar Played the character In the Telugu film Veerabhimanyu 1965 Dhulipala played the character In the Telugu film Daana Veera Soora Karna 1977 M Prabhakar Reddy played the character In the Hindi television series Mahabharat 1988 and Mahabharat Katha 1997 Gajendra Chauhan portrayed the character In the Hindi television series Shri Krishna 1993 Raman Khatri portrayed the character In the Hindi television series Ek Aur Mahabharat 1997 Virendra Singh played the character In the Hindi television series Draupadi 2001 Arup Pal played the character In the Hindi television series Mahabharat 2013 Rohit Bhardwaj portrayed the character Manoj Bajpayee has also voiced the character in the Hindi animation film Mahabharat 2013 In the Hindi television series Dharmakshetra 2014 Chandan K Anand played the character In the Hindi television series Suryaputra Karn 2015 Kanan Malhotra played the role In the Kannada film Kurukshetra 2019 Shashi Kumar portrayed the character Kanan Malhotra took up the role of Yudhishthira once again in the show RadhaKrishn There is a red dragon in the Iron Realms Entertainment game Aetolia The Midnight Age named Yudhishthira References Edit The Mahabharata Book 1 Adi Parva Sambhava Parva Section XCV Archived from the original on 16 January 2010 www wisdomlib org 26 December 2010 Yudhishthira Yudhiṣṭhira Yudhisthira 15 definitions www wisdomlib org Retrieved 8 September 2020 Agarwala 1979 p 167 Abbott amp Godbole 1988 p 402 Lochtefeld 2002 pp 194 196 The five pandavas and the story of their birth aumamen com Retrieved 31 August 2020 Mittal 2006 p 477 Pandava Apart from Draupadi Yudhishthira had one more wife Devika newstrend news 4 November 2018 Retrieved 28 April 2020 Bandyopadhyay 2016 Yaudheya Yaudheya 15 definitions 2 July 2016 Devaka 17 definitions 13 August 2014 Hastinapur will be surprised by the secret of the city of Mahabharata 13 July 2018 Valmiki amp Vyasa 2018 Wheeler 1884 Vyas 1992 Walker 2019 Hudson 2013 Sehgal 1999 Kishore 2001 Kapoor 2002 p 4462 The Mahabharata Book 14 Aswamedha Parva Index www sacred texts com Retrieved 9 June 2020 Agarwal 2002 Fitzgerald 2004 Mahabharata Text Mahabharata Section XXII Bibliography Edit Abbott Justin Edwards Godbole Narhar R 1988 Stories of Indian Saints 4th ed Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 9788120804692 Agarwal Satya P 2002 Selections from the Mahabharata Re affirming Gita s Call for the Good of All Hinduism and Its Sources Series 1 ed Delhi Motilal Banarsidass ISBN 9788120818743 Agarwala Giriwar Charan ed 1979 Age of Bharata War 1st ed Delhi Motilal Banarsidass ISBN missing Bandyopadhyay Indrajit 30 October 2016 Peter Brook s Woman in Mahabharata Lulu Press Inc ISBN 978 1 105 32108 5 Fitzgerald James L ed 2004 1973 The Mahabharata 7 Translated by Fitzgerald James L van Buitenen Johannes Adrianus Bernardus Chicago University of Chicago Press ISBN 9780226252506 Hudson Emily T 2013 Disorienting Dharma Ethics and the Aesthetics of Suffering in the Mahabharata Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0199860760 OCLC 852228437 Kapoor Subodh ed 2002 The Indian encyclopaedia biographical historical religious administrative ethnological commercial and scientific 1st ed New Delhi Cosmo Publications ISBN 9788177552713 Kishore B R 2001 Hinduism New Delhi Diamond Books ISBN 9788171820733 OCLC 314385773 Lochtefeld James G 2002 The illustrated encyclopedia of Hinduism 1st ed New York Rosen Publishing ISBN 9780823931798 Mittal J P 2006 History of Ancient India A New Version Volume 2 From 4250 BC to 637 AD New Delhi Atlantic ISBN 9788126906161 OCLC 135269936 volume has extra text help Sehgal Sunil 1999 Encyclopaedia of Hinduism 4 1st ed New Delhi Sarup amp Sons ISBN 9788176250641 OCLC 47906736 Valmiki Vyasa 19 May 2018 Delphi Collected Sanskrit Epics Illustrated Volume 78 of Delphi Poets Series Translated by Griffith Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith Ganguli Kisari Mohan Cowell Edward Byles Johnston Edward Hamilton Ryder Arthur William Bhandare M S Dutt Romesh Chunder Delphi Classics ISBN 978 1 78656 128 2 volume has extra text help Vyas Ramnarayan 1992 Nature of Indian Culture New Delhi Concept Publishing Company ISBN 978 81 7022 388 7 OCLC 28062149 Walker Benjamin 9 April 2019 Hindu World An Encyclopedic Survey of Hinduism Volume I A L Routledge ISBN 978 0 429 62465 0 OCLC 1124550466 volume has extra text help Wheeler James Talboys 1884 A Short History of India and of the Frontier States of Afghanistan Nipal and Burma Macmillan and Company ISBN missing External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Yudhisthira Persons and stories from Mahabharata Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yudhishthira amp oldid 1053441581, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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