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Yueqin

"Moon guitar" redirects here. For the Vietnamese instruments sometimes known by that name, see Đàn nguyệt.
Not to be confused with the similarly-shaped ruan.
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(April 2021) ()

The yueqin or yue qin (Chinese:月琴, pinyinyuèqín), formerly romanized as yüeh-ch‘in and also known as the moon guitar, moon lute, gekkin, wolgeum, or la-ch‘in, is a traditional Chinese string instrument. It is a lute with a round, hollow wooden body which gives it the nickname moon guitar.

Yueqin
The yueqin. The instrument comes in a variety of sizes and pitches.
String instrument
Classification String instrument
Hornbostel–Sachs classification321.322
(Composite chordophone)
DevelopedChina
Related instruments
Ruan

According to tradition, the instrument was invented in China during the 3rd- to 5th-century Jin Dynasty. The ruan, another Chinese instrument, is the ancestor of the yueqin. The name yueqin once applied to all instruments with a moon-shaped soundboard, including the ruan; however, "yueqin" now applies to a separate category from the ruan family.

It has a short fretted neck and four strings tuned in courses of two (each pair of strings is tuned to a single pitch), generally tuned to the interval of a perfect fifth. Occasionally, the body of the yueqin may be octagonal in shape. It is an important instrument in the Peking opera orchestra, often taking the role of main melodic instrument in lieu of the bowed string section.

Contents

Yueqin originated from Ruan. As early as Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty (140-87 BC), the Chinese people have invented Ruan.

Yueqin is an instrument evolved from Ruan. It has been popular among the people since Jin Dynasty, and it has been named Yueqin since Tang Dynasty. Yueqin was introduced into Japan in the Tang Dynasty, and reached its peak in the 1830s. Yueqin was banned in Japan during the Second World War, and it was restored after the war.

A Japanese woman playing a gekkin, c. 1890
Yueqin in the Horniman museum, London, UK.
Front and back views of Yueqin.

The yueqin in China has four strings, tuned in two "courses", D and A (low to high). Yueqin used for Beijing opera, however, have two single strings, only one of which is actually used, the lower string being there purely for sympathetic resonance. In Beijing opera, the player uses a small wood dowel instead of a plectrum to perform, and only plays in first position; this requires the performer to use octave displacement in order to play all the pitches within a given melody.

The frets on all Chinese lutes are high so that the fingers never touch the actual body—distinctively different from western fretted instruments. This allows for a greater control over timbre and intonation than their western counterparts, but makes chordal playing more difficult. The frets were formerly arranged rather like those on a mountain dulcimer, so that the instrument is diatonic; however, the fret size is high enough that any pitch may be bent up a minor 3rd. Modern yueqin have frets tuned in semitones.

The strings on the traditional form of the instrument were made of silk (although nylon is generally used today) and plucked with a rather long, sharp plectrum, which is sometimes attached to the instrument with a piece of cord.

There is no sound-hole, but inside the sound box are one or more strands of wire attached only at one end, so that they vibrate, giving the instrument a particular timbre and resonance. There is no bridge or saddle; the strings are simply attached to the anchor at the base of the instrument.

The instrument's standard Chinese name, yueqin, literally means "moon string instrument" (qín - 琴 is the generic term for "string instrument" and yuè means "moon"). Its alternate name, yueqin (月琴), also means "moon string instrument".

Modern forms of the instrument have three or four strings made of steel[citation needed] (or steel-wrapped nylon), each tuned to a different pitch. The strings are attached to the anchor by looping them through their own end-loops.

three-string instruments are often tuned A D
four-string instruments are often tuned to A D a d; however, in recent practice, the instrument is tuned G D g d so modern liuqin and ruan players can easily double on yueqin.

The anchor on modern instrument may have up to five holes, so it can be strung and tuned as a three- or four-string instrument. The nut, at the peghead end of the instrument, is filed with notches appropriate to the number and position of the strings.

Modern yueqin are often played with a guitar pick.

In Taiwan, the yueqin has a longer neck, and has two or three strings.

Southern style long-necked yueqin.

While both instruments have a moon-shaped soundboard, the modern ruan uses a bridge, whereas the yueqin simply attaches the strings the frame, similar to the design of the pipa. In addition, most yueqin do not have the obvious double soundholes, like the ruan, instead they have the single small soundhole located under where the strings are attached (also similar to pipa). Both features gives the Yueqin a sound quality in between ruan and pipa. While the ruan is used mostly for its lower range instruments (i.e., zhongruan and daruan), yueqin is primarily a treble tuned instrument, even though the size of its soundboard is larger than the zhongruan.

Southern yueqin have a long neck, use two strings, and have an improvisational and flexible intonation practice; some Southern yueqin also have acoustical metal coils inside the soundboard to amplify the instrument. Northern yueqin have very short neck, and have bamboo in both the front and back, requiring the performer to hold the instrument away from their body. The northern instruments range from single to four stringed instruments. Regardless of the neck size or strings, all yueqin are tuned around the same treble pitch level. A common technique in performance is "snapping" the pick on the string (similar to Japanese shamisen.) Yueqin is the loudest member of the plucked lute family of Chinese instruments; one instrument can easily be heard over a full Chinese orchestra.

Wikimedia Commons has media related toYueqin.
  1. "yueqin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved26 January 2012.
  2. "Photographic image"(JPG). Yuemi.net. Retrieved20 April 2021.
  3. "Collection of stringed instruments". Instrumap.netlify.app. Retrieved20 April 2021.
  4. "ATLAS of Plucked Instruments - Far East". Atlasofpluckedinstruments.com. Retrieved20 April 2021.
  5. "The Stringed Instrument Database: W-Z". Stringedinstrumentdatabase.aornis.com. Retrieved20 April 2021.

Video

Yueqin
Yueqin Language Watch Edit Moon guitar redirects here For the Vietnamese instruments sometimes known by that name see Đan nguyệt Not to be confused with the similarly shaped ruan This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Yueqin news newspapers books scholar JSTOR April 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message The yueqin or yue qin Chinese 月琴 pinyin yueqin formerly romanized as yueh ch in and also known as the moon guitar moon lute gekkin wolgeum or la ch in is a traditional Chinese string instrument It is a lute with a round hollow wooden body which gives it the nickname moon guitar YueqinThe yueqin The instrument comes in a variety of sizes and pitches String instrumentClassificationString instrumentHornbostel Sachs classification321 322 Composite chordophone DevelopedChinaRelated instrumentsRuan According to tradition the instrument was invented in China during the 3rd to 5th century Jin Dynasty 1 The ruan another Chinese instrument is the ancestor of the yueqin 1 The name yueqin once applied to all instruments with a moon shaped soundboard including the ruan however yueqin now applies to a separate category from the ruan family It has a short fretted neck and four strings tuned in courses of two each pair of strings is tuned to a single pitch generally tuned to the interval of a perfect fifth Occasionally the body of the yueqin may be octagonal in shape 2 It is an important instrument in the Peking opera orchestra often taking the role of main melodic instrument in lieu of the bowed string section Contents 1 History 2 Type 3 Differences between yueqin and ruan 4 See also 5 References 6 External links 6 1 VideoHistory EditYueqin originated from Ruan As early as Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty 140 87 BC the Chinese people have invented Ruan Yueqin is an instrument evolved from Ruan It has been popular among the people since Jin Dynasty and it has been named Yueqin since Tang Dynasty Yueqin was introduced into Japan in the Tang Dynasty and reached its peak in the 1830s Yueqin was banned in Japan during the Second World War and it was restored after the war A Japanese woman playing a gekkin c 1890Type Edit Yueqin in the Horniman museum London UK Front and back views of Yueqin The yueqin in China has four strings tuned in two courses D and A low to high Yueqin used for Beijing opera however have two single strings only one of which is actually used the lower string being there purely for sympathetic resonance In Beijing opera the player uses a small wood dowel instead of a plectrum to perform and only plays in first position this requires the performer to use octave displacement in order to play all the pitches within a given melody 3 The frets on all Chinese lutes are high so that the fingers never touch the actual body distinctively different from western fretted instruments This allows for a greater control over timbre and intonation than their western counterparts but makes chordal playing more difficult The frets were formerly arranged rather like those on a mountain dulcimer so that the instrument is diatonic however the fret size is high enough that any pitch may be bent up a minor 3rd Modern yueqin have frets tuned in semitones The strings on the traditional form of the instrument were made of silk although nylon is generally used today and plucked with a rather long sharp plectrum which is sometimes attached to the instrument with a piece of cord There is no sound hole but inside the sound box are one or more strands of wire attached only at one end so that they vibrate giving the instrument a particular timbre and resonance There is no bridge or saddle the strings are simply attached to the anchor at the base of the instrument The instrument s standard Chinese name yueqin literally means moon string instrument qin 琴 is the generic term for string instrument and yue means moon Its alternate name yueqin 月琴 also means moon string instrument Modern forms of the instrument have three or four strings made of steel citation needed or steel wrapped nylon each tuned to a different pitch The strings are attached to the anchor by looping them through their own end loops three string instruments are often tuned A D four string instruments are often tuned to A D a d however in recent practice the instrument is tuned G D g d so modern liuqin and ruan players can easily double on yueqin The anchor on modern instrument may have up to five holes so it can be strung and tuned as a three or four string instrument The nut at the peghead end of the instrument is filed with notches appropriate to the number and position of the strings Modern yueqin are often played with a guitar pick In Taiwan the yueqin has a longer neck and has two or three strings 4 5 Differences between yueqin and ruan Edit Southern style long necked yueqin While both instruments have a moon shaped soundboard the modern ruan uses a bridge whereas the yueqin simply attaches the strings the frame similar to the design of the pipa In addition most yueqin do not have the obvious double soundholes like the ruan instead they have the single small soundhole located under where the strings are attached also similar to pipa Both features gives the Yueqin a sound quality in between ruan and pipa While the ruan is used mostly for its lower range instruments i e zhongruan and daruan yueqin is primarily a treble tuned instrument even though the size of its soundboard is larger than the zhongruan Southern yueqin have a long neck use two strings and have an improvisational and flexible intonation practice some Southern yueqin also have acoustical metal coils inside the soundboard to amplify the instrument Northern yueqin have very short neck and have bamboo in both the front and back requiring the performer to hold the instrument away from their body The northern instruments range from single to four stringed instruments Regardless of the neck size or strings all yueqin are tuned around the same treble pitch level A common technique in performance is snapping the pick on the string similar to Japanese shamisen Yueqin is the loudest member of the plucked lute family of Chinese instruments one instrument can easily be heard over a full Chinese orchestra See also EditĐan nguyệt Music of China Music of TaiwanWikimedia Commons has media related to Yueqin References Edit a b yueqin Encyclopaedia Britannica Retrieved 26 January 2012 Photographic image JPG Yuemi net Retrieved 20 April 2021 Collection of stringed instruments Instrumap netlify app Retrieved 20 April 2021 ATLAS of Plucked Instruments Far East Atlasofpluckedinstruments com Retrieved 20 April 2021 The Stringed Instrument Database W Z Stringedinstrumentdatabase aornis com Retrieved 20 April 2021 External links Edit in Chinese Yueqin page in Chinese Yueqin photos second and third rows Japanese yueqin page kokone to Page of a Japanese builder and repairer of yueqinsVideo Edit Yueqin video Qing Shen Yi Chang 情深谊长 performed by Fang Jinlong from The Musical Instruments E book Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yueqin amp oldid 1051189895, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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