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Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts

The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Latin: Academia Scientiarum et Artium Croatica, Croatian: Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, abbrev. HAZU) is the national academy of Croatia.

Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
The decorated facade of the Academy Palace, Zrinski Square in Zagreb
AbbreviationHAZU
Formation1866; 155 years ago (1866)
TypeNational academy
PurposeScience, arts, academics
HeadquartersZagreb, Croatia
Location
Membership
134 full members (as of November 2020[update])
Velimir Neidhardt
Main organ
Presidency of the Academy
Budget
HRK 68.3 million (€9.1 million) (2016)
Websitewww.hazu.hr

HAZU was founded under patronage of the Croatian bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer under the name Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts (Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, abbrev. JAZU) since its founder wanted to make it the central scientific and artistic institution of all South Slavs. Today, its main goals are encouraging and organizing scientific work, applying the achieved results, development of artistic and cultural activities, carrying about the Croatian cultural heritage and its affirmation in the world, publishing the results of scientific research and artistic creativity and giving suggestions and opinions for the advancement of science and art in areas of particular importance to Croatia.

The academy is divided into nine classes; social sciences, mathematical, physical and chemical sciences, natural sciences, medical sciences, philological sciences, Literature, Fine Arts, Musical Arts and Musicology, technical sciences. The Academy started in 1866 with 16 full members which grew to today's 160. Besides full, members can also be honorary, corresponding or associate.

Contents

The institution was founded in Zagreb on 29 April 1861 by the decision of the Croatian Parliament (Sabor) as the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts. The bishop and benefactor Josip Juraj Strossmayer, a prominent advocate of higher education during the 19th century Croatian national romanticism, set up a trust fund for this purpose and in 1860 submitted a large donation to the then viceroy (ban) of Croatia Josip Šokčević for the cause of being able to

bring together the best minds [...] and find a way in which books in the national languages could be produced in the Slavic South; the Academy should also take under its aegis all the areas of human science

Academy Palace in the 1890s

After some years of deliberations by the Croatian Parliament and the Emperor Franz Joseph, it was finally sanctioned by law in 1866. The official sponsor was Josip Juraj Strossmayer, while the first Chairman of the Academy was the distinguished Croatian historian Franjo Rački. Đuro Daničić was elected for secretary general of the Academy, where he played a key role in preparing the Academy's Dictionary, "Croatian or Serbian Dictionary of JAZU".

The Academy's creation was the logical extension of the University of Zagreb, the institution initially created in 1669 and also renewed by bishop Strossmayer in 1874. Bishop Strossmayer also initiated the building of the Academy Palace in the Zrinjevac park of Zagreb, and the Palace was completed in 1880. In 1884, the Palace also became a host of The Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters that contained 256 works of art (mostly paintings). The same is today one of the most prominent art galleries in Zagreb.

The Academy started publishing the academic journal Rad in 1867. In 1882, each of the individual scientific classes of the Academy started printing their own journals. In 1887, the Academy published the first "Ljetopis" as a year book, as well as several other publications in history and ethnology.

Ivan Supek, Mihailo Petrović, Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger and Lavoslav Ružička were JAZU members.

Name changes

The Academy briefly changed name from "Yugoslav" to "Croatian" between 1941 and 1945 during the Axis client regime of the Independent State of Croatia.

It has again been renamed "Croatian" in 1991 after Croatia gained independence from Yugoslavia.

Interior of the Academy Palace

The Academy is divided into nine departments (classes):

  • Department of Social Sciences
  • Department of Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Sciences
  • Department of Natural Sciences
  • Department of Medical Sciences
  • Department of Philological Sciences
  • Department of Literature
  • Department of Fine Arts
  • Department of Music and Musicology
  • Department of Technical Sciences

The Institute for Historical Sciences

One of the research units of the Academy is the Institute for Historical Sciences. It is located in a Renaissance villa in Dubrovnik, and holds a rich manuscript and library collection. Two peer-reviewed journals are published by the Institute, which are fully available online: Anali in Croatian and Dubrovnik Annals in English.

There are four classes of members:

  • Full members
  • Associate members
  • Honorary members
  • Corresponding members

The number of full members and corresponding members is limited to 160 each, while the maximum number of associate members is 100. Number of full members per department is limited to 24. Only the full members may carry the title of "academician" (English:F.C.A., Croatian: akademik (male members) or akademkinja (female members)).

Image Chairman Term
Franjo Rački 1866–1886
Pavao Muhić 1886–1890
Josip Torbar 1890–1900
Tadija Smičiklas 1900–1914
Tomislav Maretić 1914–1918
Vladimir Mažuranić 1918–1921
Gustav Janeček 1921–1924
Gavro Manojlović 1924–1933
Albert Bazala 1933–1941
Tomo Matić 1941–1946
Andrija Štampar 1946–1958
Grga Novak 1958–1978
Jakov Sirotković 1978–1991
Ivan Supek 1991–1997
Ivo Padovan 1997–2004
Milan Moguš 2004–2010
Zvonko Kusić 2010–2018
Velimir Neidhardt 2019–present

The Academy has recently been criticized to the effect that membership and activities are based on academic cronyism and political favor rather than on scientific and artistic merit. In 2006 matters came to a head with the Academy's refusal to induct Dr. Miroslav Radman, an accomplished biologist, a member of the French Academy of Sciences, and an advocate of a higher degree of meritocracy and accountability in Croatian academia. His supporters within the Academy and the media decried the decision as reinforcing a politically motivated, unproductive status quo.

Dr. Ivo Banac, a Yale University professor and then a deputy in the Croatian parliament, addressed the chamber in a speech decrying a "dictatorship of mediocrity" in the Academy, while Globus columnist Boris Dežulović satirized the institution as an "Academy of stupidity and obedience." Dr. Vladimir Paar and others defended the Academy's decision, averring that it did take pains to include accomplished scientists but that, since Dr. Radman's work has mostly taken place outside Croatia, it was appropriate that he remain a Corresponding rather than a Full Member of the Academy.

Nenad Ban, a distinguished molecular biologist from ETH Zurich and a member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina is only a corresponding member of HAZU. Ivan Đikić, a molecular biologist working at the Goethe University Frankfurt, and also a member of Leopoldina since 2010, has not been able to join HAZU even as a corresponding member, despite being the most cited Croatian scientist, with more citations than the Academy's 18-member Department of Medical Sciences combined.

From 2005 to 2007, the Department of Philological Sciences at the Academy released several declarations on the linguistic situation in Croatia, which were criticised for being nationalistically motivated rather than linguistically based.

  1. "Proglašeni novi članovi HAZU: Donosimo biografije i zasluge novoizabranih redovitih akademika". Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 16 November 2020. Retrieved19 April 2021.
  2. "Presidency of the Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved15 January 2009.
  3. "Izmjene i dopune financijskog plana Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti za 2016"(PDF) (in Croatian). Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. 30 November 2016. Retrieved14 December 2016.
  4. The adjective "Yugoslav" was coined in mid-19th century by the movement that sought national unity of the South Slavs from Austria-Hungary with their eastern neighbors. Its extent was likely ambiguous, e.g. in whether or not it meant to include Bulgarians and Macedonians. Later the term became associated specifically with the country and peoples of Yugoslavia.
  5. "The Founding of the Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Archived from the original on 6 June 2010. Retrieved17 January 2009.
  6. "Classes of Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved14 January 2009.
  7. About the Institute
  8. "Members of Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved14 January 2009.
  9. Jindra, Jelena (20 July 2010). "HAZU: najskuplji starački dom" [Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts: the most expensive retirement home]. Nacional (in Croatian). Zagreb. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved12 December 2018.
  10. Pavliša, Mija (9 February 2011). "Nevjerodostojnom biografijom do članstva u HAZU: nepostojeće knjige Dunje Brozović" (in Croatian). Zagreb: T-portal. ISSN 1334-3130. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved27 September 2016.
  11. Opačić, Tamara (9 February 2011). "Čija je Dunja Brozović Rončević?" (in Croatian). Zagreb: H-alter. ISSN 1847-3784. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013. Retrieved12 December 2013.
  12. Detelj, Branko (14 February 2011). "Hrvatska akademija zadrtosti i učmalosti" [Croatian Academy of Bigotry and Stuffiness] (in Croatian). Varaždin: E-Varaždin.hr. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved12 December 2012.
  13. Popović, Sofija (6 December 2011). "HAZU treba ukinuti a jezične puritance bojkotirati jer zarađuju na nacionalizmu: razgovor sa Snježanom Kordić" [Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts should be abolished and puritan linguists boycotted because they profit from nationalism: Interview with Snježana Kordić]. Nacional (in Croatian). Zagreb. pp. 64–68. Archived(PDF) from the original on 1 June 2012. Retrieved23 August 2017.
  14. "Dictatorship of Mediocrity" debate, Feral Tribune, 2006. Banac speech, Paar reply, Banac response Retrieved 2009-10-21(in Croatian)
  15. "Uspjeh: Đikića priznali i Nijemci, a u HAZU nije prošao" [Success: Đikić recognized by the Germans, but could not enter HAZU]. Večernji list. 29 September 2010. Retrieved18 October 2010. Dodao je i da je još jedan Hrvat, inače jedan od vodećih strukturalnih biologa u svijetu, Nenad Ban, takoder član Leopoldine u Razredu za biokemiju i biofiziku.
  16. "Đikić: Počašćen sam izborom u prestižnu akademiju, ali to je i obvezujuće" [Đikić: I'm honored with the election into the prestigious academy, but it is also an obligation]. Nacional (in Croatian). 29 September 2010. Archived from the original on 23 May 2012. Retrieved2014-10-18.
  17. "Đikić citiraniji od cijelog medicinskog razreda HAZU-a". Slobodna Dalmacija (in Croatian). 27 March 2010. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved7 February 2015.
  18. "Ivan Đikić sad je i službeno postao član ugledne Američke akademije znanosti i umjetnosti". telegram.hr (in Croatian). 21 October 2019. Retrieved21 October 2019.
  19. Kordić, Snježana (2005). "Komentar Izjave HAZU" [Commentary on HAZU's Declaration](PDF). Književna Republika (in Croatian). Zagreb. 3 (3–4): 226–231. ISSN 1334-1057. SSRN3445272.CROSBI 430097. ZDB-ID 2122129-7. Archived(PDF) from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved17 October 2016. (NSK).
  20. Kordić, Snježana (2007). "Akademičke bajke" [Tales by academicians](PDF). Književna Republika (in Croatian). Zagreb. 5 (5–6): 150–173. ISSN 1334-1057. SSRN3432957.CROSBI 429737. Archived(PDF) from the original on 1 June 2012. Retrieved6 November 2013. (NSK).
  21. Kordić, Snježana (2007). "Kako HAZU pravi jezičnu paniku" [How HAZU makes a moral panic about language](PDF). Književna Republika (in Croatian). Zagreb. 5 (7–9): 224–229. ISSN 1334-1057. SSRN3432953.CROSBI 429736. Archived(PDF) from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved6 May 2019. (NSK).
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Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Latin Academia Scientiarum et Artium Croatica Croatian Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti abbrev HAZU is the national academy of Croatia Croatian Academy of Sciences and ArtsThe decorated facade of the Academy Palace Zrinski Square in ZagrebAbbreviationHAZUFormation1866 155 years ago 1866 TypeNational academyPurposeScience arts academicsHeadquartersZagreb CroatiaLocation45 48 33 N 15 58 43 E 45 80917 N 15 97861 E 45 80917 15 97861 Coordinates 45 48 33 N 15 58 43 E 45 80917 N 15 97861 E 45 80917 15 97861Membership134 full members as of November 2020 update 1 ChairmanVelimir NeidhardtMain organPresidency of the Academy 2 BudgetHRK 68 3 million 9 1 million 2016 3 Websitewww wbr hazu wbr hr HAZU was founded under patronage of the Croatian bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer under the name Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti abbrev JAZU since its founder wanted to make it the central scientific and artistic institution of all South Slavs Today its main goals are encouraging and organizing scientific work applying the achieved results development of artistic and cultural activities carrying about the Croatian cultural heritage and its affirmation in the world publishing the results of scientific research and artistic creativity and giving suggestions and opinions for the advancement of science and art in areas of particular importance to Croatia The academy is divided into nine classes social sciences mathematical physical and chemical sciences natural sciences medical sciences philological sciences Literature Fine Arts Musical Arts and Musicology technical sciences The Academy started in 1866 with 16 full members which grew to today s 160 Besides full members can also be honorary corresponding or associate Contents 1 History 1 1 Name changes 2 Departments 2 1 The Institute for Historical Sciences 3 Membership 4 Chairmen 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 External linksHistory EditThe institution was founded in Zagreb on 29 April 1861 by the decision of the Croatian Parliament Sabor as the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts 4 The bishop and benefactor Josip Juraj Strossmayer a prominent advocate of higher education during the 19th century Croatian national romanticism set up a trust fund for this purpose and in 1860 submitted a large donation to the then viceroy ban of Croatia Josip Sokcevic for the cause of being able to bring together the best minds and find a way in which books in the national languages could be produced in the Slavic South the Academy should also take under its aegis all the areas of human science 5 Academy Palace in the 1890s After some years of deliberations by the Croatian Parliament and the Emperor Franz Joseph it was finally sanctioned by law in 1866 The official sponsor was Josip Juraj Strossmayer while the first Chairman of the Academy was the distinguished Croatian historian Franjo Racki 5 Đuro Danicic was elected for secretary general of the Academy where he played a key role in preparing the Academy s Dictionary Croatian or Serbian Dictionary of JAZU The Academy s creation was the logical extension of the University of Zagreb the institution initially created in 1669 and also renewed by bishop Strossmayer in 1874 Bishop Strossmayer also initiated the building of the Academy Palace in the Zrinjevac park of Zagreb and the Palace was completed in 1880 5 In 1884 the Palace also became a host of The Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters that contained 256 works of art mostly paintings 5 The same is today one of the most prominent art galleries in Zagreb The Academy started publishing the academic journal Rad in 1867 In 1882 each of the individual scientific classes of the Academy started printing their own journals In 1887 the Academy published the first Ljetopis as a year book as well as several other publications in history and ethnology Ivan Supek Mihailo Petrovic Dragutin Gorjanovic Kramberger and Lavoslav Ruzicka were JAZU members Name changes Edit The Academy briefly changed name from Yugoslav to Croatian between 1941 and 1945 during the Axis client regime of the Independent State of Croatia It has again been renamed Croatian in 1991 after Croatia gained independence from Yugoslavia Departments Edit Interior of the Academy Palace The Academy is divided into nine departments classes 6 Department of Social Sciences Department of Mathematical Physical and Chemical Sciences Department of Natural Sciences Department of Medical Sciences Department of Philological Sciences Department of Literature Department of Fine Arts Department of Music and Musicology Department of Technical SciencesThe Institute for Historical Sciences Edit One of the research units of the Academy is the Institute for Historical Sciences It is located in a Renaissance villa in Dubrovnik and holds a rich manuscript and library collection Two peer reviewed journals are published by the Institute which are fully available online Anali in Croatian and Dubrovnik Annals in English 7 Membership EditSee also List of members of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts There are four classes of members 8 Full members Associate members Honorary members Corresponding members The number of full members and corresponding members is limited to 160 each while the maximum number of associate members is 100 8 Number of full members per department is limited to 24 Only the full members may carry the title of academician English F C A Croatian akademik male members or akademkinja female members Chairmen EditImage Chairman Term Franjo Racki 1866 1886Pavao Muhic 1886 1890Josip Torbar 1890 1900 Tadija Smiciklas 1900 1914 Tomislav Maretic 1914 1918Vladimir Mazuranic 1918 1921Gustav Janecek 1921 1924Gavro Manojlovic 1924 1933Albert Bazala 1933 1941Tomo Matic 1941 1946 Andrija Stampar 1946 1958 Grga Novak 1958 1978Jakov Sirotkovic 1978 1991Ivan Supek 1991 1997Ivo Padovan 1997 2004 Milan Mogus 2004 2010 Zvonko Kusic 2010 2018Velimir Neidhardt 2019 presentCriticism EditThe Academy has recently been criticized to the effect that membership and activities are based on academic cronyism and political favor rather than on scientific and artistic merit 9 10 11 12 13 In 2006 matters came to a head with the Academy s refusal to induct Dr Miroslav Radman an accomplished biologist a member of the French Academy of Sciences and an advocate of a higher degree of meritocracy and accountability in Croatian academia His supporters within the Academy and the media decried the decision as reinforcing a politically motivated unproductive status quo Dr Ivo Banac a Yale University professor and then a deputy in the Croatian parliament addressed the chamber in a speech decrying a dictatorship of mediocrity in the Academy while Globus columnist Boris Dezulovic satirized the institution as an Academy of stupidity and obedience Dr Vladimir Paar and others defended the Academy s decision averring that it did take pains to include accomplished scientists but that since Dr Radman s work has mostly taken place outside Croatia it was appropriate that he remain a Corresponding rather than a Full Member of the Academy 14 Nenad Ban a distinguished molecular biologist from ETH Zurich and a member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina is only a corresponding member of HAZU 15 Ivan Đikic a molecular biologist working at the Goethe University Frankfurt and also a member of Leopoldina since 2010 has not been able to join HAZU even as a corresponding member despite being the most cited Croatian scientist with more citations than the Academy s 18 member Department of Medical Sciences combined 16 17 18 From 2005 to 2007 the Department of Philological Sciences at the Academy released several declarations on the linguistic situation in Croatia which were criticised for being nationalistically motivated rather than linguistically based 19 20 21 See also EditMatica hrvatskaNotes and references Edit Proglaseni novi clanovi HAZU Donosimo biografije i zasluge novoizabranih redovitih akademika Jutarnji list in Croatian 16 November 2020 Retrieved 19 April 2021 Presidency of the Academy Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Archived from the original on 24 December 2008 Retrieved 15 January 2009 Izmjene i dopune financijskog plana Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti za 2016 PDF in Croatian Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts 30 November 2016 Retrieved 14 December 2016 The adjective Yugoslav was coined in mid 19th century by the movement that sought national unity of the South Slavs from Austria Hungary with their eastern neighbors Its extent was likely ambiguous e g in whether or not it meant to include Bulgarians and Macedonians Later the term became associated specifically with the country and peoples of Yugoslavia a b c d The Founding of the Academy Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Archived from the original on 6 June 2010 Retrieved 17 January 2009 Classes of Academy Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Archived from the original on 24 December 2008 Retrieved 14 January 2009 About the Institute a b Members of Academy Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Archived from the original on 24 December 2008 Retrieved 14 January 2009 Jindra Jelena 20 July 2010 HAZU najskuplji staracki dom Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts the most expensive retirement home Nacional in Croatian Zagreb Archived from the original on 15 January 2013 Retrieved 12 December 2018 Pavlisa Mija 9 February 2011 Nevjerodostojnom biografijom do clanstva u HAZU nepostojece knjige Dunje Brozovic in Croatian Zagreb T portal ISSN 1334 3130 Archived from the original on 21 September 2013 Retrieved 27 September 2016 Opacic Tamara 9 February 2011 Cija je Dunja Brozovic Roncevic in Croatian Zagreb H alter ISSN 1847 3784 Archived from the original on 3 February 2013 Retrieved 12 December 2013 Detelj Branko 14 February 2011 Hrvatska akademija zadrtosti i ucmalosti Croatian Academy of Bigotry and Stuffiness in Croatian Varazdin E Varazdin hr Archived from the original on 4 June 2013 Retrieved 12 December 2012 Popovic Sofija 6 December 2011 HAZU treba ukinuti a jezicne puritance bojkotirati jer zarađuju na nacionalizmu razgovor sa Snjezanom Kordic Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts should be abolished and puritan linguists boycotted because they profit from nationalism Interview with Snjezana Kordic Nacional in Croatian Zagreb pp 64 68 Archived PDF from the original on 1 June 2012 Retrieved 23 August 2017 Dictatorship of Mediocrity debate Feral Tribune 2006 Banac speech Paar reply Banac response Retrieved 2009 10 21 in Croatian Uspjeh Đikica priznali i Nijemci a u HAZU nije prosao Success Đikic recognized by the Germans but could not enter HAZU Vecernji list 29 September 2010 Retrieved 18 October 2010 Dodao je i da je jos jedan Hrvat inace jedan od vodecih strukturalnih biologa u svijetu Nenad Ban takoder clan Leopoldine u Razredu za biokemiju i biofiziku Đikic Pocascen sam izborom u prestiznu akademiju ali to je i obvezujuce Đikic I m honored with the election into the prestigious academy but it is also an obligation Nacional in Croatian 29 September 2010 Archived from the original on 23 May 2012 Retrieved 2014 10 18 Đikic citiraniji od cijelog medicinskog razreda HAZU a Slobodna Dalmacija in Croatian 27 March 2010 Archived from the original on 22 February 2014 Retrieved 7 February 2015 Ivan Đikic sad je i sluzbeno postao clan ugledne Americke akademije znanosti i umjetnosti telegram hr in Croatian 21 October 2019 Retrieved 21 October 2019 Kordic Snjezana 2005 Komentar Izjave HAZU Commentary on HAZU s Declaration PDF Knjizevna Republika in Croatian Zagreb 3 3 4 226 231 ISSN 1334 1057 SSRN 3445272 CROSBI 430097 ZDB ID 2122129 7 Archived PDF from the original on 29 May 2012 Retrieved 17 October 2016 NSK Kordic Snjezana 2007 Akademicke bajke Tales by academicians PDF Knjizevna Republika in Croatian Zagreb 5 5 6 150 173 ISSN 1334 1057 SSRN 3432957 CROSBI 429737 Archived PDF from the original on 1 June 2012 Retrieved 6 November 2013 NSK Kordic Snjezana 2007 Kako HAZU pravi jezicnu paniku How HAZU makes a moral panic about language PDF Knjizevna Republika in Croatian Zagreb 5 7 9 224 229 ISSN 1334 1057 SSRN 3432953 CROSBI 429736 Archived PDF from the original on 29 May 2012 Retrieved 6 May 2019 NSK External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Official website in Croatian and English Zakon o Hrvatskoj akademiji znanosti i umjetnosti in Croatian Robert Bajrusi Milan Mogus cuvar tradicije Hrvatske akademije Milan Mogus guardian of traditions of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Nacional in Croatian 552 Archived from the original on 25 February 2012 Retrieved 7 July 2012 Intelektualna krema pred vratima HAZU a in Croatian VIJENAC 80 Svjeza krv u Akademiji in Croatian Katunaric Sandra Viktorija 25 April 2011 Upisani zlatnim slovima Stampar Krleza Supek Written in gold Stampar Krleza Supek Vjesnik in Croatian Archived from the original on 14 June 2012 Retrieved 6 May 2011 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts amp oldid 1018719252 Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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