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Wikipedia

This article is about the Canadian territory. For other uses, see Yukon (disambiguation).

Yukon (() ; French: ; formerly called Yukon Territory and sometimes referred to as the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three territories. It also is the second-least populated province or territory in Canada, with a population of 40,232 people as of the 2021 Census. Whitehorse, the territorial capital, is the largest settlement in any of the three territories.

Yukon
Coordinates:63°00′00″N135°00′00″W /63.00000°N 135.00000°W /63.00000; -135.00000Coordinates: 63°00′00″N135°00′00″W /63.00000°N 135.00000°W /63.00000; -135.00000
CountryCanada
ConfederationJune 13, 1898 (9th)
Capital
(and largest city)
Whitehorse
Largest metroWhitehorse
Government
CommissionerAngélique Bernard
• PremierSandy Silver
LegislatureYukon Legislative Assembly
Federal representationParliament of Canada
House seats1 of 338 (0.3%)
Senate seats1 of 105 (1%)
Area
• Total482,443 km2 (186,272 sq mi)
• Land474,391 km2 (183,163 sq mi)
• Water8,052 km2 (3,109 sq mi) 1.7%
• Rank9th
4.8% of Canada
Population
• Total40,232
• Estimate
(Q1 2022)
42,982
• Rank12th
• Density0.08/km2 (0.2/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Yukoner
FR:Yukonnais(e)
Official languages
  • English
  • French
GDP
• Rank13th
• Total (2017)C$3.089 billion
• Per capitaC$75,141 (3rd)
HDI
• HDI (2019)0.924Very high (5th)
Time zoneUTC−07:00
Canadian postal abbr.
YT
Postal code prefix
ISO 3166 codeCA-YT
FlowerFireweed
TreeSubalpine fir
BirdCommon raven
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Yukon was split from the North-West Territories in 1898 as the Yukon Territory. The federal government's Yukon Act, which received royal assent on March 27, 2002, established Yukon as the territory's official name, though Yukon Territory is also still popular in usage and Canada Post continues to use the territory's internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT. In 2021, territorial government policy was changed so that “The Yukon” would be recommended for use in official territorial government materials.

Though officially bilingual (English and French), the Yukon government also recognizes First Nations languages.

At 5,959 m (19,551 ft), Yukon's Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest on the North American continent (after Denali in the U.S. state of Alaska). Most of the Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by long, cold winters and brief, warm summers. The Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate.

Notable rivers include the Yukon River as well as the Pelly, Stewart, Peel, White, Liard, and Tatshenshini rivers.

Contents

The territory is named after the Yukon River, the longest river in the Yukon. The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River.

Main article: Geography of Yukon

The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U.S. state of Alaska to the west and northwest for 1,210 kilometres (752 mi) mostly along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea. Its ragged eastern boundary mostly follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains.

The Yukon River at Schwatka Lake and the entry to Miles Canyon

Most of the territory is in the watershed of its namesake, the Yukon River. The southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large, long and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system. The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Other watersheds in the territory include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the AlsekTatshenshini, and a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea. The two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast.

Canada's highest point, Mount Logan (5,959 m or 19,551 ft), is in the territory's southwest. Mount Logan and a large part of the Yukon's southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Park and Vuntut National Park in the north.

Notable widespread tree species within the Yukon are the black spruce and white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of the short growing season and severe climate.

Climate

While the average winter temperature in the Yukon is mild by Canadian arctic standards, no other place in North America gets as cold as the Yukon during extreme cold snaps. The temperature has dropped down to −60 °C (−76 °F) three times, 1947, 1952, and 1968. The most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to −63.0 °C (−81.4 °F).

Unlike most of Canada where the most extreme heat waves occur in July, August, and even September, the Yukon's extreme heat tends to occur in June and even May. The Yukon has recorded 36 °C (97 °F) three times. The first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36.1 °C (97 °F). 14 years later this record was almost beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 °C (97 °F) in May 1983. The old record was finally broken 21 years later in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station, located just northwest of Whitehorse, recorded a temperature of 36.5 °C (97.7 °F).

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Yukon
City July average high July average low January average high January average low
Whitehorse 21 °C (70 °F) 8 °C (46 °F) −11 °C (12 °F) −19 °C (−2 °F)
Dawson City 23 °C (73 °F) 8 °C (46 °F) −22 °C (−8 °F) −30 °C (−22 °F)
Old Crow 20 °C (68 °F) 9 °C (48 °F) −25 °C (−13 °F) −34 °C (−29 °F)
Main article: History of Yukon
Hill-side mining during the Klondike Gold Rush, c. 1899

Long before the arrival of Europeans, central and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, and the area escaped glaciation. Sites of archeological significance in the Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human habitation in North America. The sites safeguard the history of the first people and the earliest First Nations of the Yukon.

The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in approximately 800 AD in what is now the U.S. state of Alaska blanketed the southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway, and which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations peoples in the Yukon and further south in Canada.

Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks. European incursions into the area began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries. By the 1870s and 1880s, gold miners began to arrive. This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897. The increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898.

Main article: Demographics of Yukon

The 2016 census reported a Yukon population of 35,874, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. With a land area of 474,712.64 km2 (183,287.57 sq mi), it had a population density of0.1/km2 (0.2/sq mi) in 2011, the highest among all the Canadian territories. Statistics Canada has estimated Yukon's 2021 Q3 population to be 43,095, an increase of 17.5% from the 2016 census. This is the largest percentage increase for any Canadian province or territory.

Unlike in other Canadian provinces and territories, Statistics Canada uses the entire territory as a single at-large census division.

Ethnicity

This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(April 2017)

According to the 2016 Canada Census the majority of the territory's population was of European descent, although it has a significant population of First Nations communities across the territory. The 2011 National Household Survey examined the Yukon's ethnocultural diversity and immigration. At that time, 87.7% of residents were Canadian-born and 24.2% were of Indigenous origin. The most common countries of birth for immigrants were the United Kingdom (15.9%), the Philippines (15.0%), and the United States (13.2%). Among very recent immigrants (between 2006 and 2011) living in the Yukon, 63.5% were born in Asia.

Visible minority and indigenous identity (2016):

First Nations (19.1%)
Métis (2.9%)
Inuit (0.6%)
Other Indigenous responses (0.8%)

As of the 2016 census, the top ten ancestries in the Yukon were:

Rank Ethnic group Population (2016) Percentage
1 English 9,680 27.57%
2 Aboriginal 8,665 24.68%
3 Canadian 8,640 24.61%
4 Scottish 8,295 23.63%
5 Irish 6,930 19.74%
6 German 5,575 15.88%
7 French 5,040 14.35%
8 Ukrainian 2,200 6.27%
9 Dutch (Netherlands) 1,760 5.01%
10 Norwegian 1,380 3.93%

Language

The most commonly reported mother tongue among the 33,145 single responses to the 2011 Canadian census was English at 28,065 (85%). The second-most common was 1,455 (4%) for French. Among 510 multiple respondents, 140 of them (27%) reported a mother tongue of both English and French, while 335 (66%) reported English and a "non-official language" and 20 (4%) reported French and a "non-official language".

The Yukon’s Language Act "recognises the significance" of the territory’s aboriginal languages in the Yukon, and permits their use in Legislative Assembly proceedings, although only English and French are available for laws and court proceedings.

Mother tongue, 2011 census
Rank Language Population Percent
1. English 28,065 82.9%
2. French 1,455 4.3%
3. German 805 2.4%
4. Tagalog 425 1.3%
5. Kaska 265 0.8%
6. Northern Tutchone 200 0.6%
7. Spanish 180 0.5%
8. Southern Tutchone 140 0.4%
9. Dutch 130 0.4%
10. Chinese 130 0.4%

Religion

This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(May 2012)

The 2011 National Household Survey reported that 49.9% of Yukoners reported having no religious affiliation, the highest percentage in Canada. The most frequently reported religious affiliation was Christianity, reported by 46.2% of residents. Of these, the most common denominations were the Catholic Church (39.6%), the Anglican Church of Canada (17.8%) and the United Church of Canada (9.6%).

Religious beliefs in Yukon (2011 census)
Religion Adherents % of the population
Irreligious 16,635 49.92%
Christianity 15,375 46.14%
Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality 395 1.19%
Buddhism 290 0.87%
Hinduism 165 0.5%
Sikhism 90 0.27%
Islam 40 0.12%
Judaism 20 0.06%
Other religions 300 0.9%
Total 33,320 100%
A conveyor belt and cart outside of a mine tunnel in the Yukon. The economy of the territory has historically been centred around mining.

The Yukon's major industry is mining (lead, zinc, silver, gold, asbestos and copper). The government acquired the land from the Hudson's Bay Company in 1870 and split it from the Northwest Territories in 1898 to fill the need for local government created by the population influx of the gold rush. Thousands of these prospectors moved to the territory, ushering a period of Yukon history recorded by authors such as Robert W. Service and Jack London. The memory of this period and the early days of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, as well as the territory's scenic wonders and outdoor recreation opportunities, makes tourism the second most important industry in the territory.

Manufacturing, including furniture, clothing, and handicrafts, follows in importance, along with hydroelectricity. The traditional industries of trapping and fishing have declined. As of 2012, the government sector directly employs approximately 6,300 out of a labour force of 20,800, on a population of 27,500.

On May 1, 2015, the Yukon modified its Business Corporations Act, in an effort to attract more benefits and participants to its economy. One amendment to the BCA lets a proxy be given for voting purposes. Another change will allow directors to pursue business opportunities declined by the corporation, a practice off-limits in most other jurisdictions due to the inherent potential for conflicts of interest. One of the changes will allow a corporation to serve as a director of a subsidiary registered in Yukon. The legislation also allows companies to add provisions in their articles of incorporation giving directors blanket approval to sell off all of the company's assets without requiring a shareholder vote. If provided for by a unanimous shareholders agreement, a corporation is not required to have directors at all. There is increased flexibility regarding the location of corporate records offices, including the ability to maintain a records office outside of Yukon so long as it is accessible by electronic means.

Tourism

Ivvavik National Park is one of three national parks located in Yukon.

The Yukon's tourism motto is "Larger than life". The Yukon's tourism relies heavily on its natural environment, and there are many organized outfitters and guides available for activities such as but not limited to hunting, angling, canoeing/kayaking, hiking, skiing, snowboarding, ice climbing, and dog sledding. These activities are offered both in an organized setting or in the backcountry, which is accessible by air or snowmobile. The Yukon's festivals and sporting events include the Adäka Cultural Festival, Yukon International Storytelling Festival, and the Yukon Sourdough Rendezvous. The Yukon's latitude enables the view of aurora borealis.

The Yukon Government maintains a series of territorial parks including, parks such as Herschel Island Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park, Tombstone Territorial Park, and Fishing Branch Ni'iinlii'njik Park. Coal River Springs Territorial Park) Parks Canada, a federal agency of the Government of Canada, also maintains three national parks and reserves within the territory, Kluane National Park and Reserve, Ivvavik National Park, and Vuntut National Park.

The Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre is an interpretive centre with a focus on the Beringia land bridge.

The Yukon is also home to 12 National Historic Sites of Canada. The sites are also administered by Parks Canada, with five of the 12 sites being located within national parks. The territory is host to a number of museums, including the Copperbelt Railway & Mining Museum, the SS Klondike boat museum, the Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre in Whitehorse; as well as the Keno City Mining Museum in Keno City. The territory also holds a number of enterprises that allows tourists to experience pre-colonial and modern cultures of Yukon's First Nations and Inuit peoples.

The Yukon has a wide array of cultural and sporting events that attract artists, local residents, and tourists. Annual events include the Adäka Cultural Festival, Dawson City Music Festival, Yukon International Storytelling Festival, Yukon Quest dog sled race, Yukon Sourdough Rendezvous, as well as Klondike Gold Rush memorials. and the Northern Lights Centre.

A musher during the start of the Yukon Quest dog sledding race in Whitehorse

The Yukon’s Aboriginal culture is also strongly reflected in such areas as winter sports, as in the Yukon Quest sled dog race. The modern comic-book character Yukon Jack depicts a heroic aboriginal persona. Similarly, the territorial government also recognizes that First Nations and Inuit languages plays a part in cultural heritage of the territory; these languages include Tlingit, and the less common Tahltan, as well as seven Athapaskan languages, Upper Tanana, Gwich'in, Hän, Northern Tutchone, Southern Tutchone, Kaska, and Tagish, some of which are rare.

Arts

See also: Music of Yukon

Notable Yukon artists include Jim Robb and Ted Harrison, whose paintings have become iconic for their depictions of historic and contemporary life and culture in the Yukon.

With the Klondike Gold Rush, a number of folk songs from the Yukon became popular, including "Rush to the Klondike" (1897, written by W. T. Diefenbaker), "The Klondike Gold Rush", "I've Got the Klondike Fever" (1898) and "La Chanson du Klondyke".

A notable cultural and tourist feature is the legacy of the Klondike Gold Rush (1897–1899), which inspired contemporary writers of the time such as Jack London, Robert W. Service, and Jules Verne, and which continues to inspire films and games, such as Mae West's Klondike Annie and The Yukon Trail (see Cultural legacy of the Klondike Gold Rush).

Yukon Legislature

The Yukon Legislative Building is the meeting place for the territory's legislative assembly.

Executive power in the Yukon is formally vested in the Territorial Commissioner, who plays an analogous role to that of a provincial lieutenant governor. As guarantor of responsible government in the territory, the Commissioner generally acts on the advice of the Premier of Yukon, who commands the confidence of the elected Legislative Assembly. Unlike lieutenant governors, commissioners are not direct representatives of the Queen but are instead appointed by the federal government.

The Yukon has numerous political parties and candidates who stand for election to the 19 seats in the Yukon Legislative Assembly. Those elected to the legislature are known as members of the Legislative Assembly and may use the post nominal letters "MLA". The three parties presently represented are the centre-leaning Yukon Liberal Party (8 seats) – who currently form government, the centre-right leaning Yukon Party (8), and the centre-left leaning Yukon New Democratic Party (3).

The 9th and current premier of Yukon is Sandy Silver, who represents the electoral district of Klondike as its MLA. Silver took office following the 2016 Yukon general election, where his Liberals won a majority government. After the 2021 Yukon general election, the Liberals were reduced to a minority government, though they were able to continue governing due to a formal agreement with the NDP.

Local government

Distribution of Yukon's eight municipalities by type

The vast majority of Yukon's land mass is unorganized, with no defined municipal or otherwise supralocal level of government like in other parts of Canada.

For most individuals in the Yukon though, local level governance is provided by municipalities. The Yukon's eight municipalities cover only0.2% of the territory's land mass but are home to80.9% of its population.

Municipal governments are created by the Yukon Government in accordance with the Municipal Act of 2001. Municipal governments provide "jurisdiction services, facilities, or things that a local government considers necessary or desirable for all or part of its community". Classifications of municipalities under the Municipal Act include cities and towns. Whitehorse is the capital of the Yukon and its only city. The remaining seven municipalities are towns, of which four were villages that were continued as towns upon adoption of the 2001 Municipal Act.

The usage is somewhat confusing: according to the Municipal Act of 2001 villages are legally given the status of towns, but may call themselves villages in English. In French they are called villages, and the French word ville, which means town is not used for them. Instead larger settlements are called ville and even bigger ones grande ville, apart from Dawson which is called a cité, and in English is also called a city. Keno City, though unincorporated, also bears city in its name.

History

In the 19th century, the Yukon was a segment of North-Western Territory that was administered by the Hudson's Bay Company, and then of the Northwest Territories administered by the federal Canadian government. It only obtained a recognizable local government in 1895 when it became a separate district of the Northwest Territories. In 1898, it was made a separate territory with its own commissioner and an appointed Territorial Council.

From the early 19th century to 1870, the areas that made up the Yukon were administered by the Hudson's Bay Company as the North-Western Territory.

Prior to 1979, the territory was administered by the commissioner who was appointed by the federal Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. The commissioner had a role in appointing the territory's Executive Council, served as chair, and had a day-to-day role in governing the territory. The elected Territorial Council had a purely advisory role. In 1979, a significant degree of power was devolved from the commissioner and the federal government to the territorial legislature which, in that year, adopted a party system of responsible government. This change was accomplished through a letter from Jake Epp, Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, rather than through formal legislation.

In preparation for responsible government, political parties were organized and ran candidates to the Yukon Legislative Assembly for the first time in 1978. The Progressive Conservatives won these elections and formed the first party government of Yukon in January 1979. The Yukon New Democratic Party (NDP) formed the government from 1985 to 1992 under Tony Penikett and again from 1996 under Piers McDonald until being defeated in 2000. The conservatives returned to power in 1992 under John Ostashek after having renamed themselves the Yukon Party. The Liberal government of Pat Duncan was defeated in elections in November 2002, with Dennis Fentie of the Yukon Party forming the government as premier.

The Yukon Act, passed on April 1, 2003, formalized the powers of the Yukon Government and devolved additional powers to the territorial government (e.g., control over land and natural resources). As of 2003, other than criminal prosecutions, the Yukon Government has much of the same powers as provincial governments, and the other two territories are looking to obtaining the same powers.[citation needed]

Federal representation

At the federal level, the Yukon is represented in the Parliament of Canada by one member of Parliament (MP) and one senator. MPs from Canadian territories are full and equal voting representatives and residents of the territory enjoy the same rights as other Canadian citizens. One Yukon MP, Erik Nielsen, served as Deputy Prime Minister under Brian Mulroney, while another, Audrey McLaughlin, was the leader of the federal New Democratic Party (NDP) from 1989 to 1995.

First Nations

A substantial minority of the territory's population is First Nations. An umbrella land claim agreement representing 7,432 members of 14 different First Nations was signed with the federal government in 1993. Eleven of the 14 Yukon First Nations have negotiated and signed comprehensive land claim and self-government agreements. The 14 First Nations speak eight different languages.

The territory once had an Inuit settlement, located on Herschel Island off the Arctic Ocean coast. This settlement was dismantled in 1987 and its inhabitants relocated to the neighbouring Northwest Territories. As a result of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement, the island is now a territorial park and is known officially as Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park, Qikiqtaruk being the name of the island in Inuvialuktun.

Before modern forms of transportation, the rivers and mountain passes were the main transportation routes for the coastal Tlingit people trading with the Athabascans of which the Chilkoot Pass and Dalton Trail, as well as the first Europeans.

Air

Erik Nielsen Whitehorse International Airport serves as the air transport hub for Yukon.

Erik Nielsen Whitehorse International Airport serves as the air transport infrastructure hub, with scheduled direct flights to Vancouver, Victoria, Kelowna, Calgary, Edmonton, Yellowknife, Inuvik, Ottawa, Dawson City, Old Crow, Juneau and Frankfurt (pre-COVID). Whitehorse International Airport is also the headquarters and primary hub for Air North, Yukon's Airline. Every Yukon community is served by an airport or community aerodrome.[citation needed] The communities of Dawson City and Old Crow have regularly scheduled service through Air North. Air charter businesses exist primarily to serve the tourism and mining exploration industries.[citation needed]

Rail

Yukon passenger rail

The railway ceased operation in the 1980s with the first closure of the Faro mine. It is now run during the summer months for the tourism season, with operations between Carcross and Skagway, Alaska.[citation needed]

The Alaska-Alberta Railway Development Corporation (A2A) is planning to construct a new railway line that would cross the Yukon, connecting Watson Lake and possibly Carmacks but not Whitehorse.

Roads

The Klondike Highway is one of several territorial highways in Yukon.

Today, major land routes include the Alaska Highway, the Klondike Highway (between Skagway and Dawson City), the Haines Highway (between Haines, Alaska, and Haines Junction), and the Dempster Highway (linking Inuvik, Northwest Territories to the Klondike Highway, and the only road access route to the Arctic Ocean, in Canada), all paved except for the Dempster. Other highways with less traffic include the Robert Campbell Highway linking Carmacks (on the Klondike Highway) to Watson Lake (Alaska Highway) via Faro and Ross River, and the Silver Trail linking the old silver mining communities of Mayo, Elsa and Keno City to the Klondike Highway at the Stewart River bridge. Air travel is the only way to reach the far-north community of Old Crow.

Waterways

From the Gold Rush until the 1950s, riverboats plied the Yukon River, mostly between Whitehorse and Dawson City, with some making their way further to Alaska and over to the Bering Sea, and other tributaries of the Yukon River such as the Stewart River. Most of the riverboats were owned by the British-Yukon Navigation Company, an arm of the White Pass and Yukon Route, which also operated a narrow gauge railway between Skagway, Alaska, and Whitehorse.

  1. The remaining 99.8% of Yukon's land mass contains two unincorporated hamlets, four unorganized areas, four Indian settlements, four self-governments (Indian reserves), thirteen unincorporated settlements and a Teslin land claim. Unorganized Yukon, one of the four unorganized areas, accounts for the vast majority of the territory's land mass, at98.1%.
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Yukon Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article is about the Canadian territory For other uses see Yukon disambiguation Yukon ˈ juː k ɒ n listen YOO kon French jykɔ formerly called Yukon Territory and sometimes referred to as the Yukon 7 is the smallest and westernmost of Canada s three territories It also is the second least populated province or territory in Canada with a population of 40 232 people as of the 2021 Census Whitehorse the territorial capital is the largest settlement in any of the three territories 8 YukonTerritoryFlagCoat of armsBC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NUCoordinates 63 00 00 N 135 00 00 W 63 00000 N 135 00000 W 63 00000 135 00000 Coordinates 63 00 00 N 135 00 00 W 63 00000 N 135 00000 W 63 00000 135 00000CountryCanadaConfederationJune 13 1898 9th Capital and largest city WhitehorseLargest metroWhitehorseGovernment CommissionerAngelique Bernard PremierSandy SilverLegislatureYukon Legislative AssemblyFederal representationParliament of CanadaHouse seats1 of 338 0 3 Senate seats1 of 105 1 Area Total482 443 km2 186 272 sq mi Land474 391 km2 183 163 sq mi Water8 052 km2 3 109 sq mi 1 7 Rank9th 4 8 of CanadaPopulation 2021 Total40 232 1 Estimate Q1 2022 42 982 2 Rank12th Density0 08 km2 0 2 sq mi Demonym s Yukoner FR Yukonnais e Official languagesEnglishFrench 3 GDP Rank13th Total 2017 C 3 089 billion 4 Per capitaC 75 141 3rd HDI HDI 2019 0 924 5 Very high 5th Time zoneUTC 07 00Canadian postal abbr YTPostal code prefixYISO 3166 codeCA YTFlowerFireweedTreeSubalpine fir 6 BirdCommon ravenRankings include all provinces and territories Yukon was split from the North West Territories in 1898 as the Yukon Territory The federal government s Yukon Act which received royal assent on March 27 2002 established Yukon as the territory s official name 7 though Yukon Territory is also still popular in usage and Canada Post continues to use the territory s internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT 9 In 2021 territorial government policy was changed so that The Yukon would be recommended for use in official territorial government materials 10 Though officially bilingual English and French the Yukon government also recognizes First Nations languages At 5 959 m 19 551 ft Yukon s Mount Logan in Kluane National Park and Reserve is the highest mountain in Canada and the second highest on the North American continent after Denali in the U S state of Alaska Most of the Yukon has a subarctic climate characterized by long cold winters and brief warm summers The Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate Notable rivers include the Yukon River as well as the Pelly Stewart Peel White Liard and Tatshenshini rivers Contents 1 Etymology 2 Geography 2 1 Climate 3 History 4 Demographics 4 1 Ethnicity 4 2 Language 4 3 Religion 5 Economy 5 1 Tourism 6 Culture 6 1 Arts 7 Government 7 1 Yukon Legislature 7 2 Local government 7 3 History 7 4 Federal representation 7 5 First Nations 8 Transportation 8 1 Air 8 2 Rail 8 3 Roads 8 4 Waterways 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External linksEtymology EditThe territory is named after the Yukon River the longest river in the Yukon The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich in phrase chuu gaįį han which means white water river and refers to the pale colour of glacial runoff in the Yukon River 11 12 Geography EditMain article Geography of Yukon The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle bordering the U S state of Alaska to the west and northwest for 1 210 kilometres 752 mi mostly along longitude 141 W the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south 13 Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea Its ragged eastern boundary mostly follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains The Yukon River at Schwatka Lake and the entry to Miles Canyon Most of the territory is in the watershed of its namesake the Yukon River The southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large long and narrow glacier fed alpine lakes most of which flow into the Yukon River system The larger lakes include Teslin Lake Atlin Lake Tagish Lake Marsh Lake Lake Laberge Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake with the greater part of its area within Yukon Other watersheds in the territory include the Mackenzie River the Peel Watershed and the Alsek Tatshenshini and a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea The two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast Canada s highest point Mount Logan 5 959 m or 19 551 ft is in the territory s southwest Mount Logan and a large part of the Yukon s southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve a UNESCO World Heritage Site Other national parks include Ivvavik National Park and Vuntut National Park in the north Notable widespread tree species within the Yukon are the black spruce and white spruce Many trees are stunted because of the short growing season and severe climate 14 Climate Edit Koppen climate types in Yukon See also Climate change in the Arctic While the average winter temperature in the Yukon is mild by Canadian arctic standards no other place in North America gets as cold as the Yukon during extreme cold snaps The temperature has dropped down to 60 C 76 F three times 1947 1952 and 1968 The most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to 63 0 C 81 4 F 15 Unlike most of Canada where the most extreme heat waves occur in July August and even September the Yukon s extreme heat tends to occur in June and even May The Yukon has recorded 36 C 97 F three times The first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36 1 C 97 F 14 years later this record was almost beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 C 97 F in May 1983 The old record was finally broken 21 years later in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station located just northwest of Whitehorse recorded a temperature of 36 5 C 97 7 F 16 Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Yukon 16 17 City July average high July average low January average high January average lowWhitehorse 21 C 70 F 8 C 46 F 11 C 12 F 19 C 2 F Dawson City 23 C 73 F 8 C 46 F 22 C 8 F 30 C 22 F Old Crow 20 C 68 F 9 C 48 F 25 C 13 F 34 C 29 F History EditMain article History of Yukon Hill side mining during the Klondike Gold Rush c 1899 Long before the arrival of Europeans central and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people and the area escaped glaciation Sites of archeological significance in the Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human habitation in North America 18 The sites safeguard the history of the first people and the earliest First Nations of the Yukon 18 The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in approximately 800 AD in what is now the U S state of Alaska blanketed the southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway and which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations peoples in the Yukon and further south in Canada Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks European incursions into the area began early in the 19th century with the fur trade followed by missionaries By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897 The increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898 Demographics EditMain article Demographics of Yukon The 2016 census reported a Yukon population of 35 874 an increase of 5 8 from 2011 19 With a land area of 474 712 64 km2 183 287 57 sq mi it had a population density of 0 1 km2 0 2 sq mi in 2011 the highest among all the Canadian territories 20 Statistics Canada has estimated Yukon s 2021 Q3 population to be 43 095 21 an increase of 17 5 from the 2016 census This is the largest percentage increase for any Canadian province or territory Unlike in other Canadian provinces and territories Statistics Canada uses the entire territory as a single at large census division Ethnicity Edit This section s factual accuracy may be compromised due to out of date information Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information April 2017 According to the 2016 Canada Census the majority of the territory s population was of European descent although it has a significant population of First Nations communities across the territory The 2011 National Household Survey examined the Yukon s ethnocultural diversity and immigration At that time 87 7 of residents were Canadian born and 24 2 were of Indigenous origin The most common countries of birth for immigrants were the United Kingdom 15 9 the Philippines 15 0 and the United States 13 2 Among very recent immigrants between 2006 and 2011 living in the Yukon 63 5 were born in Asia 22 Visible minority and indigenous identity 2016 23 24 European Canadian 68 1 Visible minority 8 5 First Nations 19 1 Metis 2 9 Inuit 0 6 Other Indigenous responses 0 8 As of the 2016 census the top ten ancestries in the Yukon were 25 Rank Ethnic group Population 2016 Percentage1 English 9 680 27 57 2 Aboriginal 8 665 24 68 3 Canadian 8 640 24 61 4 Scottish 8 295 23 63 5 Irish 6 930 19 74 6 German 5 575 15 88 7 French 5 040 14 35 8 Ukrainian 2 200 6 27 9 Dutch Netherlands 1 760 5 01 10 Norwegian 1 380 3 93 Language Edit The most commonly reported mother tongue among the 33 145 single responses to the 2011 Canadian census was English at 28 065 85 26 The second most common was 1 455 4 for French 26 Among 510 multiple respondents 140 of them 27 reported a mother tongue of both English and French while 335 66 reported English and a non official language and 20 4 reported French and a non official language 26 The Yukon s Language Act recognises the significance of the territory s aboriginal languages in the Yukon and permits their use in Legislative Assembly proceedings although only English and French are available for laws and court proceedings 27 First Nations linguistic groups by tribes clans 28 Linguistic group Tribe clanGwich in Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation Old CrowHan Tr ondek Hwech in First Nation Dawson CityUpper Tanana White River First Nation Beaver Creek Small communities near Tok Alaska Northern Tutchone Selkirk First Nation Little Salmon Carmacks First Nation First Nation of Na Cho Nyak Dun MayoSouthern Tutchone Champagne and Aishihik First Nations Haines Junction Kluane First Nation Burwash Landing Ta an Kwach an Council Lake Laberge Kwanlin Dun First Nation WhitehorseKaska Ross River Dena Council Ross River Liard River First Nation Watson LakeInland Tlingit Teslin Tlingit CouncilTagish Carcross Tagish First Nation Mother tongue 2011 census 26 Rank Language Population Percent1 English 28 065 82 9 2 French 1 455 4 3 3 German 805 2 4 4 Tagalog 425 1 3 5 Kaska 265 0 8 6 Northern Tutchone 200 0 6 7 Spanish 180 0 5 8 Southern Tutchone 140 0 4 9 Dutch 130 0 4 10 Chinese 130 0 4 Religion Edit This article s factual accuracy may be compromised due to out of date information Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information May 2012 The 2011 National Household Survey reported that 49 9 of Yukoners reported having no religious affiliation the highest percentage in Canada The most frequently reported religious affiliation was Christianity reported by 46 2 of residents Of these the most common denominations were the Catholic Church 39 6 the Anglican Church of Canada 17 8 and the United Church of Canada 9 6 29 Religious beliefs in Yukon 2011 census 30 Religion Adherents of the populationIrreligious 16 635 49 92 Christianity 15 375 46 14 Traditional Aboriginal Spirituality 395 1 19 Buddhism 290 0 87 Hinduism 165 0 5 Sikhism 90 0 27 Islam 40 0 12 Judaism 20 0 06 Other religions 300 0 9 Total 33 320 100 Economy Edit A conveyor belt and cart outside of a mine tunnel in the Yukon The economy of the territory has historically been centred around mining The Yukon s major industry is mining lead zinc silver gold asbestos and copper The government acquired the land from the Hudson s Bay Company in 1870 and split it from the Northwest Territories in 1898 to fill the need for local government created by the population influx of the gold rush Thousands of these prospectors moved to the territory ushering a period of Yukon history recorded by authors such as Robert W Service and Jack London The memory of this period and the early days of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police as well as the territory s scenic wonders and outdoor recreation opportunities makes tourism the second most important industry in the territory Manufacturing including furniture clothing and handicrafts follows in importance along with hydroelectricity The traditional industries of trapping and fishing have declined As of 2012 the government sector directly employs approximately 6 300 out of a labour force of 20 800 on a population of 27 500 31 32 On May 1 2015 the Yukon modified its Business Corporations Act 33 34 35 in an effort to attract more benefits and participants to its economy One amendment to the BCA lets a proxy be given for voting purposes Another change will allow directors to pursue business opportunities declined by the corporation a practice off limits in most other jurisdictions due to the inherent potential for conflicts of interest 36 One of the changes will allow a corporation to serve as a director of a subsidiary registered in Yukon 37 The legislation also allows companies to add provisions in their articles of incorporation giving directors blanket approval to sell off all of the company s assets without requiring a shareholder vote 37 If provided for by a unanimous shareholders agreement a corporation is not required to have directors at all 38 There is increased flexibility regarding the location of corporate records offices including the ability to maintain a records office outside of Yukon so long as it is accessible by electronic means 38 Tourism Edit Ivvavik National Park is one of three national parks located in Yukon The Yukon s tourism motto is Larger than life 39 The Yukon s tourism relies heavily on its natural environment and there are many organized outfitters and guides available for activities such as but not limited to hunting angling canoeing kayaking hiking skiing snowboarding ice climbing and dog sledding These activities are offered both in an organized setting or in the backcountry which is accessible by air or snowmobile The Yukon s festivals and sporting events include the Adaka Cultural Festival Yukon International Storytelling Festival and the Yukon Sourdough Rendezvous The Yukon s latitude enables the view of aurora borealis The Yukon Government maintains a series of territorial parks including 40 parks such as Herschel Island Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park 41 Tombstone Territorial Park 42 and Fishing Branch Ni iinlii njik Park 43 Coal River Springs Territorial Park 44 Parks Canada a federal agency of the Government of Canada also maintains three national parks and reserves within the territory Kluane National Park and Reserve Ivvavik National Park and Vuntut National Park The Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre is an interpretive centre with a focus on the Beringia land bridge The Yukon is also home to 12 National Historic Sites of Canada The sites are also administered by Parks Canada with five of the 12 sites being located within national parks The territory is host to a number of museums including the Copperbelt Railway amp Mining Museum the SS Klondike boat museum the Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre in Whitehorse as well as the Keno City Mining Museum in Keno City The territory also holds a number of enterprises that allows tourists to experience pre colonial and modern cultures of Yukon s First Nations and Inuit peoples 45 Culture EditThe Yukon has a wide array of cultural and sporting events that attract artists local residents and tourists Annual events include the Adaka Cultural Festival Dawson City Music Festival Yukon International Storytelling Festival Yukon Quest dog sled race Yukon Sourdough Rendezvous as well as Klondike Gold Rush memorials 46 47 and the Northern Lights Centre 48 49 A musher during the start of the Yukon Quest dog sledding race in Whitehorse The Yukon s Aboriginal culture is also strongly reflected in such areas as winter sports as in the Yukon Quest sled dog race The modern comic book character Yukon Jack depicts a heroic aboriginal persona Similarly the territorial government also recognizes that First Nations and Inuit languages plays a part in cultural heritage of the territory these languages include Tlingit and the less common Tahltan as well as seven Athapaskan languages Upper Tanana Gwich in Han Northern Tutchone Southern Tutchone Kaska and Tagish some of which are rare 50 Arts Edit See also Music of Yukon Notable Yukon artists include Jim Robb and Ted Harrison whose paintings have become iconic for their depictions of historic and contemporary life and culture in the Yukon 51 With the Klondike Gold Rush a number of folk songs from the Yukon became popular including Rush to the Klondike 1897 written by W T Diefenbaker The Klondike Gold Rush I ve Got the Klondike Fever 1898 and La Chanson du Klondyke A notable cultural and tourist feature is the legacy of the Klondike Gold Rush 1897 1899 which inspired contemporary writers of the time such as Jack London Robert W Service and Jules Verne and which continues to inspire films and games such as Mae West s Klondike Annie and The Yukon Trail see Cultural legacy of the Klondike Gold Rush Government EditYukon Legislature Edit The Yukon Legislative Building is the meeting place for the territory s legislative assembly Executive power in the Yukon is formally vested in the Territorial Commissioner 52 who plays an analogous role to that of a provincial lieutenant governor As guarantor of responsible government in the territory the Commissioner generally acts on the advice of the Premier of Yukon who commands the confidence of the elected Legislative Assembly Unlike lieutenant governors commissioners are not direct representatives of the Queen but are instead appointed by the federal government The Yukon has numerous political parties and candidates who stand for election to the 19 seats in the Yukon Legislative Assembly Those elected to the legislature are known as members of the Legislative Assembly and may use the post nominal letters MLA The three parties presently represented are the centre leaning Yukon Liberal Party 8 seats who currently form government the centre right leaning Yukon Party 8 and the centre left leaning Yukon New Democratic Party 3 53 The 9th and current premier of Yukon is Sandy Silver who represents the electoral district of Klondike as its MLA Silver took office following the 2016 Yukon general election where his Liberals won a majority government After the 2021 Yukon general election the Liberals were reduced to a minority government though they were able to continue governing due to a formal agreement with the NDP 54 Local government Edit See also List of municipalities in Yukon Distribution of Yukon s eight municipalities by type The vast majority of Yukon s land mass is unorganized with no defined municipal or otherwise supralocal level of government like in other parts of Canada For most individuals in the Yukon though local level governance is provided by municipalities The Yukon s eight municipalities cover only 0 2 of the territory s land mass a but are home to 80 9 of its population 56 57 58 Municipal governments are created by the Yukon Government in accordance with the Municipal Act of 2001 59 Municipal governments provide jurisdiction services facilities or things that a local government considers necessary or desirable for all or part of its community 59 Classifications of municipalities under the Municipal Act include cities and towns 59 Whitehorse is the capital of the Yukon and its only city The remaining seven municipalities are towns of which four were villages that were continued as towns upon adoption of the 2001 Municipal Act 59 The usage is somewhat confusing according to the Municipal Act of 2001 villages are legally given the status of towns but may call themselves villages in English In French they are called villages and the French word ville which means town is not used for them Instead larger settlements are called ville and even bigger ones grande ville apart from Dawson which is called a cite and in English is also called a city Keno City though unincorporated also bears city in its name History Edit In the 19th century the Yukon was a segment of North Western Territory that was administered by the Hudson s Bay Company and then of the Northwest Territories administered by the federal Canadian government It only obtained a recognizable local government in 1895 when it became a separate district of the Northwest Territories 60 In 1898 it was made a separate territory with its own commissioner and an appointed Territorial Council 61 From the early 19th century to 1870 the areas that made up the Yukon were administered by the Hudson s Bay Company as the North Western Territory Prior to 1979 the territory was administered by the commissioner who was appointed by the federal Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development The commissioner had a role in appointing the territory s Executive Council served as chair and had a day to day role in governing the territory The elected Territorial Council had a purely advisory role In 1979 a significant degree of power was devolved from the commissioner and the federal government to the territorial legislature which in that year adopted a party system of responsible government This change was accomplished through a letter from Jake Epp Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development rather than through formal legislation In preparation for responsible government political parties were organized and ran candidates to the Yukon Legislative Assembly for the first time in 1978 The Progressive Conservatives won these elections and formed the first party government of Yukon in January 1979 The Yukon New Democratic Party NDP formed the government from 1985 to 1992 under Tony Penikett and again from 1996 under Piers McDonald until being defeated in 2000 The conservatives returned to power in 1992 under John Ostashek after having renamed themselves the Yukon Party The Liberal government of Pat Duncan was defeated in elections in November 2002 with Dennis Fentie of the Yukon Party forming the government as premier The Yukon Act passed on April 1 2003 formalized the powers of the Yukon Government and devolved additional powers to the territorial government e g control over land and natural resources As of 2003 other than criminal prosecutions the Yukon Government has much of the same powers as provincial governments and the other two territories are looking to obtaining the same powers citation needed Federal representation Edit Main article Yukon electoral district At the federal level the Yukon is represented in the Parliament of Canada by one member of Parliament MP and one senator MPs from Canadian territories are full and equal voting representatives and residents of the territory enjoy the same rights as other Canadian citizens One Yukon MP Erik Nielsen served as Deputy Prime Minister under Brian Mulroney while another Audrey McLaughlin was the leader of the federal New Democratic Party NDP from 1989 to 1995 First Nations Edit A substantial minority of the territory s population is First Nations An umbrella land claim agreement representing 7 432 members of 14 different First Nations was signed with the federal government in 1993 Eleven of the 14 Yukon First Nations have negotiated and signed comprehensive land claim and self government agreements The 14 First Nations speak eight different languages The territory once had an Inuit settlement located on Herschel Island off the Arctic Ocean coast This settlement was dismantled in 1987 and its inhabitants relocated to the neighbouring Northwest Territories As a result of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement the island is now a territorial park and is known officially as Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park Qikiqtaruk being the name of the island in Inuvialuktun Government Seat ChiefCarcross Tagish First Nation Carcross Kha Shade Heni Andy Carvill 62 Champagne and Aishihik First Nations Haines Junction Steve Smith 63 First Nation of Na cho Nyak Dun Mayo Simon Mervyn 64 Kluane First Nation Burwash Landing Mathieya Alatini 65 Kwanlin Dun First Nation Whitehorse Doris Bill 66 Liard River First Nation Watson Lake Daniel Morris 67 Little Salmon Carmacks First Nation Carmacks Eric Fairclough 68 Ross River Dena Council Ross River Jack Caesar 69 Selkirk First Nation Pelly Crossing Kevin McGinty 70 Ta an Kwach an Council Whitehorse Kristina Kane 71 Teslin Tlingit Council Teslin Richard Sidney 72 Tr ondek Hwech in Dawson City Roberta Joseph 73 Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation Old Crow Dana Tizya Tramm 74 White River First Nation Beaver Creek Angela Demit 75 Transportation EditBefore modern forms of transportation the rivers and mountain passes were the main transportation routes for the coastal Tlingit people trading with the Athabascans of which the Chilkoot Pass and Dalton Trail as well as the first Europeans Air Edit Erik Nielsen Whitehorse International Airport serves as the air transport hub for Yukon Erik Nielsen Whitehorse International Airport serves as the air transport infrastructure hub with scheduled direct flights to Vancouver Victoria Kelowna Calgary Edmonton Yellowknife Inuvik Ottawa Dawson City Old Crow Juneau and Frankfurt 76 pre COVID Whitehorse International Airport is also the headquarters and primary hub for Air North Yukon s Airline Every Yukon community is served by an airport or community aerodrome citation needed The communities of Dawson City and Old Crow have regularly scheduled service through Air North Air charter businesses exist primarily to serve the tourism and mining exploration industries citation needed Rail Edit vteYukon passenger railLegend Whitehorse Closed 1982 Carcross Watson Pit Spur White Pass and Yukon Routeto Skagway Alaska The railway ceased operation in the 1980s with the first closure of the Faro mine It is now run during the summer months for the tourism season with operations between Carcross and Skagway Alaska citation needed 77 The Alaska Alberta Railway Development Corporation A2A is planning to construct a new railway line that would cross the Yukon connecting Watson Lake and possibly Carmacks but not Whitehorse Roads Edit The Klondike Highway is one of several territorial highways in Yukon Today major land routes include the Alaska Highway the Klondike Highway between Skagway and Dawson City the Haines Highway between Haines Alaska and Haines Junction and the Dempster Highway linking Inuvik Northwest Territories to the Klondike Highway and the only road access route to the Arctic Ocean in Canada all paved except for the Dempster Other highways with less traffic include the Robert Campbell Highway linking Carmacks on the Klondike Highway to Watson Lake Alaska Highway via Faro and Ross River and the Silver Trail linking the old silver mining communities of Mayo Elsa and Keno City to the Klondike Highway at the Stewart River bridge Air travel is the only way to reach the far north community of Old Crow Waterways Edit From the Gold Rush until the 1950s riverboats plied the Yukon River mostly between Whitehorse and Dawson City with some making their way further to Alaska and over to the Bering Sea and other tributaries of the Yukon River such as the Stewart River Most of the riverboats were owned by the British Yukon Navigation Company an arm of the White Pass and Yukon Route which also operated a narrow gauge railway between Skagway Alaska and Whitehorse See also Edit Canada portal Outline of YukonNotes Edit The remaining 99 8 of Yukon s land mass contains two unincorporated hamlets four unorganized areas four Indian settlements four self governments Indian reserves thirteen unincorporated settlements and a Teslin land claim 55 Unorganized Yukon one of the four unorganized areas accounts for the vast majority of the territory s land mass at 98 1 56 References Edit Population and dwelling counts for Canada provinces and territories 2016 and 2011 censuses Statistics Canada February 9 2022 Retrieved February 10 2022 Population estimates quarterly Statistics Canada December 16 2021 Retrieved February 10 2022 The Legal Context of Canada s Official Languages University of Ottawa Archived from the original on December 21 2016 Retrieved October 7 2016 Gross domestic product expenditure based by province and territory 2017 Statistics Canada September 22 2019 Retrieved September 22 2019 Sub national HDI Subnational HDI Global Data Lab globaldatalab org Retrieved May 18 2022 Government of Yukon Emblems and Symbols Archived from the original on February 12 2012 a b Yukon Act SC 2002 c 7 CanLII Retrieved February 22 2011 Canada Government of Canada Statistics February 8 2017 Population and Dwelling Count Highlight Tables 2016 Census www12 statcan gc ca Retrieved February 8 2017 Table 8 Abbreviations and codes for provinces and territories 2011 Census Statistics Canada December 30 2015 Retrieved January 9 2016 Back to the Yukon The big return of a 3 letter word CBC August 10 2021 Retrieved November 3 2021 Dear Sir I have great pleasure in informing you that I have at length after much trouble and difficulties succeed ed in reaching the Youcon or white water River so named by the Gwich in natives from the pale colour of its water I have the honour to Remain Your obt Servt John Bell Hudson s Bay Company Correspondence to George Simpson from John Bell August 1 1845 HBC Archives D 5 14 fos 212 215d also quoted in Coates Kenneth S amp Morrison William R 1988 Land of the Midnight Sun A History of the Yukon Hurtig Publishers p 21 ISBN 0 88830 331 9 Retrieved October 16 2017 In Gwich in adjectives such as choo big and gaįį white follow the nouns that they modify Thus white water is chuu gaįį water white White water river is chuu gaįį han water white river Peter Katherine 1979 Dinjii Zhuh Ginjik Nagwan Tr iltsaįį Gwich in Junior Dictionary PDF Univ of Alaska pp ii a į u are nasalized a i u xii adjectives follow nouns 19 nitsii or choo big 88 ocean chuu choo water big 105 han river 142 chuu water 144 gaįį white Retrieved October 16 2017 Boundary Facts International Boundary Commission Archived from the original on June 11 2011 Retrieved October 18 2011 Length of boundary by province Yukon 1 210 km or 752 miles Carl Duncan The Dempster Highway to the Arctic Archived May 4 2009 at the Wayback Machine accessed 2009 10 22 Life at Minus 80 The Men of Snag The Weather Doctor Retrieved December 19 2014 a b National Climate Data and Information Archive Environment Canada October 31 2011 Retrieved December 19 2014 Whitehorse Geography and Climate www yukoncommunities yk ca Archived from the original on October 6 2019 Retrieved October 6 2019 a b Services Cultural Archaeology Program Department of Tourism and Culture Online March 8 2011 Cited April 7 2012 1 Population and dwelling counts for Canada provinces and territories 2016 and 2011 censuses Statistics Canada February 2 2017 Retrieved April 30 2017 Population and dwelling counts for Canada provinces and territories and census subdivisions municipalities 2011 and 2006 censuses Yukon Statistics Canada January 13 2014 Retrieved January 15 2014 Population estimates quarterly Statistics Canada Retrieved January 12 2021 Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity 2011 National Household Survey PDF Statistics Canada Retrieved July 20 2015 Aboriginal Peoples Highlight Tables 2016 Census Statistics Canada 2019 Retrieved July 16 2019 Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables 2016 Census Statistics Canada 2019 Retrieved July 16 2019 Statistics Canada October 25 2017 Ethnic Origin both sexes age total Yukon 2016 Census 25 Sample data a b c d Focus on Geography Series 2011 Census Yukon Statistics Canada February 8 2012 Retrieved July 20 2015 Language Act Statues of the Yukon 2002 PDF Retrieved February 22 2011 Council of Yukon First Nations Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity 2011 National Householder PDF 2 statcan ca Retrieved February 22 2011 StatCan May 8 2013 NHS Profile Yukon 2011 Retrieved March 16 2021 Archived Public sector employment wages and salaries seasonally unadjusted and adjusted Statistics Canada August 2012 Retrieved September 23 2019 Labour force characteristics by province territory and economic region annual x 1 000 Statistics Canada Retrieved September 23 2019 gov yk ca Business Corporations Act Archived October 16 2015 at the Wayback Machine May 1 2015 gov yk ca O I C 2015 06 Business Corporations Act Archived October 9 2015 at the Wayback Machine May 1 2015 gov yk ca O I C 2015 07 Societies Act Archived October 9 2015 at the Wayback Machine May 1 2015 cbc ca Go north not west Yukon lures businesses with new company rules May 1 2015 a b theglobeandmail com Yukon s move to draw corporations worries shareholders coalition June 18 2015 a b deallawwire com Changes of note to the Yukon Business Corporations Act Archived September 23 2015 at the Wayback Machine June 2 2015 Travel Yukon Archived October 12 2008 at the Wayback Machine Territorial Parks Environmentyukon gov yk ca Archived from the original on February 12 2008 Retrieved February 22 2011 Herschel Island Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park Environmentyukon gov yk ca Archived from the original on March 13 2011 Retrieved February 22 2011 Tombstone Territorial Park Environmentyukon gov yk ca Archived from the original on March 15 2011 Retrieved February 22 2011 Fishing Branch Ni iinlii njik Park Environmentyukon gov yk ca Archived from the original on December 18 2010 Retrieved February 22 2011 Coal River Springs Territorial Park Environmentyukon gov yk ca Archived from the original on April 18 2012 Retrieved February 22 2011 Yukon First Nation Tourist Association Yfnta org Archived from the original on May 24 2011 Retrieved February 22 2011 Dawson Music Festival Dcmf com Retrieved February 22 2011 Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre Beringia com Retrieved February 22 2011 Northern Lights Centre Northernlightscentre ca Archived from the original on February 3 2011 Retrieved February 22 2011 Whitehorse fish ladder Yukonenergy ca February 1 2011 Archived from the original on September 3 2010 Retrieved February 22 2011 Yukon Territory History and Culture Archived September 7 2011 at the Wayback Machine Pinnacle Travel Hocking Anthony 1979 The Yukon and Northwest Territories McGraw Hill Ryerson p 29 ISBN 978 0 07 082694 6 About commissionerofyukon ca April 12 2022 Retrieved June 9 2022 Silva Steve April 19 2021 Yukon NDP win final riding by rare drawing of lots maintaining Liberal Yukon Party tie in assembly Yukon Liberals NDP strike agreement to govern after election tie CTVNews April 28 2021 Retrieved April 29 2021 Interim List of Changes to Municipal Boundaries Status and Names From January 2 2012 to January 1 2013 PDF PDF Statistics Canada pp 6 7 Retrieved August 19 2014 a b Population and dwelling counts for Canada provinces and territories and census subdivisions municipalities 2016 and 2011 censuses 100 data Yukon Statistics Canada February 8 2017 Retrieved February 11 2017 Population and dwelling counts for Canada provinces and territories 2016 and 2011 censuses 100 data Statistics Canada February 6 2017 Retrieved February 11 2017 Yukon Communities Yukon Government Department of Community Services November 7 2013 Archived from the original on January 16 2014 Retrieved January 15 2014 a b c d Municipal Act PDF Government of Yukon 2002 Retrieved January 6 2014 Coates and Morrison p 74 Coates and Morrison p 103 Executive Council Ctfn ca Archived from the original on March 7 2018 Retrieved October 31 2016 Dan natthe da tthʼi Chief and Council Champagne and Aishihik First Nations Archived from the original on October 19 2016 Retrieved October 31 2016 Governance and Administration First Nation of Nacho Nyak Dun October 20 2016 Archived from the original on October 18 2016 Retrieved October 31 2016 Chief and Council Kluane First Nation Archived from the original on October 24 2016 Retrieved October 31 2016 Doris Bill elected Kwanlin Dun chief CBC News March 20 2014 Retrieved October 31 2016 Liard First Nation Kaska Dena Council Archived from the original on September 14 2016 Retrieved October 31 2016 Chief amp Council Little Salmon Carmacks First Nation Archived from the original on January 12 2017 Retrieved October 31 2016 Ross River Dena Council elects Jack Caesar as chief CBC News December 12 2015 Retrieved October 31 2016 Selkirk First Nation The Council Selkirk First Nation Retrieved October 31 2016 Chief and Council Government of the Ta an Kwach an Council Archived from the original on November 11 2016 Retrieved October 31 2016 Richard Sidney elected chief of Teslin Tlingit Council CBC News July 15 2016 Retrieved October 31 2016 Roberta Joseph new chief of Dawson s Tr ondek Hwech in CBC News October 10 2014 Retrieved October 31 2016 Humbled Beyond Words Dana Tizya Tramm becomes Chief of Vuntut Gwitchin CBC News January 11 2019 Retrieved January 25 2021 Chief amp Council White River First Nation Archived from the original on February 2 2017 Retrieved October 31 2016 Timetable Summer 2017 PDF Condor Airlines August 6 2017 Archived from the original PDF on August 7 2017 Retrieved August 6 2017 THE WHITE PASS AND YUKON ROUTE AVALANCHE PROGRAM FORECASTING AND RISK MANAGEMENT FOR A HISTORICAL RAILROAD PDF Further reading EditCoates Kenneth 1985 Canada s colonies a history of the Yukon and Northwest Territories Lorimer ISBN 0 88862 931 1 Coates Ken S amp Morrison William R 1988 Land of the Midnight Sun A History of the Yukon Edmonton Hurtig Publishers ISBN 0 88830 331 9 Cody William J 2000 Flora of the Yukon Territory National Research Press ISBN 0 660 18110 X Hart Ann 2000 Alaska and the Yukon JPM Publications ISBN 2 88452 051 1 Laguna Frederica De 2000 Travels among the Dena exploring Alaska s Yukon Valley Univ of Washington Press ISBN 0 295 97902 X O Reilly Shauna O Reilly Brennan 2009 Alaska Yukon Pacific Exposition Arcadia Pub ISBN 978 0 7385 7132 4 Webb Melody 1993 Yukon The Last Frontier University of British Columbia Press ISBN 0 7748 0441 6External links EditYukonat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guides from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Government of Yukon Yukon Attraction amp Service Guides Territorial Battles Yukon Elections 1978 2002 Digital Archives CBC Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yukon amp oldid 1093993609, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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