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Yunnan

Not to be confused with Yunan.
"雲南" redirects here. For other uses, see 雲南 (disambiguation).

Yunnan (Chinese:) is a landlocked province in the southwest of the People's Republic of China. The province spans approximately 394,000 square kilometres (152,000 sq mi) and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Kunming. The province borders the Chinese provinces of Guizhou, Sichuan, autonomous regions of Guangxi, and Tibet as well as Southeast Asian countries: Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar. Yunnan is China's fourth least developed province based on disposable income per capita in 2014.

Yunnan Province
云南省
Name transcription(s)
Chinese云南省 (Yúnnán Shěng)
AbbreviationYN / (Diān) or (Yún)
Map showing the location of Yunnan Province
Coordinates:25°03′N101°52′E /25.050°N 101.867°E /25.050; 101.867Coordinates: 25°03′N101°52′E /25.050°N 101.867°E /25.050; 101.867
CountryChina
Capital
(and largest city)
Kunming
Divisions16 prefectures, 129 counties, 1565 townships
Government
• TypeProvince
• BodyYunnan Provincial People's Congress
CCP SecretaryRuan Chengfa
Congress chairmanRuan Chengfa
GovernorWang Yubo
CPPCC chairmanLi Jiang
Area
• Total394,000 km2 (152,000 sq mi)
Area rank8th
Highest elevation6,740 m (22,110 ft)
Population
(2020)
• Total47,209,277
• Rank12th
• Density120/km2 (310/sq mi)
• Density rank24th
Demographics
• Ethnic composition
• Languages and dialectsSouthwestern Mandarin
25 ethnic minority languages
ISO 3166 codeCN-YN
GDP(2020)CNY 2.45 trillion
$ 355 billion (18th)
- per capitaCNY 51,943
USD 7,528 (26st)
• growth 4.0%
HDI (2018) 0.672
medium · 30th
Websitewww.yn.gov.cn
Yunnan
"Yunnan" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese云南
Traditional Chinese雲南
Literal meaning"South of the colorful clouds"(彩雲之南/ 彩云之南)
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinYúnnán
Bopomofoㄩㄣˊ ㄋㄢˊ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhYunnan
Wade–GilesYün2-nan2
()
Wu
RomanizationYiuin-noe
Hakka
RomanizationYùn-nàm
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationWàhn-nàahm
JyutpingWan4-naam4
Southern Min
Hokkien POJHûn-lâm
Yi name
Yiꒊꆈ
yyp nuo
Tai Lue name
Tai Lueᦑᦱᧃ ᦑᦳᧂ
yun nuo
Lisu name
Lisuꓬꓱ-ꓠ
ye na
Tibetan name
Tibetanཡུན་ནན་
yun nan
Northern Thai name
Northern Thaiวิเทหราช
Witheharat

Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with high elevations in the northwest and low elevations in the southeast. Most of the population lives in the eastern part of the province. In the west, the altitude can vary from the mountain peaks to river valleys by as much as 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). Yunnan is rich in natural resources and has the largest diversity of plant life in China. Of the approximately 30,000 species of higher plants in China, Yunnan has perhaps 17,000 or more. Yunnan's reserves of aluminium, lead, zinc and tin are the largest in China, and there are also major reserves of copper and nickel.

The Han dynasty first recorded diplomatic relations with the province at the end of the 2nd century BC and the province became part of the Silk Road to Bhitargarh in Bangladesh. The area was ruled over by the Sino-Tibetan-speaking kingdom of Nanzhao (738–937), followed by the Bai-ruled Dali Kingdom (937–1253). After the Mongol invasion of the region in the 13th century, Yunnan was conquered by the Ming dynasty.

From the Yuan dynasty onward, the area was part of a central-government sponsored population movement towards the southwestern frontier, with two major waves of migrants arriving from Han-majority areas in northern and southeast China. As with other parts of China's southwest, Japanese occupation in the north during World War II forced another migration of Han people into the region. These two waves of migration contributed to Yunnan being one of the most ethnically diverse provinces of China, with ethnic minorities accounting for about 34 percent of its total population. Major ethnic groups include Yi, Bai, Hani, Zhuang, Dai and Miao. Yunnan Province has also been identified as "the birthplace of tea...the first area where humans figured out that eating tea leaves or brewing a cup could be pleasant".

Contents

The name "Yunnan" first referred to a place when the Han dynasty created Yunnan County near modern Xiangyun. During the Tang dynasty, Emperor Xuanzong gave Piluoge, the chief of Nanzhao, the title of "King of Yunnan", because Nanzhao originated from Yunnan county. Gradually the king of Yunnan controlled more and more territory, and "Yunnan" became the common name of this area. Therefore, the Yuan dynasty created the Yunnan Province after he occupied Dali Kingdom.

Han dynasty literature did not record the etymology of "Yunnan", and there are many theories about its origin. One common theory states that the name means "south of colorful clouds" (彩云之南). Some annals in the Ming dynasty, for example Dian Lüe (滇略) and Yunnan General Annals (云南通志), support this. However, modern historian Tan Qixiang states that this theory is a superficial explanation of the literal meaning. Another common theory is that the name means "south of Yun Range" (云岭之南) However, this has been disproven because the name "Yunling Mountains" first appeared in Tang dynasty (618-907) literature, but the name "Yunnan" first appeared during the Han dynasty (202 BC–220 AD). Modern research gives more conjectures. You Zhong said "Yunnan" means "south of the mountain (referring to the Cang Mountain) with clouds". Wu Guangfan said "Yunnan" might be a Loloish or Bai name.

Main article: History of Yunnan
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Prehistory

The Yuanmou Man, a Homo erectus fossil unearthed by railway engineers in the 1960s, has been determined to be the oldest-known hominid fossil in China. By the Neolithic period, there were human settlements in the area of Lake Dian. These people used stone tools and constructed simple wooden structures.

Pre-Nanzhao period

Around the 3rd century BC, the central area of Yunnan around present day Kunming was known as Dian. The Chu general Zhuang Qiao [zh] (庄蹻) entered the region from the upper Yangtze River and set himself up as "King of Dian". He and his followers brought into Yunnan an influx of Chinese influence, the start of a long history of migration and cultural expansion.

Bronze sculpture of the Dian Kingdom, 3rd century BCE

In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang unified China and extended his authority south. Commanderies and counties were established in Yunnan. An existing road in Sichuan – the "Five Foot Way" – was extended south to around present day Qujing, in eastern Yunnan. In 109 BC, the Han dynasty invaded Dian during its southern expeditions. Under orders from Emperor Wu, General Guo Chang [zh] (郭昌) was sent south to Yunnan, eventually establishing the Yizhou commandery. By this time, agricultural technology in Yunnan had improved markedly. The local people used bronze tools, plows and kept a variety of livestock, including cattle, horses, sheep, goats, pigs and dogs. Anthropologists have determined that these people were related to the people now known as the Tai. They lived in tribal congregations, sometimes led by exiled Chinese.[citation needed]

During the Three Kingdoms, the territory of present-day Yunnan, western Guizhou and southern Sichuan was collectively called Nanzhong. The dissolution of Chinese central authority led to increased autonomy for Yunnan and more power for the local tribal structures. In AD 225, the famed statesman Zhuge Liang led three columns into Yunnan to pacify the tribes. His seven captures of Meng Huo, a local magnate, is mythologized in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

In the 4th century, northern China was largely overrun by nomadic tribes from the north. In the 320s, the Cuan () clan migrated into Yunnan. Cuan Chen (爨琛) named himself king and held authority from Lake Dian, then known as Kunchuan. Henceforth the Cuan clan ruled eastern Yunnan for over four hundred years.

International trade flowed through Yunnan. An ancient overland pre-Tang trade route from Yunnan Province passed through Irrawaddy in Burma to reach Bengal. Yunnan was inhabited by so-called barbarians not fully under the control of the Tang government and the route, though ancient, was not used much in pre-Tang times, and Chinese attempts to control the route were disrupted by the rise of Nanzhao.

Nanzhao period

Main article: Nanzhao

Yunnan was settled by several local tribes, clans, and cultures before the 8th century. Around Lake Erhai, namely, the Dali area, there emerged six zhao: Mengzi (蒙巂), Yuexi (越析), Langqiong (浪穹), Dengdan (邆赕), Shilling (施浪), and Mengshe (蒙舍). Zhao () was an indigenous non-Chinese language term meaning "king" or "kingdom." Among the six regimes Mengshe was located south of the other five; therefore given the new, larger context, it was called Nanzhao (Southern Kingdom).

By the 730s Nanzhao had succeeded in bringing the Erhai Lake–area under its authority. In 738, the western Yunnan was united by Piluoge, the fourth king of Nanzhao, who was confirmed by the imperial court of the Tang dynasty as king of Yunnan. Ruling from Dali, the thirteen kings of Nanzhao ruled over more than two centuries and played a vital role in the dynamic relationship between the Tang dynasty and the Tibetan Empire as a buffer state.

By the 750s, Nanzhao had conquered Yunnan and became a potential rival to Tang China. The following period saw several conflicts between Tang China and Nanzhao. In 750, Nanzhao attacked and captured Yaozhou, the largest Tang settlement in Yunnan. In 751, Xianyu Zhongtong (鮮于仲通), the regional commander of Jiannan (present-day Sichuan), led a Tang campaign against Nanzhao. The king of Nanzhao, Geluofeng, regarded the previous incident as a personal affair and wrote to Xianyu to seek peace. However, Xianyu Zhongtong detained the Nanzhao envoys and turned down the appeal. Confronted with Tang armies, Nanzhao immediately turned its allegiance to the Tibetan Empire. The Tubo and Nanzhao agreed to be "fraternal states"; Geluofeng was given the titles zanpuzhong ("younger brother"). The Nanzhao-Tubo alliance ensured a disastrous defeat for Xianyu's expedition, with the Tang general's army of 80,000 men being reduced to a quarter of its original size.

Tang China did not give up after one failure. In 753, another expedition was prepared, but this was also defeated by Nanzhao. In 754, the Tang organized an army of more than 100,000 troops that advanced to the Dali plain, resulting in only another slaughter. By the end of the eighth century, Tang was no longer a major threat to Nanzhao.

A gilt statue of Guanyin, recovered from the Qianxun Pagoda, c. 800 AD

Nanzhao's expansion lasted for several decades. In 829, Nanzhao suddenly plundered Sichuan and entered Chengdu. When it retreated, hundreds of Sichuan people, including skilled artisans, were taken to Yunnan. In 832, the Nanzhao army captured the capital of the Pyu kingdom in modern upper Burma. Nanzhao also attacked the Khmer peoples of Zhenla. Generally speaking, Nanzhao was then the most powerful kingdom in mainland Southeast Asia, and played an extremely active role in multistate interactions. In 859, Nanzhao captured Bozhou, and this event exacerbated the Nanzhao-Tang clashes. When the Tang governor of Annam took Bozhou back in the following year, Nanzhao, with the help of native peoples, occupied Hanoi as the Tang army moved to Bozhou. When the Tang forces returned, Nanzhao troops retreated from Hanoi but attacked and plundered Yongzhou. In the winter of 862, Nanzhao, allying with local groups, led an army of over 50,000 men to invade Annam again. It is reported that the Tang forces lost over 150,000 soldiers (either killed or captured by Nanzhao) in the two Annam battles. The autumn of 866 saw Tang victory in Hanoi and soon all of the Nanzhao forces were driven away. But Tang China had lost its ability to attack Nanzhao.

While Nanzhao was being defeated in Annam, it still occasionally attacked Sichuan. In 869, Shilong (世隆), the eighth king and the first empire of Nanzhao, invaded Sichuan. In 874, Nanzhao attacked Sichuan again.

In 902, Zheng Maisi, the qingpingguan (清平官,"Prime Minister") of Nanzhao, murdered the infant king of Nanzhao, and established a short-lived regime, namely, Da Chang He. Nanzhao, a once-powerful empire, disappeared.

The Three Pagodas of Dali

Dali Kingdom

In 937, Duan Siping overthrew the Nanzhao and established the Dali Kingdom. The kingdom was conquered by the Mongol Empire in 1253 after Dali King Duan Xingzhi defected to the Mongols. The Duans incorporated into the Mongol dominion as Maharajas of the new province. The Mongolian prince sent to administer the region with them was killed. In 1273, Kublai Khan reformed the province and appointed the semu Ajall Shams al-Din Omar as its governor. The Yunnan Province during the Yuan dynasty included significant portions of Upper Burma after the First Mongol invasion of Burma in the 1270s and 1280s. With the fall of the Yuan dynasty in 1368, the Ming dynasty destroyed the Yuan loyalists led by Basalawarmi and the remnants of the House of Duan in the Ming conquest of Yunnan by the early 1380s.

Ming and Qing dynasties

The Ming installed Mu Ying and his family as hereditary aristocrats in Yunnan.

A scene of the Qing campaign against the Miao people in 1795.

During the Ming and Qing dynasties, large areas of Yunnan were administered under the native chieftain system. Under the Qing dynasty a war with Burma also occurred in the 1760s due to the attempted consolidation of borderlands under local chiefs by both China and Burma.[citation needed]

Yunnan was a destination for Han Chinese during Yuan rule. Colonizers moved into the area during Ming and Qing rule. During the Ming dynasty, 3 million Han Chinese mostly from Nanjing (the original Nanjing population was later largely replaced by Wu-speakers), and some from Shanxi and Hebei settled in Yunnan.

Although largely forgotten, the bloody Panthay Rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other local minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing dynasty caused the deaths of up to a million people in Yunnan. The Manchu official Shuxing'a started an anti-Muslim massacre, which led to the rebellion. Shuxing'a developed a deep hatred of Muslims after an incident in which he was stripped naked and nearly lynched by a mob of Muslims. He ordered several Muslim rebels to be slowly sliced to death. Tariq Ali wrote about the real incident in one of his novels and claimed the Muslims who had nearly lynched Shuxing'a were not Hui but belonged to another ethnicity. Nevertheless, the Manchu official blamed all Muslims for the incident. A British officer testified that the Muslims did not rebel for religious reasons and that the Chinese were tolerant of different religions and were unlikely to have caused the revolt by interfering with the practice of Islam. Loyalist Muslim forces helped Qing forces crush the rebel Muslims. The Qing armies massacred only Muslims who had rebelled or supported the rebels and spared Muslims who took no part in the uprising.

In 1894, George Ernest Morrison, an Australian correspondent for The Times, traveled from Beijing to British-occupied Burma via Yunnan. His book, An Australian in China, details his experiences.

Kunming Street

The 1905 Tibetan Rebellion in which Tibetan Buddhist Lamas attacked and killed French Catholic missionaries spread to Yunnan.

Post-Imperial

Yunnan was transformed by the events of Second Sino Japanese War, which caused many east coast refugees and industrial establishments to relocate to the province. It assumed strategic significance, particularly as the Burma Road from Lashio, in Burma to Kunming was a fought over supply line of vital importance to China's war effort.

University faculty and students in the east had originally decamped to Changsha, capital of Hunan. But as Japanese forces were gaining more territory they eventually bombed Changsha in February 1938. The 800 faculty and students who were left had to flee and made the 1,000 mile journey to Kunming, capital of Yunnan in China's mountainous southwest. It was here that the National Southwest Associated University (commonly known as Lianda University) was established. For eight years, staff, professors and students had to survive and operate in makeshift quarters that were subject to sporadic bombing campaigns by the Japanese. There were dire shortages of food, equipment, books, clothing and other essential needs, but they managed to conduct the running of a modern university. Over those eight years of war (1937-1945), Lianda became famous nationwide for having and producing many, if not most, of China's most prominent academics, scholars, scientists and intellectuals. Both of China's only Nobel laureates in physics studied at Lianda in Kunming.

Naturalists

Lijiang

Thousands of plant, insect and mammal species were described in the 19th century by scientists of the French National Museum of Natural History, Paris, in connection with permanent settlements of missionaries of the Missions étrangères de Paris in north-west Yunnan, among them noticeably Jean-André Soulié and Felix Biet. From 1916 to 1917, Roy Chapman Andrews and Yvette Borup Andrews led the Asiatic Zoological Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History through much of western and southern Yunnan, as well as other provinces of China. The book, Camps and Trails in China, records their experiences. Other notable explorers include Heinrich Handel-Mazzetti; George Forrest; Joseph Francis Charles Rock, who from 1922 to 1949 spent most of his time studying the flora, peoples and languages of southwest China, mainly in Yunnan; and Peter Goullart, a White Russian who studied Naxi culture and lived in Lijiang from 1940 to 1949.

Yunnan is the most southwestern province in China, with the Tropic of Cancer running through its southern part. The province has an area of 394,100 square kilometres (152,200 sq mi), 4.1% of the nation's total. The northern part of the province forms part of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau. The province borders Guangxi and Guizhou in the east, Sichuan in the north, and the Tibet Autonomous Region in the northwest. It shares a border of 4,060 kilometres (2,520 mi) with Myanmar (Kachin and Shan States) in the west, Laos (Luang Namtha, Oudomxay, and Phongsaly Provinces) in the south and Vietnam (Hà Giang, Lào Cai, Lai Châu, and Điện Biên Provinces) in the southeast. For practical purposes, all of Yunnan province falls within the Zomia region of Asia.

Geology

Snowy mountains in Diqing, northwestern Yunnan

Yunnan is at the far eastern edge of the Himalayan uplift, and was pushed up in the Pleistocene, primarily in the Middle Pleistocene, although the uplift continues into the present. The eastern part of the province is a limestone plateau with karst topography and unnavigable rivers flowing through deep mountain gorges. The main surface formations of the plateau are the Lower Permian Maokou Formation, characterized by thick limestone deposits, the Lower Permian Qixia Formation, characterised by dolomitic limestones and dolomites, the Upper Permian basalts of the Ermeishan Formation (formerly Omeishan plateau basalts), and the red sandstones, mudstones, siltstones, and conglomerates of the MesozoicPaleogene, including the Lufeng Formation and the Lunan Group (Lumeiyi, Xiaotun, and Caijiacong formations). In this area is the noted Stone Forest or Shilin, eroded vertical pinnacles of limestone (Maokou Formation). In the eastern part the rivers generally run eastwards. The western half is characterized by mountain ranges and rivers running north and south.

Paleontology

Climate

Erhai Lake, Dali, Yunnan

Yunnan has a generally mild climate with pleasant and fair weather because of the province's location on south-facing mountain slopes, receiving the influence of both the Pacific and Indian oceans, and although the growing period is long, the rugged terrain provides little arable land. See Agriculture in Yunnan. Under the Köppen climate classification, much of the province lies within the subtropical highland (Köppen Cwb) or humid subtropical zone (Cwa), with mild to warm winters, and temperate summers, except in the almost tropical to truly tropical south, where temperatures regularly exceed 30 °C (86 °F) in the warmer half of the year. In general, January average temperatures range from 8 to 17 °C (46 to 63 °F); July averages vary from 21 to 27 °C (70 to 81 °F). Average annual rainfall ranges from 600 to 2,300 millimetres (24 to 91 in), with over half the rain occurring between June and August. The plateau region has moderate temperatures. The western canyon region is hot at the valley bottoms, but there are freezing winds at the mountaintops.

Topography

Meili Snow Mountains

The terrain is largely mountainous, especially in the north and west. A series of high mountain chains spreads across the province. There is a distinct canyon region to the west and a plateau region to the east. Yunnan's major rivers flow through the deep valleys between the mountains.

The average elevation is 1,980 metres (6,500 ft). The mountains are highest in the north where they reach more than 5,000 m (16,000 ft); in the south they rise no higher than 3,000 m (9,800 ft). The highest point in the north is the Kawagebo Peak in Deqin County on the Diqing Plateau, which is about 6,740 m (22,110 ft); and the lowest is in the Red River Valley in Hekou County, near the Vietnamese border, with an elevation of 76.4 m (251 ft).

The eastern half of the province is a limestone plateau with karst scenery and unnavigable rivers flowing through deep mountain gorges; the western half is characterised by mountain ranges and rivers running north and south. These include the Nujiang (Thai:Salween) and the Lancangjiang (Thai:Mekong). The rugged, vertical terrain produces a wide range of flora and fauna, and the province has been called a natural zoological and botanical garden.

Borders

Bordering Chinese provincial-level divisions are Tibet, Sichuan, Guizhou and Guangxi. Starting from the east and working clockwise, bordering countries are Vietnam (Hà Giang, Lào Cai, Lai Châu and Điện Biên provinces), Laos (Phongsaly, Oudomxay and Luang Namtha provinces), Myanmar (states of Shan and Kachin). The main border crossings are:

  • HekouLào Cai, by road and rail, is the only Sino-Vietnamese land border crossing open to non-Chinese/non-Vietnamese.
  • Sino-Laotian at Boten
  • RuiliMuse is the only Sino-Burmese border crossing open to non-Chinese/non-Burmese.

Lakes

There are several major lakes in Yunnan. The province has nine lakes with areas of over 30 square kilometres (12 sq mi). They include:

Rivers

Yunnan is the source of two rivers, the Xi River (there known as the Nanpan and Hongshui) and the Yuan River. The Hongshui is a principal source stream of the Xi River. Rising as the Nanpan in eastern Yunnan province, it flows south and east to form part of the boundary between Guizhou province and Guangxi autonomous region. Flowing for 345 km (214 mi), it unites with the Yu River at Guiping to form what eventually becomes the Xi River.

The province is drained by six major river systems:

Biodiversity

Lincang mountains
Girl On Yak In Yunnan Province, China

Yunnan is China's most diverse province, biologically as well as culturally. The province contains snow-capped mountains and true tropical environments, thus supporting an unusually full spectrum of species and vegetation types. The Yunnan camellia (Camellia reticulata) is the provincial emblem.

During summer, the Great Plateau of Tibet acts as a barrier to monsoon winds, trapping moisture in the province. This gives the alpine flora in particular what one source has called a "lushness found nowhere else".

This topographic range combined with a tropical moisture sustains extremely high biodiversity and high degrees of endemism, probably the richest botanically in the world's temperate regions. Perhaps 17,000 species of higher plants, of which an estimated 2,500 are endemic, can be found in the province. The province is said to have "as much flowering plant diversity as the rest of the Northern Hemisphere put together".

Yunnan has less than 4% of the land of China, yet the province harbors around 42.6% of all protected plant species and 72.5% of all protected wild animals in the country, of which 15% are strictly endemic to Yunnan. Yunnan is home to, most notably, the southeast Asian gaur, a giant forest-dwelling bovine, the Indochinese tiger and the Asian elephant. Other extremely rare species are the Yunnan box turtle and the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey. It is feared that the Yunnan lar gibbon, another moribund species, has already gone extinct. Yunnan province has 11 national and regional nature reserves. In total, the covered protected area in China is about 510 000 hectares.

The freshwater fish fauna is highly diverse with about 620 species, including more than 580 natives (the remaining are introduced). This equals almost 40% of the freshwater fish species in China. Of the Yunnan natives, more than 250 are endemic to the province and many of these are threatened. Several species that are restricted to single lakes (notably Dian, Erhai, Fuxian and Yilong) are likely already are extinct. By far, the most diverse order in Yunnan are Cypriniformes; both in total species number and number of endemics.

The unique Sinopyrophorus bioluminescent beetles were described from Yunnan in 2019.

Designation

Yunnan has been designated a:

  • "Center of Plant Diversity" (IUCN/WWF: Davis et al. 1995)
  • "Global 200 List Priority Ecoregion" for biodiversity conservation (WWF: Olsen and Dinerstein 1998)
  • "Endemic Bird Area" (Birdlife International: Bibby, C. et al. 1992) and
  • "Global Biodiversity Hotspot," as a part of the Hengduan Mountain Ecosystem (Conservation International: Mittermeier and Mittermeier 1997)

Natural resources

A main source of wealth lies in its vast mineral resources; indeed, mining is the leading industry in Yunnan. Yunnan has proven deposits of 86 kinds of minerals in 2,700 places. Some 13% of the proved deposits of minerals are the largest of their kind in China, and two-thirds of the deposits are among the largest of their kind in the Yangtze River valley and in south China. Yunnan ranks first in the country in deposits of zinc, lead, tin, cadmium, indium, thallium and crocidolite. Other deposits include iron, coal, copper, gold, mercury, silver, antimony and sulfur. More than 150 kinds of minerals have been discovered in the province. The potential value of the proven deposits in Yunnan is 3 trillion yuan, 40% of which come from fuel minerals, 7.3% from metallic minerals and 52.7% from nonmetallic minerals.

Yunnan has sufficient rainfall and many rivers and lakes. The annual water flow originating in the province is 200 cubic kilometres, three times that of the Yellow River. The rivers flowing into the province from outside add 160 cubic kilometres, which means there are more than ten thousand cubic metres of water for each person in the province. This is four times the average in the country. The rich water resources offer abundant hydro-energy. China is constructing a series of dams on the Mekong to develop it as a waterway and source of power; the first was completed at Manwan in 1993.

National parks

UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Administrative divisions

Yunnan consists of sixteen prefecture-level divisions: eight prefecture-level cities and eight autonomous prefectures:

Administrative divisions of Yunnan
Division code Division Area in km2 Population 2020 Seat Divisions
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
530000 Yunnan Province 394000.00 47,209,277 Kunming city 17 65 29 18
530100 Kunming city 21,001.28 8,460,088 Chenggong District 7 3 3 1
530300 Qujing city 28,939.41 5,765,775 Qilin District 3 5 1
530400 Yuxi city 14,941.53 2,249,502 Hongta District 2 4 3
530500 Baoshan city 19,064.60 2,431,211 Longyang District 1 3 1
530600 Zhaotong city 22,439.76 5,092,611 Zhaoyang District 1 9 1
530700 Lijiang city 20,557.25 1,253,878 Gucheng District 1 2 2
530800 Pu'er city 44,264.79 2,404,954 Simao District 1 9
530900 Lincang city 23,620.72 2,257,991 Linxiang District 1 4 3
532300 Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture 28,436.87 2,416,747 Chuxiong city 8 2
532500 Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture 32,167.67 4,478,422 Mengzi city 6 3 4
532600 Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture 31,409.12 3,503,218 Wenshan city 7 1
532800 Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture 19,107.05 1,301,407 Jinghong city 2 1
532900 Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture 28,299.43 3,337,559 Dali city 8 3 1
533100 Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture 11,171.41 1,315,709 Mang city 3 2
533300 Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture 14,588.92 552,694 Lushui city 1 2 1
533400 Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture 23,185.59 387,511 Shangri-La city 1 1 1
Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations
English Chinese Pinyin
Yunnan Province 云南省 Yúnnán Shěng
Kunming city 昆明市 Kūnmíng Shì
Qujing city 曲靖市 Qǔjìng Shì
Yuxi city 玉溪市 Yùxī Shì
Baoshan city 保山市 Bǎoshān Shì
Zhaotong city 昭通市 Zhāotōng Shì
Lijiang city 丽江市 Lìjiāng Shì
Pu'er city 普洱市 Pǔ'ěr Shì
Lincang city 临沧市 Líncāng Shì
Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture 楚雄彝族自治州 Chǔxióng Yízú Zìzhìzhōu
Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture 红河哈尼族彝族自治州 Hónghé Hānízú Yízú Zìzhìzhōu
Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture 文山壮族苗族自治州 Wénshān Zhuàngzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu
Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture 西双版纳傣族自治州 Xīshuāngbǎnnà Dǎizú Zìzhìzhōu
Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture 大理白族自治州 Dàlǐ Báizú Zìzhìzhōu
Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture 德宏傣族景颇族自治州 Déhóng Dǎizú Jǐngpōzú Zìzhìzhōu
Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture 怒江傈僳族自治州 Nùjiāng Lìsùzú Zìzhìzhōu
Dêqên Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture 迪庆藏族自治州 Díqìng Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu

These 16 prefecture-level divisions are in turn subdivided into 129 county-level divisions (17 districts, 18 county-level cities, 65 counties, and 29 autonomous counties). At the end of the year 2021, the total population is 48.01 million.[1]

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area District area City proper Census date
1 Kunming 3,140,777 3,272,586 6,432,209 2010-11-01
(1) Kunming(new districts) 244,586 594,627 see Kunming 2010-11-01
2 Xuanwei 584,076 1,302,891 see Qujing 2010-11-01
3 Qujing 468,437 740,747 5,855,055 2010-11-01
(3) Qujing(new districts) 235,390 616,047 see Qujing 2010-11-01
4 Dali 367,122 652,045 part of Dali Prefecture 2010-11-01
5 Chuxiong 331,991 588,620 part of Chuxiong Prefecture 2010-11-01
6 Yuxi 306,879 495,129 2,303,518 2010-11-01
(6) Yuxi(new district) 93,471 280,889 see Yuxi 2010-11-01
7 Baoshan 263,380 935,618 2,506,491 2010-11-01
8 Zhaotong 255,861 787,837 5,213,521 2010-11-01
9 Anning 242,151 341,341 see Kunming 2010-11-01
(10) Wenshan 229,430 481,505 part of Wenshan Prefecture 2010-11-01
(11) Mile 213,462 539,725 part of Honghe Prefecture 2010-11-01
(12) Mengzi 212,724 417,156 part of Honghe Prefecture 2010-11-01
13 Kaiyuan 210,801 322,693 part of Honghe Prefecture 2010-11-01
14 Jinghong 205,523 519,935 part of Xishuangbanna Prefecture 2010-11-01
15 Pu'er 185,473 296,565 2,542,898 2010-11-01
16 Gejiu 163,528 459,781 part of Honghe Prefecture 2010-11-01
17 Lijiang 151,744 211,151 1,244,769 2010-11-01
18 Lincang 142,095 323,708 2,429,497 2010-11-01
(19) Tengchong 135,318 644,765 see Baoshan 2010-11-01
20 Mangshi 131,425 389,891 part of Dehong Prefecture 2010-11-01
21 Dongchuan 113,632 271,917 see Kunming 2010-11-01
22 Ruili 99,148 180,627 part of Dehong Prefecture 2010-11-01
(23) Shangri-La 66,382 172,988 part of Dêqên Prefecture 2010-11-01
(24) Lushui 53,997 184,835 part of Nujiang Prefecture 2010-11-01
(25) Shuifu 44,647 102,143 see Zhaotong 2010-11-01
  1. Dongchuan is a satellite urban area separated from Kunming and it is not included in the urban area & district area count.
  2. New districts established after census: Chenggong (Chenggong County), Jinning (Jinning County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. New districts established after census: Zhanyi (Zhanyi County), Malong (Malong County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. New district established after census: Jiangchuan (Jiangchuan County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. Wenshan County is currently known as Wenshan CLC after census.
  6. Mile County is currently known as Mile CLC after census.
  7. Mengzi County is currently known as Mengzi CLC after census.
  8. Tengchong County is currently known as Tengchong CLC after census.
  9. Formerly known as Luxi CLC until 20 July 2010.
  10. Shangri-La County is currently known as Shangri-La CLC after census.
  11. Lushui County is currently known as Lushui CLC after census.
  12. Shuifu County is currently known as Shuifu CLC after census.

Politics

Statue of Mao Zedong in Lijiang

Secretaries of the CPC Yunnan Committee: The Secretary of the CPC is the highest ranking and most important position in Yunnan.

  1. Song Renqiong (宋任穷): 1950–1952
  2. Xie Fuzhi (谢富治): July 1952 – August 1959
  3. Yan Hongyan (阎红彦): August 1959 – January 1967
  4. Zhou Xing (周兴): June 1971 – October 1975
  5. Jia Qiyun (贾启允): October 1975 – February 1977
  6. An Pingsheng (安平生): February 1977 – July 1985
  7. Pu Chaozhu (普朝柱): July 1985 – June 1995
  8. Gao Yan (高严): June 1995 – August 1997
  9. Linghu An (令狐安): August 1997 – October 2001
  10. Bai Enpei (白恩培): October 2001 – August 2011
  11. Qin Guangrong (秦光荣): August 2011 – October 2014
  12. Li Jiheng (李纪恒): October 2014 – August 2016
  13. Chen Hao (陈豪): August 2016 – November 2020

Governors of Yunnan: The Governor is the second highest office in Yunnan, after the Secretary of the CPC Yunnan Committee. The Governor, who is elected by the Yunnan Provincial People's Congress, is responsible for all economic, environmental, political, personnel and foreign affairs issues concerning Yunnan.

  1. Chen Geng (陈赓): March 1950 – February 1955
  2. Guo Yingqiu (郭影秋): February 1955 – November 1958
  3. Ding Yichuan (丁一川): November 1958 – January 1965
  4. Zhou Xing (周兴): January 1965 – 1966
  5. Tan Furen (谭甫仁): August 1968 – October 1970
  6. Zhou Xing: October 1970 – October 1975
  7. Jia Qiyun (贾启允): October 1975 – February 1977
  8. An Pingsheng (安平生): February 1977 – December 1979
  9. Liu Minghui (刘明辉): December 1979 – April 1983
  10. Pu Chaozhu (普朝柱): April 1983 – August 1985
  11. He Zhiqiang (和志强): August 1985 – January 1998
  12. Li Jiating (李嘉廷): January 1998 – June 2001
  13. Xu Rongkai (徐荣凯): June 2001 – November 2006
  14. Qin Guangrong (秦光荣): January 2007 – August 2011
  15. Li Jiheng (李纪恒): August 2011 – October 2014
  16. Chen Hao (陈豪): October 2014 – December 2016
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 9,468,000
1928 13,821,000+46.0%
1936-37 12,042,000−12.9%
1947 9,066,000−24.7%
1954 17,472,737+92.7%
1964 20,509,525+17.4%
1982 32,553,817+58.7%
1990 36,972,610+13.6%
2000 42,360,089+14.6%
201045,966,239+8.5%
202047,209,277+2.7%

Ethnicity

Major Autonomous areas within Yunnan. (excluding Hui)

Yunnan is noted for a very high level of ethnic diversity. It has the highest number of ethnic groups among the provinces and autonomous regions in China. Among the country's 56 recognised ethnic groups, twenty-five are found in Yunnan. Some 38% of the province population are members of ethnic minorities, including the Yi, Bai, Hani, Tai, Dai, Miao, Lisu, Hui, Lahu, Wa, Nakhi, Yao, Tibetans, Jingpo, Blang, Pumi, Nu, Achang, Jinuo, Mongols, Derung, Manchus, Sui, and Buyei. Several other groups are represented, but they live neither in compact settlements nor do they reach the required threshold of five thousand to be awarded the official status of being present in the province. Some groups, such as the Mosuo, who are officially recognised as part of the Naxi, have in the past claimed official status as a national minority, and are now recognised with the status of Mosuo people.

Ethnic groups are widely distributed in the province. Some twenty-five minorities live in compact communities, each of which has a population of more than five thousand. Ten ethnic minorities living in border areas and river valleys include the Hui, Manchus, Bai, Naxi, Mongols, Zhuang, Dai, Achang, Buyei and Shui, with a combined population of 4.5 million; those in low mountainous areas are the Hani, Yao, Lahu, Va, Jingpo, Blang and Jino, with a combined population of 5 million; and those in high mountainous areas are Miao, Lisu, Tibetan, Pumi and Drung, with a total population of four million.

Languages

CIA map showing the territory of the settlement of ethnolinguistic groups in Yunnan Province (1971).

Most dialects of the Chinese language spoken in Yunnan belong to the southwestern subdivision of the Mandarin group, and are therefore very similar to the dialects of neighbouring Sichuan and Guizhou provinces. Notable features found in many Yunnan dialects include the partial or complete loss of distinction between finals/n/ and/ŋ/, as well as the lack of/y/. In addition to the local dialects, most people also speak Standard Chinese (Putonghua, commonly called "Mandarin"), which is used in the media, by the government, and as the language of instruction in education.

Yunnan's ethnic diversity is reflected in its linguistic diversity. Languages spoken in Yunnan include Tibeto-Burman languages such as Bai, Yi, Tibetan, Hani, Jingpo, Lisu, Lahu, Naxi; Tai languages like Zhuang, Bouyei, Dong, Shui, Tai Lü and Tai Nüa; as well as Hmong–Mien languages.

The Naxi, in particular, use the Dongba script, which is the only pictographic writing system in use in the world today. The Dongba script was mainly used to provide the Dongba priests with instructions on how to carry out their rituals: today the Dongba script features more as a tourist attraction. Perhaps the best known Western Dongba scholar was Joseph Rock.

Literacy

By the end of 1998, among the province's population, 419,800 had received college education or above, 2.11 million, senior middle school education, 8.3 million, junior middle school education, 18.25 million, primary school education, and 8.25 million aged 15 or above, illiterate or semi-literate.

Religion

Religion in Yunnan (2005)

Chinese religions, ethnic minorities' folk religions, or not religious (91.3%)
Buddhism (6%)
Islam (1.4%)
Christianity (1.3%)

According to a demographic analysis of religions in Yunnan, as of 2005 the province has around 4 million believers of the five government-sanctioned organised religious doctrines of China, almost 90% of them belonging to the ethnic minorities. Of these:

According to surveys conducted in 2004 and 2007, in those years approximately 32.22% of the province's population was involved in worship of ancestors and 2.75% declared a Christian identity.

Most of the population of the province practices traditional indigenous religions including the Chinese folk religion among the Han Chinese, Bimoism among the Yi peoples and Benzhuism among the Bai people. The Dai people are one of the few ethnic minorities of China that traditionally follow the Theravada branch of Buddhism, making Yunnan the only province in China where all 3 major Buddhist shools are widely practiced. Most of the Hui people of the region are Muslims. Christianity is dominant among the Lisu, the Jingpo and the Derung ethnic groups.

View of Duoyishu sunrise in Yuanyang

The region maintains a strong agricultural focus. Agriculture is restricted to the few upland plains, open valleys, and terraced hillsides. Level land for agriculture is extremely scarce and only about 5 percent of the province is under cultivation. Rice is the main crop; corn, barley, wheat, rapeseed, sweet potatoes, soybeans (as a food crop), tea, sugarcane, tobacco, and cotton are also grown. On the steep slopes in the west livestock is raised and timber, a valuable resource, is cut (teak in the southwest).

Yunnan produces most of coffee grown in China (although there are also much smaller plantations in Fujian and Hainan. Large-scale coffee cultivation started in Yunnan in 1988. The most commonly grown variety in the province is catimor.

Tobacco is the main (export) product and makes up a big part of the provincial GDP. Furthermore, Yunnan has a strong competitive potential in the fruit and vegetable industries, especially in low value-added commodities such as fresh and dried vegetables and fresh apples.

Strawberry fields near Yuxi

Yunnan is one of the regions in the world with the most abundant resources of wild edible mushrooms. In China, there are 938 kinds of edible mushrooms, and over 800 varieties can be found in Yunnan. In 2004, around 7,744 tons of wild edible mushrooms were exported, making up for 70% of the total export of this product in China. The so-called 'pine mushroom' is the main product in Yunnan and is exported to Japan in large quantities.

Due to China's growing consumption of dairy products, Yunnan's dairy industry is also developing very rapidly and is also aiming to export to its ASEAN neighbors.

The flower industry in Yunnan province started to develop towards the end of the 1980s. Yunnan province accounts for 50% of China's total cut flower production. The size of the planting area for cut flowers in Yunnan province amounts to 4000 hectares. In 2003, the output totaled 2.3 billion stems. In 2002 the flower industry in Yunnan had a total output of RMB 3.4 billion. Export amounted to US$18 million. Apart from sales on the domestic market, Yunnan also exports to a number of foreign countries and regions such as Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Thailand and Singapore.[citation needed]

As of the mid-19th century, Yunnan exported birds, brass, tin, gemstones, musk, nuts, and peacock feathers mainly to stores in Guangzhou. They imported silk, wool, and cotton cloth, tobacco and books.

Local traders in Lijiang City
Aerial view of Downtown Kunming

Yunnan is one of China's relatively undeveloped provinces with more poverty-stricken counties than the other provinces. In 1994, about 7 million people lived below the poverty line of less than an annual average income of 300 yuan per capita. They were distributed in the province's 73 counties mainly and financially supported by the central government. With an input of 3.15 billion yuan in 2002, the absolutely poor rural population in the province has been reduced from 4.05 million in 2000 to 2.86 million. The poverty alleviation plan includes five large projects aimed at improving infrastructure facilities. They involve planned attempts at soil improvement, water conservation, electric power, roads, and "green belt" building. Upon the completion of the projects, the province hopes this will alleviate the shortages of grain, water, electric power and roads.

Yunnan lags behind the east coast of China in relation to socio-economic development. However, because of its geographic location the province has comparative advantages in regional and border trade with countries in southeast Asia. The Lancang River (upper reaches of Mekong River) is the waterway to southeast Asia. In recent years land transportation has been improved to strengthen economic and trade co-operation among countries in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Yunnan's abundance in resources determines that the province's pillar industries are: agriculture, tobacco, mining, hydro-electric power, and tourism. In general, the province still depends on the natural resources. The secondary sector is currently the largest industrial tier in Yunnan, contributing more than 45 percent of GDP. The tertiary sector contributes 40 percent and agriculture 15 percent. Investment is the key driver of Yunnan's economic growth, especially in construction.

The main challenge that Yunnan faces is its lack of major development. Its low productivity and competitiveness restrict the rapid development of the province. The province also faces great challenges in social issues such as environmental protection, poverty elimination, illegal migration, drug trafficking and HIV/AIDS.

Yunnan's four pillar industries include tobacco, agriculture/biology, mining, and tourism. The main manufacturing industries are iron and steel production and copper-smelting, commercial vehicles, chemicals, fertilizers, textiles, and optical instruments. Yunnan has trade contacts with more than seventy countries and regions in the world. Yunnan established the Muse border trade zone (located in Ruili) along its border with Burma. Yunnan mainly exports tobacco, machinery and electrical equipment, chemical and agricultural products, and non-ferrous metals. In 2008, its total two-way trade (imports and exports) reached US$9.6 billion. The province signed foreign direct investment contracts involving US$1.69 billion, of which US$777 million were actually utilized during the year. Yunnan's unemployment rate at the end of 2008 was 4.21%.

Yunnan's nominal GDP in 2011 was 875.1 billion yuan (US$138.92 billion), an annual growth rate of 13.7%. Its per capita GDP was 13,494 yuan (US$1,975). The share of GDP of Yunnan's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were 17.9%, 43%, and 39.1% respectively.

Yunnan is one of the major production bases of copper, lead, zinc, tin and aluminum in China. Gejiu is well known as "the Kingdom of Zinc" with the reserves ranked first in the country. The Yunxi brand refined tin is one of the main products in Gejiu, which is registered on the London Metal Exchange (LME). Besides, reserves of germanium, indium, zirconium, platinum, rock salt, sylvite, nickel, phosphate, mirabilite, arsenic and blue asbestos are also high. Significant copper deposits are found at Dongchuan, iron ore at Wuding, and coal at Xuanwei and Kaiyuan. Economic policy to locate new industry in interior areas with substantial mineral wealth, led to major industrial development in Yunnan, especially in the Kunming area.

The electricity industry is another important economic pillar of Yunnan, which plays a key role in the "West-East Electricity Transmission Project". The electricity produced in Yunnan is mainly transported to Guangdong.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

First established in 1992, Kunming Economic & Technology Development Zone is a national-level zone approved by the State Council. Kunming is located in east-central Yunnan province with preferential location. After several years' development, the zone has formed its pillar industries, which include tobacco processing, machinery manufacturing, electronic information, and biotechnology.

The Kunming High-tech Industrial Development Zone (KMHNZ), is a state-level high-tech industrial zone established in 1992 in Northwest Kunming. It is administratively under Kunming Prefecture. It has covers an area of 9 km2 (3.5 sq mi). KMHNZ is located in the northwest part of Kunming city, 4 kilometers from Kunming Railway Station, 5 kilometers from Kunming International Airport.

Ruili Border Economic Cooperation Zone (RLBECZ) is a Chinese State Council-approved Industrial Park based in Ruili, Dehong Prefecture, founded in 1992 and was established to promote trade between China and Burma. The area's import and export trade include the processing industry, local agriculture and biological resources are very promising. Sino-Burmese business is growing fast. Burma is now one of Yunnan's biggest foreign trade partners. In 1999, Sino-Burmese trade accounted for 77.4% of Yunnan's foreign trade. In the same year, exports for electromechanical equipments came up to US$55.28 million. Main exports here include fiber cloth, cotton yarn, ceresin wax, mechanical equipments, fruits, rice seeds, fiber yarn and tobacco.

Wanding Border Economic Cooperation Zone (WTBECZ) is a Chinese State Council-approved Industrial Park based in Wanding Town, Ruili, Dehong, founded in 1992 and was established to promote trade between China and Burma. The zone spans 6 km2 (2.3 sq mi) and is focuses on developing trading, processing, agriculture resources and tourism.

  • Qujing Economic and Technological Development Zone

Qujing Economic and Technological Development Zone (QETDZ) is a provincial development zone approved by Yunnan Provincial Government in August 1992. It is located in the east of urban Qujing, the second largest city in Yunnan in terms of economic strengths. The location of the development zone is the economic, political and cultural center of Qujing. As an agency under Qujing municipal Party committee and municipal government, the administrative commission of QETDZ functions as an economy supervising body at the prefecture level and an administration body at the county level. It has 106 km2 (41 sq mi) under its jurisdiction. It shoulders the task of building a new 40-square-kilometer city area and providing service for a population of 400,000 in the upcoming 10 years.

  • Yuxi Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Dali Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Chuxiong Economic and Technological Development Zone

Chuxiong Economic Development Zone is an important zone in Yunnan. Now the zone has attracted a number of investment projects. It is an important industry for the development of new-type industry platform. The zone covers an area of 12 km2 (4.6 sq mi), composed of four parks.

  • Songming Yanglin Experimental Zone for County & Township Industries
  • Hekou Border Economic Cooperation Zone

First established in 1992, Hekou Border Economic Cooperation Zone is a border zone approved by State Council to promote Sino-Vietnamese trade. It has a planned area of 4.02 km2 (1.55 sq mi). The zone implemented several policies to serve its clients in China from various industries and sectors including investment, trade, finance, taxation, immigration, etc.

Since the 1960s, improvements have been achieved in the overall educational level, which can be seen in the increase in average years of regular education received. The development of part-time schools have brought adult, distance and continuing education to farms, factories, offices, and other places. Evening, time off work / study leave classes allow people to receive education without leaving their jobs. Policies to upgrade adult education have begun to complement the campaign against illiteracy. A basic Chinese vocabulary in simplified strokes is taught to millions of illiterate people in short, intensive courses. Despite progress made, Yunnan's illiteracy rate remains one of the highest in China mainly due to insufficient education among minority peoples.

In higher education, Yunnan has one "National Key University"—Yunnan University in Kunming. There is also a growing number of technical schools, among which the most prominent are the Yunnan Normal University, the Southwest Forestry University, Yunnan Agricultural University, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming Medical University, Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kunming University of Science and Technology. Other notable establishments of learning are the Kunming branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, and the Yunnan Provincial Library. As of 2000, there were 24 institutions of higher learning in Yunnan, with an enrollment of over 90,400 students and a faculty of 9,237; 2,562 secondary schools with an enrollment of more than 2,137,400 students and 120,461 teachers; and 22,151 primary schools with an enrollment of 4,720,600 pupils and a faculty of 210,507. The gross enrollment rate of school-age children was 99.02%.

See also: List of universities and colleges in Yunnan

Yunnan Province is responsible for about 50% of officially reported malaria cases in China.

It is presently considered to be the main source of plague in China.

HIV-AIDS

Main article: Transport in Yunnan

Railways

Viaduct of the Dali–Lijiang Railway near Dali

The first railway in Yunnan was the narrow gauge Yunnan–Vietnam Railway built by France from 1904 to 1910 to connect Kunming with Vietnam, then a French colony. In Yunnan, the Chinese section of this railway is known as the Yunnan-Hekou Railway and the line gave Yunnan access to the seaport at Haiphong. During the Second World War, Britain and the United States began building a railway from Yunnan to Burma but abandoned the effort due to Japanese advance.

Due in part to difficult terrain both locally and in surrounding provinces and the shortage of capital for rail construction, Yunnan remained outside of China's domestic rail network until 1966 when the Guiyang–Kunming Railway was completed. The line would not enter into operation until 1970, the same year that the Chengdu-Kunming was completed. The Nanning–Kunming Railway to Guangxi was completed in 1997, followed by the Neijiang–Kunming Railway in 2001. The Panxi Railway, originally built in 1975 to draw coal from neighboring Guizhou, was electrified in 2001 and adds to eastern Yunnan's outbound rail transport capacity.

Kunming–Yuxi railway in Haikou Town, Kunming

Within the province, the Kunming–Yuxi, opened in 1993, and the Guangtong–Dali, opened in 1998, expanded the rail network to southern and western Yunnan, respectively. The Dali–Lijiang Railway, opened in 2010, brought rail service to northwestern Yunnan. That line is planned to be extended further north to Xamgyi'nyilha County.

The province is extending the railway network to neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. From Yuxi, the Yuxi–Mengzi Railway, built from 2005 to 2013, and the Mengzi–Hekou Railway, under construction since 2008, will form a standard gauge railway connection with Vietnam. The Dali–Ruili Railway, under construction since May 2011, will bring rail service to the border with Myanmar. Also under planning is a rail line from Yuxi to Mohan, in Xishuangbana Prefecture, on the border with Laos. This line could be extended further south to Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.

Burma Road

The Burma Road was a highway extending about 1,100 kilometres (680 mi) through mountainous terrain from Lashio, northeast Burma northeastward to Kunming, China. Undertaken by the Chinese after the start of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937 and completed in 1938, it was a vital transportation route for wartime supplies to the Chinese government from Rangoon and shipped by railroad to Lashio from 1938 to 1946. An extension runs east through China from Kunming, then north to Chongqing. This traffic increased in importance to China after the Japanese took effective control of the Chinese coast and of Indochina. It was seized by the Japanese in 1942 and reopened when it was connected to the Stilwell Road from India. The Ledo Road (later called the Stilwell Road) from Ledo, India, into Burma was begun in December 1942. In 1944 the Ledo Road reached Myitkyina and was joined to the Burma Road. Both roads have lost their former importance and are in a state of disrepair. The Burma Road's importance diminished after World War II, but it has remained a link in a 3,400-km road system from Yangon, Burma, to Chongqing.

Highways

Road construction in Yunnan continues unabated: over the last years the province has added more new roads than any other province.[citation needed] Today expressways link Kunming through Dali to Baoshan, Kunming to Mojiang (on the way to Jinghong), Kunming to Qujing, Kunming to Shilin (Stone Forest). The official plan is to connect all major towns and neighbouring capitals with expressways by 2010, and to complete a high-speed road network by 2020.

Roadway in Lijiang with the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain in the distance.

All county towns are now accessible by paved, all-weather roads from Kunming, all townships have a road connection (the last to be connected was Yangla, in the far north, but Dulongjiang remains cut off for about six months every year), and about half of all villages have road access.

Second-level national highways stretch 958 km (595 mi), third-level highways, 7,571 km (4,704 mi) and fourth-level highways, 52,248 km (32,465 mi). The province has formed a network of communication lines radiating from Kunming to Sichuan and Guizhou provinces and Guangxi and Tibet autonomous regions, and further on to Burma, Laos, Vietnam and Thailand.

China National Highway 320 in Longling County

National highways running through Yunnan province are:

Expressways

After the opening of the Suolongsi to Pingyuanjie section, Luofu expressway, the first between Yunnan and Guangxi Province, opened in October 2007. It has made material and passenger transportation between the two provinces much more convenient. Moreover, Luofu Expressway has also become the main road from Yunnan to Guangxi and the coastal ports. Luofu Expressway begins from the crossroads of Luo Village between Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces and ends at Funing County of Wenshan State. The total length of the expressway is 79.3 kilometers which has shortened the commute between Yunnan and Guangxi from the previous 3 and half hours to just 50 minutes.

Expressways running through Yunnan province are:

Waterways

Generally, rivers are obstacles to transport in Yunnan. Only very small parts of Yunnan's river systems are navigable. However, China is constructing a series of dams on the Mekong to develop it as a waterway and source of power; the first was completed at Manwan in 1993.

In 1995, the province put an investment of 171 million yuan to add another 807 km (501 mi) of navigation lines. It built two wharfs with an annual handling capacity of 300,000 to 400,000 tons each and four wharfs with an annual handling capacity of 100,000 tons each. The annual volume of goods transported was two million tons and that of passengers transported, two million.

Airports

Dali Airport
Ninglang Luguhu Airport

The province has twenty domestic air routes from Kunming to Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Haikou, Chongqing, Shenyang, Harbin, Wuhan, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Hangzhou, Xiamen, Nanning, Shenzhen, Guiyang, Changsha, Guilin, Lhasa and Hong Kong; eleven provincial air routes from Kunming to Jinghong, Mangshi, Lincang, Tengchong, Lijiang, Dali, Xamgyi'nyilha, Zhaotong, Baoshan, Simao, and Ninglang Luguhu; and ten international air routes from Kunming to Bangkok, Kolkata, Chiang Mai, Yangon, Singapore, Seoul, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Kuala Lumpur and Vientiane.

Replacing Kunming Wujiaba International Airport is Kunming Changshui International Airport, which opened June 28, 2012.

Bridges

Bridge-building in Yunnan date back at least 1,300 years when the Tibetan Empire built an iron chain bridge over the Yangtze to the neighboring Nanzhao Kingdom at what is today Weixi Lisu Autonomous County during the Tang dynasty. Iron chain bridges are still found across high river valleys of Yunnan. The Jinlong Bridge on the Jinsha River in Lijiang remains the oldest bridge over the Yangtze. With the expansion of the highway and railway network in Yunnan, numerous large-scale bridges have been built across the region's myriad of rivers, including the Yangtze which has dozens of crossings in Yunnan.

Metro

Kunming is the only city in Yunnan that has a metro system. As of August 2021, it has 5 lines in operation.

Hand-painted Chinese New Year's poetry pasted on the sides of doors leading to people's homes, Old Town, Lijiang.

Yunnan's cultural life is one of remarkable diversity. Archaeological findings have unearthed sacred burial structures holding elegant bronzes in Jinning, south of Kunming. In northeastern Yunnan, frescoes of the Jin dynasty (266–420) have been discovered in the city of Zhatong. Many Chinese cultural relics have been discovered in later periods. The lineage of tribal way of life of the indigenous peoples persisted uninfluenced by modernity until the mid-20th century. Tribal traditions, such as Yi slaveholding and Wa headhunting, have since been abolished. After the Cultural Revolution (1966–76), in which several minority cultural and religious practices were suppressed, Yunnan has come to celebrate its cultural diversity and subsequently many local customs and festivals have flourished.

Eighteen Oddities of Yunnan

Cuisine

Main article: Yunnan cuisine

Tea

For the tea from this region, see Yunnan tea.

Yunnan has several different tea growing regions. One of Yunnan's best known products is Pu-erh tea (or Puer), named after the old tea trading town of Pu-erh (Puer). The province is also known for its Yunnan Gold and other Dianhong teas, developed in the 20th century.

Music

Main article: Music of Yunnan

Chinese medicine

Yunnan is host to 15,000 species of plants, including 60 percent of the plants used in traditional Chinese medicine.[citation needed]

Tourism

Rice-terraced mountains of Yuanyang county

Yunnan Province, due to its landscapes, mild climate and cultural diversity, is one of China's major tourist destinations. Most visitors are Chinese tourists, although trips to Yunnan are organized by an increasing number of foreign travel agencies as well. Mainland tourists travel by the masses; 2.75 million Chinese visited Yunnan last October during National Holiday. Also a different trend is slowly developing; small scale and environmentally friendly ecotourism. At the moment projects in this field are often being set up with help of NGO's.

In 2004, tourism revenues amounted to 37 billion RMB, and thus accounting for 12.6% of the provincial GDP. Another fact indicating the importance of tourism in Yunnan Province is capital Kunming hosting the China International Travel Mart every two years. This tourism trade fair is the largest of its kind in Asia and serves as an important platform for professionals in the sector. More than 80 countries and regions were present during the 2005 edition.

Tourism is expected to grow further. In 2010, the province welcomed over 2.3 million overseas tourists and the Yunnan Provincial Tourism Bureau aims to draw 4.3 million overseas arrivals under the 12th Five-Year Tourism Development Plan. Kunming city is expected to add 11 new mid- to high-end hotels with an inventory of under 4,000 rooms between 2012 and 2016.

The Nature Conservancy and the Chinese government came together to form a partnership and explore the possibility of bringing adventure tourism onto the rivers of Southwest China. A two-month white-water expedition explored from the Mekong River's Moon Gorge to Yangze River's Great Bend. The expedition provided valuable information to the partnership, encouraging them to take into account the safety, culture, economics, and conservation of the Yunnan Province. Creating an adventure tourism sector would bring valuable economic resources to the economically struggling population, who had once relied on logging as income prior to it being banned due to deforestation.

Tourist centres in Yunnan include:

Places of interest

The Gucheng Mosque of Yunnan

Sport

Professional sporting teams in Yunnan have included the now defunct Yunnan Bulls in the Chinese Basketball Association and Yunnan Hongta in the Chinese Jia-A League. The Yunnan Lijiang Dongba football team currently competes in China League Two.

  1. This is a common interpretation of "Yunnan", but the original etymology is uncertain.
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Web
Yunnanat Wikipedia's sister projects

Yunnan
Yunnan Language Watch Edit Not to be confused with Yunan 雲南 redirects here For other uses see 雲南 disambiguation Yunnan j uː ˈ n ae n 5 Chinese 云南 is a landlocked province in the southwest of the People s Republic of China The province spans approximately 394 000 square kilometres 152 000 sq mi and has a population of 48 3 million as of 2018 The capital of the province is Kunming The province borders the Chinese provinces of Guizhou Sichuan autonomous regions of Guangxi and Tibet as well as Southeast Asian countries Vietnam Laos and Myanmar Yunnan is China s fourth least developed province based on disposable income per capita in 2014 6 Yunnan Province 云南省ProvinceName transcription s Chinese云南省 Yunnan Sheng AbbreviationYN 滇 Dian or 云 Yun clockwise from top Meili Snow Mountains Yuantong Temple in Kunming Stone Forest The Three Pagodas of Dali City Honghe Hani Rice TerracesMap showing the location of Yunnan ProvinceCoordinates 25 03 N 101 52 E 25 050 N 101 867 E 25 050 101 867 Coordinates 25 03 N 101 52 E 25 050 N 101 867 E 25 050 101 867CountryChinaCapital and largest city KunmingDivisions16 prefectures 129 counties 1565 townshipsGovernment TypeProvince BodyYunnan Provincial People s Congress CCP SecretaryRuan Chengfa Congress chairmanRuan Chengfa GovernorWang Yubo CPPCC chairmanLi JiangArea 1 Total394 000 km2 152 000 sq mi Area rank8thHighest elevation Kawagarbo 6 740 m 22 110 ft Population 2020 2 Total47 209 277 Rank12th Density120 km2 310 sq mi Density rank24thDemographics Ethnic compositionHan 67 Yi 11 Bai 3 6 Hani 3 4 Zhuang 2 7 Dai 2 7 Miao 2 5 Hui 1 5 Tibetan 0 3 De ang Ta ang 0 19 Languages and dialectsSouthwestern Mandarin 25 ethnic minority languagesISO 3166 codeCN YNGDP 2020 CNY 2 45 trillion 355 billion 18th 3 per capitaCNY 51 943 USD 7 528 26st growth4 0 HDI 2018 0 672 4 medium 30thWebsitewww wbr yn wbr gov wbr cnYunnan Yunnan in Simplified top and Traditional bottom Chinese charactersChinese nameSimplified Chinese云南Traditional Chinese雲南Literal meaning South of the colorful clouds 彩雲之南 彩云之南 Notes 1 TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinYunnanBopomofoㄩㄣˊ ㄋㄢˊGwoyeu RomatzyhYunnanWade GilesYun2 nan2IPA y n na n listen WuRomanizationYiuin平 noe平HakkaRomanizationYun namYue CantoneseYale RomanizationWahn naahmJyutpingWan4 naam4IPA wɐ n na ːm Southern MinHokkien POJHun lamYi nameYiꒊꆈ yyp nuoTai Lue nameTai Lueᦑᦱᧃ ᦑᦳᧂ yun nuoLisu nameLisuꓬꓱ ꓠ ye naTibetan nameTibetanཡ ན ནན yun nanNorthern Thai nameNorthern Thaiwiethhrach Witheharat Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area with high elevations in the northwest and low elevations in the southeast Most of the population lives in the eastern part of the province In the west the altitude can vary from the mountain peaks to river valleys by as much as 3 000 metres 9 800 ft Yunnan is rich in natural resources and has the largest diversity of plant life in China Of the approximately 30 000 species of higher plants in China Yunnan has perhaps 17 000 or more 7 Yunnan s reserves of aluminium lead zinc and tin are the largest in China and there are also major reserves of copper and nickel The Han dynasty first recorded diplomatic relations with the province at the end of the 2nd century BC and the province became part of the Silk Road to Bhitargarh in Bangladesh The area was ruled over by the Sino Tibetan speaking kingdom of Nanzhao 738 937 followed by the Bai ruled Dali Kingdom 937 1253 After the Mongol invasion of the region in the 13th century Yunnan was conquered by the Ming dynasty From the Yuan dynasty onward the area was part of a central government sponsored population movement towards the southwestern frontier with two major waves of migrants arriving from Han majority areas in northern and southeast China 8 As with other parts of China s southwest Japanese occupation in the north during World War II forced another migration of Han people into the region These two waves of migration contributed to Yunnan being one of the most ethnically diverse provinces of China with ethnic minorities accounting for about 34 percent of its total population 9 Major ethnic groups include Yi Bai Hani Zhuang Dai and Miao 10 Yunnan Province has also been identified as the birthplace of tea the first area where humans figured out that eating tea leaves or brewing a cup could be pleasant 11 Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2 1 Prehistory 2 2 Pre Nanzhao period 2 3 Nanzhao period 2 4 Dali Kingdom 2 5 Ming and Qing dynasties 2 6 Post Imperial 2 7 Naturalists 3 Geography 3 1 Geology 3 2 Paleontology 3 3 Climate 3 4 Topography 3 5 Borders 3 6 Lakes 3 7 Rivers 3 8 Biodiversity 3 9 Designation 3 10 Natural resources 4 Scenic areas 4 1 National parks 4 2 UNESCO World Heritage Sites 5 Governance 5 1 Administrative divisions 5 1 1 Urban areas 5 2 Politics 6 Demographics 6 1 Ethnicity 6 2 Languages 6 3 Literacy 6 4 Religion 7 Agriculture 8 Economy 8 1 Economic and Technological Development Zones 9 Education 10 Health 10 1 HIV AIDS 11 Transport 11 1 Railways 11 2 Burma Road 11 3 Highways 11 3 1 Expressways 11 4 Waterways 11 5 Airports 11 6 Bridges 11 7 Metro 12 Culture 12 1 Eighteen Oddities of Yunnan 12 2 Cuisine 12 3 Tea 12 4 Music 12 5 Chinese medicine 12 6 Tourism 12 7 Places of interest 12 8 Sport 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External linksEtymology EditThe name Yunnan first referred to a place when the Han dynasty created Yunnan County near modern Xiangyun 12 During the Tang dynasty Emperor Xuanzong gave Piluoge the chief of Nanzhao the title of King of Yunnan 13 because Nanzhao originated from Yunnan county 14 Gradually the king of Yunnan controlled more and more territory and Yunnan became the common name of this area 15 Therefore the Yuan dynasty created the Yunnan Province after he occupied Dali Kingdom 13 Han dynasty literature did not record the etymology of Yunnan and there are many theories about its origin One common theory states that the name means south of colorful clouds 彩云之南 Some annals in the Ming dynasty for example Dian Lue 滇略 and Yunnan General Annals 云南通志 support this 14 However modern historian Tan Qixiang states that this theory is a superficial explanation of the literal meaning 15 Another common theory is that the name means south of Yun Range 云岭之南 However this has been disproven because the name Yunling Mountains first appeared in Tang dynasty 618 907 literature but the name Yunnan first appeared during the Han dynasty 202 BC 220 AD 14 Modern research gives more conjectures You Zhong said Yunnan means south of the mountain referring to the Cang Mountain with clouds 13 Wu Guangfan said Yunnan might be a Loloish or Bai name 14 History EditMain article History of YunnanThis article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Yunnan news newspapers books scholar JSTOR October 2019 Learn how and when to remove this template message Prehistory Edit The Yuanmou Man a Homo erectus fossil unearthed by railway engineers in the 1960s has been determined to be the oldest known hominid fossil in China By the Neolithic period there were human settlements in the area of Lake Dian These people used stone tools and constructed simple wooden structures Pre Nanzhao period Edit Around the 3rd century BC the central area of Yunnan around present day Kunming was known as Dian The Chu general Zhuang Qiao zh 庄蹻 entered the region from the upper Yangtze River 16 and set himself up as King of Dian 17 He and his followers brought into Yunnan an influx of Chinese influence 18 the start of a long history of migration and cultural expansion Bronze sculpture of the Dian Kingdom 3rd century BCE In 221 BC Qin Shi Huang unified China and extended his authority south Commanderies and counties were established in Yunnan An existing road in Sichuan the Five Foot Way was extended south to around present day Qujing in eastern Yunnan In 109 BC the Han dynasty invaded Dian during its southern expeditions Under orders from Emperor Wu General Guo Chang zh 郭昌 was sent south to Yunnan eventually establishing the Yizhou commandery 19 By this time agricultural technology in Yunnan had improved markedly The local people used bronze tools plows and kept a variety of livestock including cattle horses sheep goats pigs and dogs Anthropologists have determined that these people were related to the people now known as the Tai They lived in tribal congregations sometimes led by exiled Chinese citation needed During the Three Kingdoms the territory of present day Yunnan western Guizhou and southern Sichuan was collectively called Nanzhong The dissolution of Chinese central authority led to increased autonomy for Yunnan and more power for the local tribal structures In AD 225 the famed statesman Zhuge Liang led three columns into Yunnan to pacify the tribes His seven captures of Meng Huo a local magnate is mythologized in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms 20 In the 4th century northern China was largely overrun by nomadic tribes from the north In the 320s the Cuan 爨 clan migrated into Yunnan Cuan Chen 爨琛 named himself king and held authority from Lake Dian then known as Kunchuan Henceforth the Cuan clan ruled eastern Yunnan for over four hundred years International trade flowed through Yunnan 21 An ancient overland pre Tang trade route from Yunnan Province passed through Irrawaddy in Burma to reach Bengal Yunnan was inhabited by so called barbarians not fully under the control of the Tang government and the route though ancient was not used much in pre Tang times and Chinese attempts to control the route were disrupted by the rise of Nanzhao 22 Nanzhao period Edit Main article Nanzhao Yunnan was settled by several local tribes clans and cultures before the 8th century Around Lake Erhai namely the Dali area there emerged six zhao Mengzi 蒙巂 Yuexi 越析 Langqiong 浪穹 Dengdan 邆赕 Shilling 施浪 and Mengshe 蒙舍 Zhao 诏 was an indigenous non Chinese language term meaning king or kingdom Among the six regimes Mengshe was located south of the other five therefore given the new larger context it was called Nanzhao Southern Kingdom 23 By the 730s Nanzhao had succeeded in bringing the Erhai Lake area under its authority In 738 the western Yunnan was united by Piluoge the fourth king of Nanzhao who was confirmed by the imperial court of the Tang dynasty as king of Yunnan 24 Ruling from Dali the thirteen kings of Nanzhao ruled over more than two centuries and played a vital role in the dynamic relationship between the Tang dynasty and the Tibetan Empire as a buffer state 25 By the 750s Nanzhao had conquered Yunnan and became a potential rival to Tang China The following period saw several conflicts between Tang China and Nanzhao In 750 Nanzhao attacked and captured Yaozhou the largest Tang settlement in Yunnan In 751 Xianyu Zhongtong 鮮于仲通 the regional commander of Jiannan present day Sichuan led a Tang campaign against Nanzhao The king of Nanzhao Geluofeng regarded the previous incident as a personal affair and wrote to Xianyu to seek peace However Xianyu Zhongtong detained the Nanzhao envoys and turned down the appeal Confronted with Tang armies Nanzhao immediately turned its allegiance to the Tibetan Empire 26 The Tubo and Nanzhao agreed to be fraternal states Geluofeng was given the titles zanpuzhong younger brother The Nanzhao Tubo alliance ensured a disastrous defeat for Xianyu s expedition with the Tang general s army of 80 000 men being reduced to a quarter of its original size 27 Tang China did not give up after one failure In 753 another expedition was prepared but this was also defeated by Nanzhao In 754 the Tang organized an army of more than 100 000 troops that advanced to the Dali plain resulting in only another slaughter By the end of the eighth century Tang was no longer a major threat to Nanzhao A gilt statue of Guanyin recovered from the Qianxun Pagoda c 800 AD Nanzhao s expansion lasted for several decades In 829 Nanzhao suddenly plundered Sichuan and entered Chengdu When it retreated hundreds of Sichuan people including skilled artisans were taken to Yunnan In 832 the Nanzhao army captured the capital of the Pyu kingdom in modern upper Burma Nanzhao also attacked the Khmer peoples of Zhenla Generally speaking Nanzhao was then the most powerful kingdom in mainland Southeast Asia and played an extremely active role in multistate interactions In 859 Nanzhao captured Bozhou and this event exacerbated the Nanzhao Tang clashes When the Tang governor of Annam took Bozhou back in the following year Nanzhao with the help of native peoples occupied Hanoi as the Tang army moved to Bozhou When the Tang forces returned Nanzhao troops retreated from Hanoi but attacked and plundered Yongzhou In the winter of 862 Nanzhao allying with local groups led an army of over 50 000 men to invade Annam again It is reported that the Tang forces lost over 150 000 soldiers either killed or captured by Nanzhao in the two Annam battles The autumn of 866 saw Tang victory in Hanoi and soon all of the Nanzhao forces were driven away But Tang China had lost its ability to attack Nanzhao While Nanzhao was being defeated in Annam it still occasionally attacked Sichuan In 869 Shilong 世隆 the eighth king and the first empire of Nanzhao invaded Sichuan In 874 Nanzhao attacked Sichuan again In 902 Zheng Maisi the qingpingguan 清平官 Prime Minister of Nanzhao murdered the infant king of Nanzhao and established a short lived regime namely Da Chang He Nanzhao a once powerful empire disappeared The Three Pagodas of Dali Dali Kingdom Edit In 937 Duan Siping overthrew the Nanzhao and established the Dali Kingdom The kingdom was conquered by the Mongol Empire in 1253 after Dali King Duan Xingzhi defected to the Mongols The Duans incorporated into the Mongol dominion as Maharajas of the new province The Mongolian prince sent to administer the region with them was killed In 1273 Kublai Khan reformed the province and appointed the semu Ajall Shams al Din Omar as its governor 28 The Yunnan Province during the Yuan dynasty included significant portions of Upper Burma after the First Mongol invasion of Burma in the 1270s and 1280s With the fall of the Yuan dynasty in 1368 the Ming dynasty destroyed the Yuan loyalists led by Basalawarmi and the remnants of the House of Duan in the Ming conquest of Yunnan by the early 1380s 29 30 Ming and Qing dynasties Edit The Ming installed Mu Ying and his family as hereditary aristocrats in Yunnan A scene of the Qing campaign against the Miao people in 1795 During the Ming and Qing dynasties large areas of Yunnan were administered under the native chieftain system Under the Qing dynasty a war with Burma also occurred in the 1760s due to the attempted consolidation of borderlands under local chiefs by both China and Burma citation needed Yunnan was a destination for Han Chinese during Yuan rule 31 Colonizers moved into the area during Ming and Qing rule 32 During the Ming dynasty 3 million Han Chinese mostly from Nanjing the original Nanjing population was later largely replaced by Wu speakers and some from Shanxi and Hebei settled in Yunnan Although largely forgotten the bloody Panthay Rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other local minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing dynasty caused the deaths of up to a million people in Yunnan 33 The Manchu official Shuxing a started an anti Muslim massacre which led to the rebellion Shuxing a developed a deep hatred of Muslims after an incident in which he was stripped naked and nearly lynched by a mob of Muslims He ordered several Muslim rebels to be slowly sliced to death 34 35 Tariq Ali wrote about the real incident in one of his novels and claimed the Muslims who had nearly lynched Shuxing a were not Hui but belonged to another ethnicity Nevertheless the Manchu official blamed all Muslims for the incident 36 37 A British officer testified that the Muslims did not rebel for religious reasons and that the Chinese were tolerant of different religions and were unlikely to have caused the revolt by interfering with the practice of Islam 38 Loyalist Muslim forces helped Qing forces crush the rebel Muslims The Qing armies massacred only Muslims who had rebelled or supported the rebels and spared Muslims who took no part in the uprising 39 In 1894 George Ernest Morrison an Australian correspondent for The Times traveled from Beijing to British occupied Burma via Yunnan His book An Australian in China 40 details his experiences Kunming Street The 1905 Tibetan Rebellion in which Tibetan Buddhist Lamas attacked and killed French Catholic missionaries spread to Yunnan Post Imperial Edit Yunnan was transformed by the events of Second Sino Japanese War which caused many east coast refugees and industrial establishments to relocate to the province It assumed strategic significance particularly as the Burma Road from Lashio in Burma to Kunming was a fought over supply line of vital importance to China s war effort 41 University faculty and students in the east had originally decamped to Changsha capital of Hunan But as Japanese forces were gaining more territory they eventually bombed Changsha in February 1938 The 800 faculty and students who were left had to flee and made the 1 000 mile journey to Kunming capital of Yunnan in China s mountainous southwest It was here that the National Southwest Associated University commonly known as Lianda University was established For eight years staff professors and students had to survive and operate in makeshift quarters that were subject to sporadic bombing campaigns by the Japanese 42 There were dire shortages of food equipment books clothing and other essential needs but they managed to conduct the running of a modern university Over those eight years of war 1937 1945 Lianda became famous nationwide for having and producing many if not most of China s most prominent academics scholars scientists and intellectuals Both of China s only Nobel laureates in physics studied at Lianda in Kunming Naturalists Edit Lijiang Thousands of plant insect and mammal species were described in the 19th century by scientists of the French National Museum of Natural History Paris in connection with permanent settlements of missionaries of the Missions etrangeres de Paris in north west Yunnan among them noticeably Jean Andre Soulie and Felix Biet From 1916 to 1917 Roy Chapman Andrews and Yvette Borup Andrews led the Asiatic Zoological Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History through much of western and southern Yunnan as well as other provinces of China The book Camps and Trails in China records their experiences Other notable explorers include Heinrich Handel Mazzetti George Forrest Joseph Francis Charles Rock who from 1922 to 1949 spent most of his time studying the flora peoples and languages of southwest China mainly in Yunnan and Peter Goullart a White Russian who studied Naxi culture and lived in Lijiang from 1940 to 1949 Geography Edit Honghe Hani Rice Terraces in Yunnan Yunnan is the most southwestern province in China with the Tropic of Cancer running through its southern part The province has an area of 394 100 square kilometres 152 200 sq mi 4 1 of the nation s total The northern part of the province forms part of the Yunnan Guizhou Plateau The province borders Guangxi and Guizhou in the east Sichuan in the north and the Tibet Autonomous Region in the northwest It shares a border of 4 060 kilometres 2 520 mi with Myanmar Kachin and Shan States in the west Laos Luang Namtha Oudomxay and Phongsaly Provinces in the south and Vietnam Ha Giang Lao Cai Lai Chau and Điện Bien Provinces in the southeast For practical purposes all of Yunnan province falls within the Zomia region of Asia Geology Edit Snowy mountains in Diqing northwestern Yunnan Yunnan is at the far eastern edge of the Himalayan uplift and was pushed up in the Pleistocene primarily in the Middle Pleistocene although the uplift continues into the present The eastern part of the province is a limestone plateau with karst topography and unnavigable rivers flowing through deep mountain gorges The main surface formations of the plateau are the Lower Permian Maokou Formation characterized by thick limestone deposits the Lower Permian Qixia Formation characterised by dolomitic limestones and dolomites the Upper Permian basalts of the Ermeishan Formation formerly Omeishan plateau basalts and the red sandstones mudstones siltstones and conglomerates of the Mesozoic Paleogene including the Lufeng Formation and the Lunan Group Lumeiyi Xiaotun and Caijiacong formations In this area is the noted Stone Forest or Shilin eroded vertical pinnacles of limestone Maokou Formation In the eastern part the rivers generally run eastwards The western half is characterized by mountain ranges and rivers running north and south 43 Paleontology Edit See also Maotianshan Shales Yunnanozoon Lower Cambrian possible chordate Jingshanosaurus Early Jurassic long neck prosauropod dinosaurClimate Edit Erhai Lake Dali Yunnan Yunnan has a generally mild climate with pleasant and fair weather because of the province s location on south facing mountain slopes receiving the influence of both the Pacific and Indian oceans and although the growing period is long the rugged terrain provides little arable land See Agriculture in Yunnan Under the Koppen climate classification much of the province lies within the subtropical highland Koppen Cwb or humid subtropical zone Cwa with mild to warm winters and temperate summers except in the almost tropical to truly tropical south where temperatures regularly exceed 30 C 86 F in the warmer half of the year 44 In general January average temperatures range from 8 to 17 C 46 to 63 F July averages vary from 21 to 27 C 70 to 81 F Average annual rainfall ranges from 600 to 2 300 millimetres 24 to 91 in with over half the rain occurring between June and August The plateau region has moderate temperatures The western canyon region is hot at the valley bottoms but there are freezing winds at the mountaintops Topography Edit Meili Snow Mountains The terrain is largely mountainous especially in the north and west A series of high mountain chains spreads across the province There is a distinct canyon region to the west and a plateau region to the east Yunnan s major rivers flow through the deep valleys between the mountains The average elevation is 1 980 metres 6 500 ft The mountains are highest in the north where they reach more than 5 000 m 16 000 ft in the south they rise no higher than 3 000 m 9 800 ft The highest point in the north is the Kawagebo Peak in Deqin County on the Diqing Plateau which is about 6 740 m 22 110 ft and the lowest is in the Red River Valley in Hekou County near the Vietnamese border with an elevation of 76 4 m 251 ft The eastern half of the province is a limestone plateau with karst scenery and unnavigable rivers flowing through deep mountain gorges the western half is characterised by mountain ranges and rivers running north and south These include the Nujiang Thai Salween and the Lancangjiang Thai Mekong The rugged vertical terrain produces a wide range of flora and fauna and the province has been called a natural zoological and botanical garden Borders Edit Bordering Chinese provincial level divisions are Tibet Sichuan Guizhou and Guangxi Starting from the east and working clockwise bordering countries are Vietnam Ha Giang Lao Cai Lai Chau and Điện Bien provinces Laos Phongsaly Oudomxay and Luang Namtha provinces Myanmar states of Shan and Kachin The main border crossings are Hekou Lao Cai by road and rail is the only Sino Vietnamese land border crossing open to non Chinese non Vietnamese Sino Laotian at Boten Ruili Muse is the only Sino Burmese border crossing open to non Chinese non Burmese Lakes Edit There are several major lakes in Yunnan The province has nine lakes with areas of over 30 square kilometres 12 sq mi They include Lugu Lake Dianchi Lake near Kunming Fuxian Lake in Yuxi the second deepest lake in China Xingyun Lake directly south of Fuxian Lake and connected with it by a short river Qilu Lake south of Fuxian and Xingyun Lakes separated from them by mountains in Tonghai County Erhai Lake near Dali City Lugu Lake in Ninglang near the border with Sichuan Yangzong Lake in Yiliang County Yilong LakeRivers Edit The Yangtze River near the Tiger Leaping Gorge Yunnan is the source of two rivers the Xi River there known as the Nanpan and Hongshui and the Yuan River The Hongshui is a principal source stream of the Xi River Rising as the Nanpan in eastern Yunnan province it flows south and east to form part of the boundary between Guizhou province and Guangxi autonomous region Flowing for 345 km 214 mi it unites with the Yu River at Guiping to form what eventually becomes the Xi River The province is drained by six major river systems the Yangtze River here known as the Jinsha Jiang River of Golden Sands drains the province s north the Pearl River with its source near Qujing collects the waters from the east the Mekong Lancang which flows from Tibet into the South China Sea forming the boundaries between Laos and Burma between Laos and Thailand and through Laos Cambodia and Vietnam the Red River Yuan or Honghe has its source in the mountains south of Dali and enters the South China Sea through Hanoi Vietnam the Salween Nujiang which flows into the Gulf of Martaban and the Andaman Sea through Burma the Irrawaddy which arises from the confluence of two rivers in Kachin State in Burma has a few small tributaries in Yunnan s far west such as the Dulongjiang and Taping River and rivers in the prefecture of Dehong Biodiversity Edit Lincang mountains Girl On Yak In Yunnan Province China Yunnan is China s most diverse province biologically as well as culturally 45 The province contains snow capped mountains and true tropical environments thus supporting an unusually full spectrum of species and vegetation types The Yunnan camellia Camellia reticulata is the provincial emblem 46 During summer the Great Plateau of Tibet acts as a barrier to monsoon winds trapping moisture in the province This gives the alpine flora in particular what one source has called a lushness found nowhere else This topographic range combined with a tropical moisture sustains extremely high biodiversity and high degrees of endemism probably the richest botanically in the world s temperate regions 45 Perhaps 17 000 species of higher plants of which an estimated 2 500 are endemic can be found in the province The province is said to have as much flowering plant diversity as the rest of the Northern Hemisphere put together 7 Yunnan has less than 4 of the land of China yet the province harbors around 42 6 of all protected plant species and 72 5 of all protected wild animals in the country of which 15 are strictly endemic to Yunnan 47 Yunnan is home to most notably the southeast Asian gaur a giant forest dwelling bovine the Indochinese tiger and the Asian elephant 48 Other extremely rare species are the Yunnan box turtle 49 and the Yunnan snub nosed monkey 50 It is feared that the Yunnan lar gibbon another moribund species has already gone extinct 51 Yunnan province has 11 national and regional nature reserves In total the covered protected area in China is about 510 000 hectares 52 The freshwater fish fauna is highly diverse with about 620 species including more than 580 natives the remaining are introduced 53 This equals almost 40 of the freshwater fish species in China Of the Yunnan natives more than 250 are endemic to the province and many of these are threatened 53 Several species that are restricted to single lakes notably Dian Erhai Fuxian and Yilong are likely already are extinct 54 By far the most diverse order in Yunnan are Cypriniformes both in total species number and number of endemics 53 The unique Sinopyrophorus bioluminescent beetles were described from Yunnan in 2019 55 See also Distribution of orchid species Designation Edit Yunnan has been designated a Center of Plant Diversity IUCN WWF Davis et al 1995 Global 200 List Priority Ecoregion for biodiversity conservation WWF Olsen and Dinerstein 1998 Endemic Bird Area Birdlife International Bibby C et al 1992 and Global Biodiversity Hotspot as a part of the Hengduan Mountain Ecosystem Conservation International Mittermeier and Mittermeier 1997 Natural resources Edit A main source of wealth lies in its vast mineral resources indeed mining is the leading industry in Yunnan Yunnan has proven deposits of 86 kinds of minerals in 2 700 places Some 13 of the proved deposits of minerals are the largest of their kind in China and two thirds of the deposits are among the largest of their kind in the Yangtze River valley and in south China Yunnan ranks first in the country in deposits of zinc lead tin cadmium indium thallium and crocidolite Other deposits include iron coal copper gold mercury silver antimony and sulfur More than 150 kinds of minerals have been discovered in the province The potential value of the proven deposits in Yunnan is 3 trillion yuan 40 of which come from fuel minerals 7 3 from metallic minerals and 52 7 from nonmetallic minerals Yunnan has sufficient rainfall and many rivers and lakes The annual water flow originating in the province is 200 cubic kilometres three times that of the Yellow River The rivers flowing into the province from outside add 160 cubic kilometres which means there are more than ten thousand cubic metres of water for each person in the province This is four times the average in the country The rich water resources offer abundant hydro energy China is constructing a series of dams on the Mekong to develop it as a waterway and source of power the first was completed at Manwan in 1993 Scenic areas EditNational parks Edit See also List of national parks in China Pudacuo National Park opened in 2007 in Shangri La County Laojunshan National Park 老君山国家公园 in Lijiang pending approval 56 UNESCO World Heritage Sites Edit Old Town of Lijiang accepted in 1997 as a cultural site Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas accepted in 2003 as a natural site South China Karst accepted in 2007 as a natural site 57 Maotianshan Shales accepted in 2012 as a natural site Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces accepted in 2013 as a cultural siteGovernance EditAdministrative divisions Edit Main articles List of administrative divisions of Yunnan and List of township level divisions of Yunnan Yunnan consists of sixteen prefecture level divisions eight prefecture level cities and eight autonomous prefectures Administrative divisions of Yunnan Kunming Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lijiang Pu er Lincang Chuxiong Yi AP Honghe Hani and Yi AP Wenshan Zhuang and Miao AP Xishuangbanna Dai AP Dali Bai AP Dehong Dai and Jingpo AP Nujiang Lisu AP Deqen Diqing Tibetan APDivision code 58 Division Area in km2 59 Population 2020 60 Seat Divisions 61 Districts Counties Aut counties CL cities530000 Yunnan Province 394000 00 47 209 277 Kunming city 17 65 29 18530100 Kunming city 21 001 28 8 460 088 Chenggong District 7 3 3 1530300 Qujing city 28 939 41 5 765 775 Qilin District 3 5 1530400 Yuxi city 14 941 53 2 249 502 Hongta District 2 4 3530500 Baoshan city 19 064 60 2 431 211 Longyang District 1 3 1530600 Zhaotong city 22 439 76 5 092 611 Zhaoyang District 1 9 1530700 Lijiang city 20 557 25 1 253 878 Gucheng District 1 2 2530800 Pu er city 44 264 79 2 404 954 Simao District 1 9530900 Lincang city 23 620 72 2 257 991 Linxiang District 1 4 3532300 Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture 28 436 87 2 416 747 Chuxiong city 8 2532500 Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture 32 167 67 4 478 422 Mengzi city 6 3 4532600 Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture 31 409 12 3 503 218 Wenshan city 7 1532800 Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture 19 107 05 1 301 407 Jinghong city 2 1532900 Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture 28 299 43 3 337 559 Dali city 8 3 1533100 Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture 11 171 41 1 315 709 Mang city 3 2533300 Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture 14 588 92 552 694 Lushui city 1 2 1533400 Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture 23 185 59 387 511 Shangri La city 1 1 1Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizationsEnglish Chinese PinyinYunnan Province 云南省 Yunnan ShengKunming city 昆明市 Kunming ShiQujing city 曲靖市 Qǔjing ShiYuxi city 玉溪市 Yuxi ShiBaoshan city 保山市 Bǎoshan ShiZhaotong city 昭通市 Zhaotōng ShiLijiang city 丽江市 Lijiang ShiPu er city 普洱市 Pǔ er ShiLincang city 临沧市 Lincang ShiChuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture 楚雄彝族自治州 Chǔxiong Yizu ZizhizhōuHonghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture 红河哈尼族彝族自治州 Honghe Hanizu Yizu ZizhizhōuWenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture 文山壮族苗族自治州 Wenshan Zhuangzu Miaozu ZizhizhōuXishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture 西双版纳傣族自治州 Xishuangbǎnna Dǎizu ZizhizhōuDali Bai Autonomous Prefecture 大理白族自治州 Dalǐ Baizu ZizhizhōuDehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture 德宏傣族景颇族自治州 Dehong Dǎizu Jǐngpōzu ZizhizhōuNujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture 怒江傈僳族自治州 Nujiang Lisuzu ZizhizhōuDeqen Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture 迪庆藏族自治州 Diqing Zangzu Zizhizhōu These 16 prefecture level divisions are in turn subdivided into 129 county level divisions 17 districts 18 county level cities 65 counties and 29 autonomous counties At the end of the year 2021 the total population is 48 01 million 1 Urban areas Edit Population by urban areas of prefecture amp county cities City Urban area 62 District area 62 City proper 62 Census date1 Kunming a b 3 140 777 3 272 586 6 432 209 2010 11 01 1 Kunming new districts b 244 586 594 627 see Kunming 2010 11 012 Xuanwei 584 076 1 302 891 see Qujing 2010 11 013 Qujing c 468 437 740 747 5 855 055 2010 11 01 3 Qujing new districts c 235 390 616 047 see Qujing 2010 11 014 Dali 367 122 652 045 part of Dali Prefecture 2010 11 015 Chuxiong 331 991 588 620 part of Chuxiong Prefecture 2010 11 016 Yuxi d 306 879 495 129 2 303 518 2010 11 01 6 Yuxi new district d 93 471 280 889 see Yuxi 2010 11 017 Baoshan 263 380 935 618 2 506 491 2010 11 018 Zhaotong 255 861 787 837 5 213 521 2010 11 019 Anning 242 151 341 341 see Kunming 2010 11 01 10 Wenshan e 229 430 481 505 part of Wenshan Prefecture 2010 11 01 11 Mile f 213 462 539 725 part of Honghe Prefecture 2010 11 01 12 Mengzi g 212 724 417 156 part of Honghe Prefecture 2010 11 0113 Kaiyuan 210 801 322 693 part of Honghe Prefecture 2010 11 0114 Jinghong 205 523 519 935 part of Xishuangbanna Prefecture 2010 11 0115 Pu er 185 473 296 565 2 542 898 2010 11 0116 Gejiu 163 528 459 781 part of Honghe Prefecture 2010 11 0117 Lijiang 151 744 211 151 1 244 769 2010 11 0118 Lincang 142 095 323 708 2 429 497 2010 11 01 19 Tengchong h 135 318 644 765 see Baoshan 2010 11 0120 Mangshi i 131 425 389 891 part of Dehong Prefecture 2010 11 0121 Dongchuan a 113 632 271 917 see Kunming 2010 11 0122 Ruili 99 148 180 627 part of Dehong Prefecture 2010 11 01 23 Shangri La j 66 382 172 988 part of Deqen Prefecture 2010 11 01 24 Lushui k 53 997 184 835 part of Nujiang Prefecture 2010 11 01 25 Shuifu l 44 647 102 143 see Zhaotong 2010 11 01 a b Dongchuan is a satellite urban area separated from Kunming and it is not included in the urban area amp district area count a b New districts established after census Chenggong Chenggong County Jinning Jinning County These new districts not included in the urban area amp district area count of the pre expanded city a b New districts established after census Zhanyi Zhanyi County Malong Malong County These new districts not included in the urban area amp district area count of the pre expanded city a b New district established after census Jiangchuan Jiangchuan County The new district not included in the urban area amp district area count of the pre expanded city Wenshan County is currently known as Wenshan CLC after census Mile County is currently known as Mile CLC after census Mengzi County is currently known as Mengzi CLC after census Tengchong County is currently known as Tengchong CLC after census Formerly known as Luxi CLC until 20 July 2010 Shangri La County is currently known as Shangri La CLC after census Lushui County is currently known as Lushui CLC after census Shuifu County is currently known as Shuifu CLC after census Politics Edit Further information List of provincial leaders of the People s Republic of China Statue of Mao Zedong in Lijiang Secretaries of the CPC Yunnan Committee The Secretary of the CPC is the highest ranking and most important position in Yunnan 63 Song Renqiong 宋任穷 1950 1952 Xie Fuzhi 谢富治 July 1952 August 1959 Yan Hongyan 阎红彦 August 1959 January 1967 Zhou Xing 周兴 June 1971 October 1975 Jia Qiyun 贾启允 October 1975 February 1977 An Pingsheng 安平生 February 1977 July 1985 Pu Chaozhu 普朝柱 July 1985 June 1995 Gao Yan 高严 June 1995 August 1997 Linghu An 令狐安 August 1997 October 2001 Bai Enpei 白恩培 October 2001 August 2011 63 Qin Guangrong 秦光荣 August 2011 October 2014 Li Jiheng 李纪恒 October 2014 August 2016 Chen Hao 陈豪 August 2016 November 2020 Governors of Yunnan The Governor is the second highest office in Yunnan after the Secretary of the CPC Yunnan Committee 63 The Governor who is elected by the Yunnan Provincial People s Congress is responsible for all economic environmental political personnel and foreign affairs issues concerning Yunnan 63 Chen Geng 陈赓 March 1950 February 1955 Guo Yingqiu 郭影秋 February 1955 November 1958 Ding Yichuan 丁一川 November 1958 January 1965 Zhou Xing 周兴 January 1965 1966 Tan Furen 谭甫仁 August 1968 October 1970 Zhou Xing October 1970 October 1975 Jia Qiyun 贾启允 October 1975 February 1977 An Pingsheng 安平生 February 1977 December 1979 Liu Minghui 刘明辉 December 1979 April 1983 Pu Chaozhu 普朝柱 April 1983 August 1985 He Zhiqiang 和志强 August 1985 January 1998 Li Jiating 李嘉廷 January 1998 June 2001 Xu Rongkai 徐荣凯 June 2001 November 2006 Qin Guangrong 秦光荣 January 2007 August 2011 63 Li Jiheng 李纪恒 August 2011 October 2014 Chen Hao 陈豪 October 2014 December 2016Demographics EditHistorical populationYearPop 1912 64 9 468 000 1928 65 13 821 000 46 0 1936 37 66 12 042 000 12 9 1947 67 9 066 000 24 7 1954 68 17 472 737 92 7 1964 69 20 509 525 17 4 1982 70 32 553 817 58 7 1990 71 36 972 610 13 6 2000 72 42 360 089 14 6 2010 73 45 966 239 8 5 2020 74 47 209 277 2 7 Ethnicity Edit Major Autonomous areas within Yunnan excluding Hui Yunnan is noted for a very high level of ethnic diversity 75 It has the highest number of ethnic groups among the provinces and autonomous regions in China Among the country s 56 recognised ethnic groups twenty five are found in Yunnan Some 38 of the province population are members of ethnic minorities including the Yi Bai Hani Tai Dai Miao Lisu Hui Lahu Wa Nakhi Yao Tibetans Jingpo Blang Pumi Nu Achang Jinuo Mongols Derung Manchus Sui and Buyei Several other groups are represented but they live neither in compact settlements nor do they reach the required threshold of five thousand to be awarded the official status of being present in the province Some groups such as the Mosuo who are officially recognised as part of the Naxi have in the past claimed official status as a national minority and are now recognised with the status of Mosuo people Ethnic groups are widely distributed in the province Some twenty five minorities live in compact communities each of which has a population of more than five thousand Ten ethnic minorities living in border areas and river valleys include the Hui Manchus Bai Naxi Mongols Zhuang Dai Achang Buyei and Shui with a combined population of 4 5 million those in low mountainous areas are the Hani Yao Lahu Va Jingpo Blang and Jino with a combined population of 5 million and those in high mountainous areas are Miao Lisu Tibetan Pumi and Drung with a total population of four million Languages Edit CIA map showing the territory of the settlement of ethnolinguistic groups in Yunnan Province 1971 Most dialects of the Chinese language spoken in Yunnan belong to the southwestern subdivision of the Mandarin group and are therefore very similar to the dialects of neighbouring Sichuan and Guizhou provinces Notable features found in many Yunnan dialects include the partial or complete loss of distinction between finals n and ŋ as well as the lack of y In addition to the local dialects most people also speak Standard Chinese Putonghua commonly called Mandarin which is used in the media by the government and as the language of instruction in education Yunnan s ethnic diversity is reflected in its linguistic diversity Languages spoken in Yunnan include Tibeto Burman languages such as Bai Yi Tibetan Hani Jingpo Lisu Lahu Naxi Tai languages like Zhuang Bouyei Dong Shui Tai Lu and Tai Nua as well as Hmong Mien languages The Naxi in particular use the Dongba script which is the only pictographic writing system in use in the world today The Dongba script was mainly used to provide the Dongba priests with instructions on how to carry out their rituals today the Dongba script features more as a tourist attraction Perhaps the best known Western Dongba scholar was Joseph Rock Literacy Edit By the end of 1998 among the province s population 419 800 had received college education or above 2 11 million senior middle school education 8 3 million junior middle school education 18 25 million primary school education and 8 25 million aged 15 or above illiterate or semi literate Religion Edit Religion in Yunnan 2005 76 Chinese religions ethnic minorities folk religions or not religious 91 3 Buddhism 6 Islam 1 4 Christianity 1 3 According to a demographic analysis of religions in Yunnan as of 2005 the province has around 4 million believers of the five government sanctioned organised religious doctrines of China almost 90 of them belonging to the ethnic minorities 76 Of these 2 6 million or about 6 of the total population are Buddhists 620 000 or 1 4 are Muslims 530 000 or 1 2 are Protestants 240 000 or 0 5 are Taoists note that Taoist traditionally only defines priests 66 000 or 0 1 are Catholics According to surveys conducted in 2004 and 2007 in those years approximately 32 22 of the province s population was involved in worship of ancestors and 2 75 declared a Christian identity 77 Most of the population of the province practices traditional indigenous religions including the Chinese folk religion among the Han Chinese Bimoism among the Yi peoples and Benzhuism among the Bai people The Dai people are one of the few ethnic minorities of China that traditionally follow the Theravada branch of Buddhism making Yunnan the only province in China where all 3 major Buddhist shools are widely practiced Most of the Hui people of the region are Muslims Christianity is dominant among the Lisu the Jingpo and the Derung ethnic groups 76 Xinjiao Temple in Shaxi Huating Buddhist Temple in the Western Mountains Xishan of Kunming Guishan Buddhist Temple of the Tibetan tradition Hall of the Golden Taoist Temple in Kunming Tuogu Mosque in Ludian County Dai Theravada Buddhist temple in Menghai County Xishuangbanna Anning Confucian Memorial Zhongdian Sumzenling goinba Bingzhongluo Church Gongshan County Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of KunmingAgriculture Edit View of Duoyishu sunrise in Yuanyang The region maintains a strong agricultural focus Agriculture is restricted to the few upland plains open valleys and terraced hillsides Level land for agriculture is extremely scarce and only about 5 percent of the province is under cultivation Rice is the main crop corn barley wheat rapeseed sweet potatoes soybeans as a food crop tea sugarcane tobacco and cotton are also grown On the steep slopes in the west livestock is raised and timber a valuable resource is cut teak in the southwest Yunnan produces most of coffee grown in China although there are also much smaller plantations in Fujian and Hainan Large scale coffee cultivation started in Yunnan in 1988 The most commonly grown variety in the province is catimor 78 Tobacco is the main export product and makes up a big part of the provincial GDP 79 Furthermore Yunnan has a strong competitive potential in the fruit and vegetable industries especially in low value added commodities such as fresh and dried vegetables and fresh apples Strawberry fields near Yuxi Yunnan is one of the regions in the world with the most abundant resources of wild edible mushrooms In China there are 938 kinds of edible mushrooms and over 800 varieties can be found in Yunnan In 2004 around 7 744 tons of wild edible mushrooms were exported making up for 70 of the total export of this product in China The so called pine mushroom is the main product in Yunnan and is exported to Japan in large quantities Due to China s growing consumption of dairy products Yunnan s dairy industry is also developing very rapidly and is also aiming to export to its ASEAN neighbors The flower industry in Yunnan province started to develop towards the end of the 1980s Yunnan province accounts for 50 of China s total cut flower production The size of the planting area for cut flowers in Yunnan province amounts to 4000 hectares In 2003 the output totaled 2 3 billion stems In 2002 the flower industry in Yunnan had a total output of RMB 3 4 billion Export amounted to US 18 million Apart from sales on the domestic market Yunnan also exports to a number of foreign countries and regions such as Japan Korea Hong Kong Thailand and Singapore citation needed Economy EditAs of the mid 19th century Yunnan exported birds brass tin gemstones musk nuts and peacock feathers mainly to stores in Guangzhou They imported silk wool and cotton cloth tobacco and books 80 Local traders in Lijiang City Aerial view of Downtown Kunming Yunnan is one of China s relatively undeveloped provinces with more poverty stricken counties than the other provinces In 1994 about 7 million people lived below the poverty line of less than an annual average income of 300 yuan per capita They were distributed in the province s 73 counties mainly and financially supported by the central government With an input of 3 15 billion yuan in 2002 the absolutely poor rural population in the province has been reduced from 4 05 million in 2000 to 2 86 million The poverty alleviation plan includes five large projects aimed at improving infrastructure facilities They involve planned attempts at soil improvement water conservation electric power roads and green belt building Upon the completion of the projects the province hopes this will alleviate the shortages of grain water electric power and roads Yunnan lags behind the east coast of China in relation to socio economic development However because of its geographic location the province has comparative advantages in regional and border trade with countries in southeast Asia The Lancang River upper reaches of Mekong River is the waterway to southeast Asia In recent years land transportation has been improved to strengthen economic and trade co operation among countries in the Greater Mekong Subregion Yunnan s abundance in resources determines that the province s pillar industries are agriculture tobacco mining hydro electric power and tourism In general the province still depends on the natural resources The secondary sector is currently the largest industrial tier in Yunnan contributing more than 45 percent of GDP The tertiary sector contributes 40 percent and agriculture 15 percent Investment is the key driver of Yunnan s economic growth especially in construction The main challenge that Yunnan faces is its lack of major development Its low productivity and competitiveness restrict the rapid development of the province The province also faces great challenges in social issues such as environmental protection poverty elimination illegal migration drug trafficking and HIV AIDS Yunnan s four pillar industries include tobacco agriculture biology mining and tourism The main manufacturing industries are iron and steel production and copper smelting commercial vehicles chemicals fertilizers textiles and optical instruments 79 Yunnan has trade contacts with more than seventy countries and regions in the world Yunnan established the Muse border trade zone located in Ruili along its border with Burma 81 Yunnan mainly exports tobacco machinery and electrical equipment chemical and agricultural products and non ferrous metals In 2008 its total two way trade imports and exports reached US 9 6 billion The province signed foreign direct investment contracts involving US 1 69 billion of which US 777 million were actually utilized during the year Yunnan s unemployment rate at the end of 2008 was 4 21 Yunnan s nominal GDP in 2011 was 875 1 billion yuan US 138 92 billion an annual growth rate of 13 7 Its per capita GDP was 13 494 yuan US 1 975 The share of GDP of Yunnan s primary secondary and tertiary industries were 17 9 43 and 39 1 respectively Yunnan is one of the major production bases of copper lead zinc tin and aluminum in China Gejiu is well known as the Kingdom of Zinc with the reserves ranked first in the country The Yunxi brand refined tin is one of the main products in Gejiu which is registered on the London Metal Exchange LME Besides reserves of germanium indium zirconium platinum rock salt sylvite nickel phosphate mirabilite arsenic and blue asbestos are also high Significant copper deposits are found at Dongchuan iron ore at Wuding and coal at Xuanwei and Kaiyuan Economic policy to locate new industry in interior areas with substantial mineral wealth led to major industrial development in Yunnan especially in the Kunming area The electricity industry is another important economic pillar of Yunnan which plays a key role in the West East Electricity Transmission Project The electricity produced in Yunnan is mainly transported to Guangdong Economic and Technological Development Zones Edit Kunming Economic and Technological Development Zone First established in 1992 Kunming Economic amp Technology Development Zone is a national level zone approved by the State Council Kunming is located in east central Yunnan province with preferential location After several years development the zone has formed its pillar industries which include tobacco processing machinery manufacturing electronic information and biotechnology 82 The Kunming High tech Industrial Development Zone KMHNZ is a state level high tech industrial zone established in 1992 in Northwest Kunming It is administratively under Kunming Prefecture It has covers an area of 9 km2 3 5 sq mi KMHNZ is located in the northwest part of Kunming city 4 kilometers from Kunming Railway Station 5 kilometers from Kunming International Airport 83 Kunming Dianchi Tourism amp Vacation Zone Kunming Airport Economic Zone Ruili Border Trade Economic Cooperation Zone Ruili Border Economic Cooperation Zone RLBECZ is a Chinese State Council approved Industrial Park based in Ruili Dehong Prefecture founded in 1992 and was established to promote trade between China and Burma The area s import and export trade include the processing industry local agriculture and biological resources are very promising Sino Burmese business is growing fast Burma is now one of Yunnan s biggest foreign trade partners In 1999 Sino Burmese trade accounted for 77 4 of Yunnan s foreign trade In the same year exports for electromechanical equipments came up to US 55 28 million Main exports here include fiber cloth cotton yarn ceresin wax mechanical equipments fruits rice seeds fiber yarn and tobacco 84 Wanding Border Economic Cooperation Zone Wanding Border Economic Cooperation Zone WTBECZ is a Chinese State Council approved Industrial Park based in Wanding Town Ruili Dehong founded in 1992 and was established to promote trade between China and Burma The zone spans 6 km2 2 3 sq mi and is focuses on developing trading processing agriculture resources and tourism 85 Qujing Economic and Technological Development Zone Qujing Economic and Technological Development Zone QETDZ is a provincial development zone approved by Yunnan Provincial Government in August 1992 It is located in the east of urban Qujing the second largest city in Yunnan in terms of economic strengths The location of the development zone is the economic political and cultural center of Qujing As an agency under Qujing municipal Party committee and municipal government the administrative commission of QETDZ functions as an economy supervising body at the prefecture level and an administration body at the county level It has 106 km2 41 sq mi under its jurisdiction It shoulders the task of building a new 40 square kilometer city area and providing service for a population of 400 000 in the upcoming 10 years 86 Yuxi Economic and Technological Development Zone Dali Economic and Technological Development Zone Chuxiong Economic and Technological Development Zone Chuxiong Economic Development Zone is an important zone in Yunnan Now the zone has attracted a number of investment projects It is an important industry for the development of new type industry platform The zone covers an area of 12 km2 4 6 sq mi composed of four parks 87 Songming Yanglin Experimental Zone for County amp Township Industries Hekou Border Economic Cooperation Zone First established in 1992 Hekou Border Economic Cooperation Zone is a border zone approved by State Council to promote Sino Vietnamese trade It has a planned area of 4 02 km2 1 55 sq mi The zone implemented several policies to serve its clients in China from various industries and sectors including investment trade finance taxation immigration etc 88 Jiegao Border Trade Economic Zone Lijiang Yulong Snow Mountain Tourism Zone Cang Mountain amp Erhai Lake Tourism and Vacation Zone at Dali Xishuangbanna Tourism and Vacation Zone Tengchong Tourism and Vacation Zone Yangzonghai Lake Tourism and Vacation Zone Fuxian Lake Tourism and Vacation ZoneEducation EditSince the 1960s improvements have been achieved in the overall educational level which can be seen in the increase in average years of regular education received The development of part time schools have brought adult distance and continuing education to farms factories offices and other places Evening time off work study leave classes allow people to receive education without leaving their jobs Policies to upgrade adult education have begun to complement the campaign against illiteracy A basic Chinese vocabulary in simplified strokes is taught to millions of illiterate people in short intensive courses Despite progress made Yunnan s illiteracy rate remains one of the highest in China mainly due to insufficient education among minority peoples 89 90 In higher education Yunnan has one National Key University Yunnan University in Kunming There is also a growing number of technical schools among which the most prominent are the Yunnan Normal University the Southwest Forestry University Yunnan Agricultural University Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences Kunming Medical University Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Kunming University of Science and Technology Other notable establishments of learning are the Kunming branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory and the Yunnan Provincial Library As of 2000 there were 24 institutions of higher learning in Yunnan with an enrollment of over 90 400 students and a faculty of 9 237 2 562 secondary schools with an enrollment of more than 2 137 400 students and 120 461 teachers and 22 151 primary schools with an enrollment of 4 720 600 pupils and a faculty of 210 507 The gross enrollment rate of school age children was 99 02 See also List of universities and colleges in YunnanHealth EditYunnan Province is responsible for about 50 of officially reported malaria cases in China 91 It is presently considered to be the main source of plague in China 92 HIV AIDS Edit HIV AIDS in YunnanTransport EditMain article Transport in Yunnan Railways Edit Viaduct of the Dali Lijiang Railway near Dali The first railway in Yunnan was the narrow gauge Yunnan Vietnam Railway built by France from 1904 to 1910 to connect Kunming with Vietnam then a French colony In Yunnan the Chinese section of this railway is known as the Yunnan Hekou Railway and the line gave Yunnan access to the seaport at Haiphong During the Second World War Britain and the United States began building a railway from Yunnan to Burma but abandoned the effort due to Japanese advance Due in part to difficult terrain both locally and in surrounding provinces and the shortage of capital for rail construction Yunnan remained outside of China s domestic rail network until 1966 when the Guiyang Kunming Railway was completed The line would not enter into operation until 1970 the same year that the Chengdu Kunming was completed The Nanning Kunming Railway to Guangxi was completed in 1997 followed by the Neijiang Kunming Railway in 2001 The Panxi Railway originally built in 1975 to draw coal from neighboring Guizhou was electrified in 2001 and adds to eastern Yunnan s outbound rail transport capacity Kunming Yuxi railway in Haikou Town Kunming Within the province the Kunming Yuxi opened in 1993 and the Guangtong Dali opened in 1998 expanded the rail network to southern and western Yunnan respectively The Dali Lijiang Railway opened in 2010 brought rail service to northwestern Yunnan That line is planned to be extended further north to Xamgyi nyilha County The province is extending the railway network to neighboring countries in Southeast Asia From Yuxi the Yuxi Mengzi Railway built from 2005 to 2013 and the Mengzi Hekou Railway under construction since 2008 will form a standard gauge railway connection with Vietnam The Dali Ruili Railway under construction since May 2011 will bring rail service to the border with Myanmar Also under planning is a rail line from Yuxi to Mohan in Xishuangbana Prefecture on the border with Laos This line could be extended further south to Thailand Malaysia and Singapore Burma Road Edit The Burma Road was a highway extending about 1 100 kilometres 680 mi through mountainous terrain from Lashio northeast Burma northeastward to Kunming China Undertaken by the Chinese after the start of the Sino Japanese War in 1937 and completed in 1938 it was a vital transportation route for wartime supplies to the Chinese government from Rangoon and shipped by railroad to Lashio from 1938 to 1946 An extension runs east through China from Kunming then north to Chongqing This traffic increased in importance to China after the Japanese took effective control of the Chinese coast and of Indochina It was seized by the Japanese in 1942 and reopened when it was connected to the Stilwell Road from India The Ledo Road later called the Stilwell Road from Ledo India into Burma was begun in December 1942 In 1944 the Ledo Road reached Myitkyina and was joined to the Burma Road Both roads have lost their former importance and are in a state of disrepair The Burma Road s importance diminished after World War II but it has remained a link in a 3 400 km road system from Yangon Burma to Chongqing Highways Edit Road construction in Yunnan continues unabated over the last years the province has added more new roads than any other province citation needed Today expressways link Kunming through Dali to Baoshan Kunming to Mojiang on the way to Jinghong Kunming to Qujing Kunming to Shilin Stone Forest The official plan is to connect all major towns and neighbouring capitals with expressways by 2010 and to complete a high speed road network by 2020 Roadway in Lijiang with the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain in the distance All county towns are now accessible by paved all weather roads from Kunming all townships have a road connection the last to be connected was Yangla in the far north but Dulongjiang remains cut off for about six months every year and about half of all villages have road access Second level national highways stretch 958 km 595 mi third level highways 7 571 km 4 704 mi and fourth level highways 52 248 km 32 465 mi The province has formed a network of communication lines radiating from Kunming to Sichuan and Guizhou provinces and Guangxi and Tibet autonomous regions and further on to Burma Laos Vietnam and Thailand China National Highway 320 in Longling County National highways running through Yunnan province are China National Highway 108 China National Highway 213 China National Highway 214 China National Highway 320 China National Highway 323 China National Highway 324 China National Highway 326Expressways Edit After the opening of the Suolongsi to Pingyuanjie section Luofu expressway the first between Yunnan and Guangxi Province opened in October 2007 It has made material and passenger transportation between the two provinces much more convenient Moreover Luofu Expressway has also become the main road from Yunnan to Guangxi and the coastal ports Luofu Expressway begins from the crossroads of Luo Village between Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces and ends at Funing County of Wenshan State The total length of the expressway is 79 3 kilometers which has shortened the commute between Yunnan and Guangxi from the previous 3 and half hours to just 50 minutes Expressways running through Yunnan province are Kunming Bangkok Expressway G8511 Kunmo Expressway G5611 Dali Expressway from Dali to Lijiang G78 Shankun Expressway from Shantou to Kunming G80 Guangkun Expressway from Guangzhou to Kunming G8011 Kaihe Expressway from Kaiyuan to Hekou on the Vietnamese borderWaterways Edit Yangzi River Generally rivers are obstacles to transport in Yunnan Only very small parts of Yunnan s river systems are navigable However China is constructing a series of dams on the Mekong to develop it as a waterway and source of power the first was completed at Manwan in 1993 In 1995 the province put an investment of 171 million yuan to add another 807 km 501 mi of navigation lines It built two wharfs with an annual handling capacity of 300 000 to 400 000 tons each and four wharfs with an annual handling capacity of 100 000 tons each The annual volume of goods transported was two million tons and that of passengers transported two million Airports Edit Dali Airport Ninglang Luguhu Airport The province has twenty domestic air routes from Kunming to Beijing Shanghai Guangzhou Chengdu Haikou Chongqing Shenyang Harbin Wuhan Xi an Lanzhou Hangzhou Xiamen Nanning Shenzhen Guiyang Changsha Guilin Lhasa and Hong Kong eleven provincial air routes from Kunming to Jinghong Mangshi Lincang Tengchong Lijiang Dali Xamgyi nyilha Zhaotong Baoshan Simao and Ninglang Luguhu and ten international air routes from Kunming to Bangkok Kolkata Chiang Mai Yangon Singapore Seoul Hanoi Ho Chi Minh City Kuala Lumpur and Vientiane Replacing Kunming Wujiaba International Airport is Kunming Changshui International Airport which opened June 28 2012 93 Bridges Edit Bridge building in Yunnan date back at least 1 300 years when the Tibetan Empire built an iron chain bridge over the Yangtze to the neighboring Nanzhao Kingdom at what is today Weixi Lisu Autonomous County during the Tang dynasty Iron chain bridges are still found across high river valleys of Yunnan The Jinlong Bridge on the Jinsha River in Lijiang remains the oldest bridge over the Yangtze With the expansion of the highway and railway network in Yunnan numerous large scale bridges have been built across the region s myriad of rivers including the Yangtze which has dozens of crossings in Yunnan Metro Edit Kunming is the only city in Yunnan that has a metro system As of August 2021 it has 5 lines in operation Culture EditSee also Bashu culture and Major national historical and cultural sites Yunnan Hand painted Chinese New Year s poetry pasted on the sides of doors leading to people s homes Old Town Lijiang Yunnan s cultural life is one of remarkable diversity Archaeological findings have unearthed sacred burial structures holding elegant bronzes in Jinning south of Kunming In northeastern Yunnan frescoes of the Jin dynasty 266 420 have been discovered in the city of Zhatong Many Chinese cultural relics have been discovered in later periods The lineage of tribal way of life of the indigenous peoples persisted uninfluenced by modernity until the mid 20th century Tribal traditions such as Yi slaveholding and Wa headhunting have since been abolished After the Cultural Revolution 1966 76 in which several minority cultural and religious practices were suppressed Yunnan has come to celebrate its cultural diversity and subsequently many local customs and festivals have flourished 94 Eighteen Oddities of Yunnan Edit Main article Eighteen Oddities of Yunnan Cuisine Edit Main article Yunnan cuisine Tea Edit For the tea from this region see Yunnan tea Yunnan has several different tea growing regions 95 One of Yunnan s best known products is Pu erh tea or Puer named after the old tea trading town of Pu erh Puer The province is also known for its Yunnan Gold and other Dianhong teas developed in the 20th century Music Edit Main article Music of Yunnan Chinese medicine Edit Yunnan is host to 15 000 species of plants including 60 percent of the plants used in traditional Chinese medicine citation needed Yunnan BaiyaoTourism Edit Rice terraced mountains of Yuanyang county Ganden Sumtseling Monastery in Shangri La City Old Town of Lijiang Baishui River with Jade Dragon Snow Mountain in background Yunnan Province due to its landscapes mild climate and cultural diversity is one of China s major tourist destinations Most visitors are Chinese tourists although trips to Yunnan are organized by an increasing number of foreign travel agencies as well Mainland tourists travel by the masses 2 75 million Chinese visited Yunnan last October during National Holiday Also a different trend is slowly developing small scale and environmentally friendly ecotourism At the moment projects in this field are often being set up with help of NGO s In 2004 tourism revenues amounted to 37 billion RMB and thus accounting for 12 6 of the provincial GDP Another fact indicating the importance of tourism in Yunnan Province is capital Kunming hosting the China International Travel Mart every two years This tourism trade fair is the largest of its kind in Asia and serves as an important platform for professionals in the sector More than 80 countries and regions were present during the 2005 edition Tourism is expected to grow further In 2010 the province welcomed over 2 3 million overseas tourists and the Yunnan Provincial Tourism Bureau aims to draw 4 3 million overseas arrivals under the 12th Five Year Tourism Development Plan Kunming city is expected to add 11 new mid to high end hotels with an inventory of under 4 000 rooms between 2012 and 2016 96 The Nature Conservancy and the Chinese government came together to form a partnership and explore the possibility of bringing adventure tourism onto the rivers of Southwest China A two month white water expedition explored from the Mekong River s Moon Gorge to Yangze River s Great Bend The expedition provided valuable information to the partnership encouraging them to take into account the safety culture economics and conservation of the Yunnan Province Creating an adventure tourism sector would bring valuable economic resources to the economically struggling population who had once relied on logging as income prior to it being banned due to deforestation Tourist centres in Yunnan include Dali the historic center of the Nanzhao and Dali kingdoms Chuxiong the first stop on the way to Dali and Lijiang Home of the Yi ethnic minority and their respective ancient town Jinghong the center and prefectural capital of the Xishuangbanna Dai minority autonomous prefecture Lijiang a Naxi minority city It has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997 Xamgyi nyilha County also known as Shangri La and formerly Zhongdian an ethnic Tibetan township and county set high in Yunnan s northwestern mountains Shilin Stone Forest a series of karst outcrops east of Kunming Yuanyang a Hani minority settlement with vast rice terraced mountains Xishuangbanna a national scenic resort noted for its natural and cultural attractions Places of interest Edit The Gucheng Mosque of Yunnan Black Dragon Pool Baishuitai Cangshan Erhai Lake Ganlan Basin Green Lake Park Jade Dragon Snow Mountain Lancang River Mekong River Manting Park Chunhuan Park in Jinghong Meili Snow Mountain in Deqin Pujian Temple Sanchahe Nature Reserve in Jinghong ShaPing Market Dali Shaxi Stone Forest Three Pagodas Tengchong hot springs Tiger Leaping Gorge Visitor Center for Nature and Culture in Northwest Yunnan Wase markets near Dali Xishuangbanna Tropical Flower amp Plant Garden Yuantong Temple Yunnan Provincial MuseumSport Edit Professional sporting teams in Yunnan have included the now defunct Yunnan Bulls in the Chinese Basketball Association and Yunnan Hongta in the Chinese Jia A League The Yunnan Lijiang Dongba football team currently competes in China League Two Notes Edit This is a common interpretation of Yunnan but the original etymology is uncertain China portalReferences Edit Doing Business in Yunnan Province of China Ministry Of Commerce People s Republic Of China Retrieved 5 August 2013 Communique of the Seventh National Population Census No 3 National Bureau of Statistics of China 11 May 2021 Retrieved 11 May 2021 GDP 2020 is a preliminary data Home Regional Quarterly by Province Press release China NBS March 1 2021 Retrieved March 23 2021 Sub national HDI Subnational HDI Global Data Lab globaldatalab org Retrieved 2020 04 17 Yunnan Lexico UK Dictionary Oxford University Press Illuminating China s Provinces Municipalities and Autonomous Regions PRC Central Government Official Website Archived from the original on 18 June 2014 Retrieved 17 May 2014 a b David Paterson Kunming Institute of Botany s honorary senior horticulturalist and former director of the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh Scotland Lee James 1982 The Legacy of Immigration in Southwest China 1250 1850 Annals de Demographie Historique 1982 279 304 doi 10 3406 adh 1982 1543 Wang Ge 2016 04 18 Pains and Gains of Ethnic Multilingual Learners in China An Ethnographic Case Study Springer p 11 ISBN 9789811006616 Jin Li Seielstad Mark Xiao Chunjie 2001 Genetic linguistic and archaeological perspectives on human diversity in Southeast Asia World Scientific p 57 ISBN 9789810247843 OCLC 897003738 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Fuller Thomas 2008 04 21 A Tea From the Jungle Enriches a Placid Village The New York Times New York p A8 杨跃生 云南省祥云县志编纂委员会 1996 祥云县志 Beijing Zhonghua Book Company p 7 ISBN 7 101 01548 4 a b c 尤中 1990 云南地方沿革史 Kunming Yunnan People s Publishing House pp 3 5 a b c d 吴光泛 云南省地名委员会办公室 1988 云南地名探源 Kunming Yunnan People s Publishing House p 8 78 80 ISBN 7 222 00203 0 a b 谭其骧 王天良 邹逸麟 郑宝恒 胡菊兴 1980 我国省区名称的来源 Fudan Journal Social Science Edition S1 128 Conference on Ancient China and Social Science Generalizations 1986 Airlie House Va 1986 Conference on Ancient China and Social Science Generalizations June 21 26 1986 OCLC 66895315 Watson William 1917 2007 1997 1998 Studies in Chinese archaeology and art Pindar Press ISBN 0907132944 OCLC 38530016 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Gui Ming Chao 2001 Yunnanese and Kunming Chinese a study of the language communities the phonological systems and the phonological developments Munchen Lincom Europa OCLC 702443006 Kong Zhiguo Verfasser 2016 10 25 The Making of a Maritime Power China s Challenges and Policy Responses ISBN 9789811017865 OCLC 965039831 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Three kingdoms and Chinese culture Besio Kimberly Ann Tung Constantine Albany State University of New York Press 2007 pp 56 ISBN 9781429498142 OCLC 172980809 CS1 maint others link Yang Bin 2008 Chapter 2 The Southwest Silk Road Yunnan in a Global Context PDF Between Winds and Clouds The Making of Yunnan Second Century BCE to Twentieth Century CE Columbia University Press Schafer Edward H 1963 The Golden Peaches of Samarkand A Study of Tang Exotics University of California Press p 14 ISBN 978 0 520 05462 2 Fan Chengda 2010 Treatises of the supervisor and guardian of the Cinnamon Sea Guihai yuheng zhi University of Washington Press p 224 ISBN 9780295990798 OCLC 812405203 Kaziewicz Julia author 2016 01 11 Study and teaching guide for the history of the medieval world ISBN 9781933339788 OCLC 907173612 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link West Barbara A 1967 2009 Encyclopedia of the peoples of Asia and Oceania Facts On File p 79 ISBN 9781438119137 OCLC 370717954 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Adamek Wendi L 2011 The Teachings of Master Wuzhu Zen and religion of no religion Columbia University Press ISBN 9780231150224 OCLC 756338604 Graff David Andrew 2007 Medieval Chinese warfare 300 900 Routledge ISBN 9780415239554 OCLC 978432516 John Man Kublai Khan p 80 Robinson David M Delimiting the Realm under the Ming Dynasty PDF p 15 archived from the original PDF on 2016 06 29 Dardess John W 2012 Ming China 1368 1644 A Concise History of a Resilient Empire Rowman amp Littlefield p 18 ISBN 978 1 4422 0490 4 Dardess John W 2003 CHAPTER 3 Did the Mongols Matter Territory Power and the Intelligentsia in China from the Northern Song to the Early Ming PDF In Smith Paul Jakov von Glahn Richard eds The Song Yuan Ming Transition in Chinese History Cambridge Harvard University Asia Center p 111 ISBN 9780674010963 Lee James 1982 The legacy of immigration in Southwest China 1250 1850 Annales de demographie historique 1982 1 279 304 doi 10 3406 adh 1982 1543 Gernet Jacques A History of Chinese Civilization 2 New York Cambridge University Press 1996 ISBN 0 521 49712 4 Atwill David G 2005 The Chinese Sultanate Islam Ethnicity and the Panthay Rebellion in Southwest China 1856 1873 illustrated ed Stanford University Press p 89 ISBN 0804751595 Wellman Jr James K ed 2007 Belief and Bloodshed Religion and Violence across Time and Tradition Rowman amp Littlefield Publishers p 121 ISBN 978 0742571341 Ali Tariq 2014 The Islam Quintet Shadows of the Pomegranate Tree The Book of Saladin The Stone Woman A Sultan in Palermo and Night of the Golden Butterfly Open Road Media ISBN 978 1480448582 Ali Tariq 2010 Night of the Golden Butterfly Vol 5 The Islam Quintet Verso Books p 90 ISBN 978 1844676118 Fytche 1878 p 301 Dillon 1999 p 77 GE Morrison An Australian in China 1895 Editors History com Burma Road is reopened HISTORY Retrieved 2019 06 05 CS1 maint extra text authors list link Israel John 1935 1998 Lianda a Chinese university in war and revolution Stanford University Press ISBN 0804729298 OCLC 39108542 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Yunnan Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources 1990 Regional Geology of Yunnan Province Geological Memoirs of the Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources of the People s Republic of China Regional Geology no 21 in Chinese Beijing Geological Publishing House p 10 ISBN 978 7 116 00567 9 中央气象台 gt gt 全国 gt gt 云南省 gt gt 景洪天气预报 in Chinese National Meteorological Centre of the China Meteorological Administration Retrieved 2012 06 26 a b Liang Louhui 26 April 2011 Biodiversity in China s Yunnan province United Nations University Retrieved 15 September 2020 McDowall Carolyn 27 March 2014 CAMELLIA STAR ON STAR IN A GARDEN OR GROVE IN AUSTRALIA The Cultural Concept Retrieved 15 September 2020 Yang Yuming Tian Kun Hao Jiming Pei Shengji Yang Yongxing 2004 04 01 Biodiversity and biodiversity conservation in Yunnan China Biodiversity amp Conservation 13 4 813 826 doi 10 1023 B BIOC 0000011728 46362 3c ISSN 1572 9710 S2CID 27394328 Smith A T and Xie Y 2008 A Guide to the Mammals of China Princeton University Press New Jersey ISBN 978 0 691 09984 2 Blanck Zhou and McCord 2006 The Yunnan box turtle Cuora yunnanensis BOULENGER 1906 historical background and an update on the morphology distribution and vulnerabilities of the only known living specimens Sacalia 13 4 14 35 Yunnan snub nosed monkey China gdri ehede Grueter Cyril C Jiang Xuelong Konrad Roger Fan Pengfei Guan Zhenhua Geissmann Thomas 2009 Are Hylobates lar Extirpated from China International Journal of Primatology 30 4 553 567 doi 10 1007 s10764 009 9360 3 PMC 2715875 PMID 19644553 Feng Shuang 3 September 2020 Solving a dilemma caused by elephants Ecns Retrieved 6 September 2020 a b c Chen X Y 2013 Checklist of fishes of Yunnan Dong Wu Xue Yan Jiu 34 4 281 343 PMID 23913883 Wang Sihai Wang Juan Li Maobiao Du Fan Yang Yuming Lassoie James P Hassan Mohd Z 2013 Six decades of changes in vascular hydrophyte and fish species in three plateau lakes in Yunnan China Biodiversity and Conservation 22 13 14 3197 3221 doi 10 1007 s10531 013 0579 0 S2CID 18819902 Bi Wen Xuan He Jin Wu Chen Chang Chin Kundrata Robin Li Xue Yan 2019 07 17 Sinopyrophorinae a new subfamily of Elateridae Coleoptera Elateroidea with the first record of a luminous click beetle in Asia and evidence for multiple origins of bioluminescence in Elateridae ZooKeys Pensoft Publishers 864 79 97 doi 10 3897 zookeys 864 26689 ISSN 1313 2970 PMC 6656784 PMID 31363346 Lijiang is to build Laojunshan National Park Kunming 2009 01 09 Retrieved 2013 11 17 UNESCO World Heritage Centre South China Karst UNESCO World Heritage Centre Whc unesco org Retrieved 2013 11 17 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 in Chinese Ministry of Civil Affairs Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics 深圳统计年鉴2014 in Chinese China Statistics Print Retrieved 2015 05 29 Census Office of the State Council of the People s Republic of China Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People s Republic of China 2012 中国2010人口普查分乡 镇 街道资料 1 ed Beijing China Statistics Print ISBN 978 7 5037 6660 2 Ministry of Civil Affairs August 2014 中国民政统计年鉴2014 in Chinese China Statistics Print ISBN 978 7 5037 7130 9 a b c 中国2010年人口普查分县资料 Compiled by 国务院人口普查办公室 Department of Population 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on August 29 2012 Communique of the National Bureau of Statistics of People s Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census National Bureau of Statistics of China Archived from the original on July 27 2013 FACTBOX Key takeaways from China s 2020 population census Reuters 11 May 2021 中国云南省五个民族DYS287位点多态性的调查 Windrug com Retrieved 2013 11 17 a b c 云南省宗教信教群众达400余万人 Retrieved 2005 07 27 China General Social Survey 2004 Chinese Spiritual Life Survey 2007 Report by Xiuhua Wang 2015 p 15 Archived September 25 2015 at the Wayback Machine Yunnan coffee a b China Economy China Perspective Thechinaperspective com 2013 11 13 Retrieved 2013 11 17 Roberts Edmund 1837 Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin China Siam and Muscat New York Harper amp Brothers p 123 Myanmar to open second largest border trade zone People s Daily Online February 13 2006 Retrieved 2008 10 14 Wednesday November 20 2013 09 00 Kunming Economic amp Technology Development Zone RightSite asia Retrieved 2013 11 17 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Wednesday November 20 2013 09 00 Kunming High tech Industrial Development Zone RightSite asia Retrieved 2013 11 17 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Wednesday November 20 2013 09 00 Ruili Border Economic Cooperation Zone RightSite asia Retrieved 2013 11 17 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Wednesday November 20 2013 09 00 Wanding Border Economic Cooperation Zone China Industrial Space Rightsite asia Retrieved 2013 11 17 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Wednesday November 20 2013 09 00 Qujing Economic and Technological Development Zone RightSite asia Retrieved 2013 11 17 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Wednesday November 20 2013 09 00 Chuxiong Economic Development Zone RightSite asia Retrieved 2013 11 17 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Wednesday November 20 2013 09 00 Hekou Border Economic Cooperation Zone RightSite asia Retrieved 2013 11 17 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link L Tian J Li K Zhang P Guest Women s status institutional barriers and reproductive health care A case study in Yunnan China Health Policy Volume 84 Issue 2 Pages 284 297 Literacy Co ordination Office of Yunnan Province Portal unesco org Retrieved 2013 11 17 Yunnan DQ Testing Turns Up Fake Artesunates Health Officials Alerted Archived 2008 09 09 at the Wayback Machine USP Drug Quality and Information Program Zhang Z Hai R Song Z Xia L Liang Y Cai H Liang Y Shen X Zhang E Xu J Yu D Yu XJ 2009 Spatial variation of Yersinia pestis from Yunnan Province of China Am J Trop Med Hyg 81 4 714 717 昆明长水国际机场2012年6月28日08 00正式启用 Archived from the original on 2013 08 07 Retrieved 2014 03 23 Thomson Reuters Foundation Thomson Reuters Foundation News Information and Connections for Action Alertnet org Retrieved 2013 11 17 Article on the tea growing regions of Yunnan The leaf org 1985 06 11 Retrieved 2013 11 17 Yunnan catches up TTGmice Retrieved 10 December 2012 Further reading EditBooksDillon Michael 26 July 1999 China s Muslim Hui Community Migration Settlement and Sects Richmond UK Routledge Curzon Press ISBN 0 7007 1026 4 retrieved 28 June 2010 Forbes Andrew Henley David 2011 Traders of the Golden Triangle Chiang Mai Cognoscenti Books ASIN B006GMID5K Forbes Andrew Henley David 2011 China s Ancient Tea Horse Road Chiang Mai Cognoscenti Books ASIN B005DQV7Q2 Fytche Albert 1878 Burma past and present London C K Paul amp Co retrieved 28 June 2010 Jim Goodman 2002 The Exploration of Yunnan ISBN 7 222 03276 2 Stephen Mansfield 2007 China Yunnan Province Bradt Travel Guide China Yunnan Province ISBN 1 84162 169 2 Ann Helen Unger and Walter Unger 2007 Yunnan China s Most Beautiful Province Orchid Press ISBN 3 7774 8390 7 Damien Harper 2007 China s Southwest Lonely Planet Country amp Regional Guides ISBN 1 74104 185 6 Patrick R Booz 1998 Yunnan Odyssey Passport McGraw Hill Contemporary ISBN 0 8442 9664 3 Susan K McCarthy 2009 Communist Multiculturalism Ethnic Revival in Southwest China University of Washington Press ISBN 0 295 98909 2 Tim Summers 2013 Yunnan A Chinese Bridgehead to Asia A case study of China s political and economic relations with its neighbours Chandos ISBN 978 0 85709 444 5 WebPopulation Profile of Yunnan United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Economic Profile of Yunnan Hong Kong Trade Development Council Economic Integration of Yunnan with the Greater Mekong Subregion Asian Economic Journal Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 303 317External links EditYunnanat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guides from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata Yunnan Province e Government website Yunnan Statistical Yearbook Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yunnan amp oldid 1047981501, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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