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Zagreus

This article is about the Greek god. For other uses, see Zagreus (disambiguation).

In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Zagreus (Greek:Ζαγρεύς) was sometimes identified with a god worshipped by the followers of Orphism, the "first Dionysus", a son of Zeus and Persephone, who was dismembered by the Titans and reborn. However, in the earliest mention of Zagreus, he is paired with Gaia and called the "highest" god, though perhaps only in reference to the gods of the underworld. Aeschylus, however, links Zagreus with Hades, possibly as Hades' son, or as Hades himself. Noting "Hades' identity as Zeus' katachthonios alter ego", Timothy Gantz thought it "likely" that Zagreus, perhaps originally the son of Hades and Persephone, later merged with the Orphic Dionysus, the son of Zeus and Persephone.

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In Greek, a hunter who catches living animals is called zagreus, Karl Kerényi notes, and the Ionian word zagre signifies a "pit for the capture of live animals". "We may justifiably ask," observes Kerenyi, "why was this great mythical hunter, who in Greece became a mysterious god of the underworld, a capturer of wild animals and not a killer?" Kerényi links the figure of Zagreus with archaic Dionysiac rites in which small animals were torn limb from limb and their flesh devoured raw, "not as an emanation of the Greek Dionysian religion, but rather as a migration or survival of a prehistoric rite".

The early mentions of Zagreus, which occur only in fragments from lost works, connect Zagreus with the Greek underworld. The earliest is in a single quoted line from the (6th century BC?) epic Alcmeonis:

Mistress Earth [Gaia], and Zagreus highest of all the gods.

Perhaps here meaning the highest god of the underworld.

Evidently for Aeschylus, Zagreus was, in fact, an underworld god. In a fragment from one of Aeschylus' lost Sisyphus plays (c. 5th century BC), Zagreus seems to be the son of Hades, while in Aeschylus' Egyptians (Aigyptioi), Zagreus was apparently identified with Hades himself. A fragment from Euripides' lost play Cretan Men (Kretes) has the chorus describe themselves as initiates of Idaean Zeus and celebrants of "night-ranging Zagreus, performing his feasts of raw flesh".

Dionysus in a mosaic from the House of Poseidon, Zeugma Mosaic Museum

The Zagreus from the Euripides fragment is suggestive of Dionysus, the wine god son of Zeus and Semele, and in fact, although it seems not to occur anywhere in Orphic sources, the name “Zagreus” is elsewhere identified with an Orphic Dionysus, who had a very different tradition from the standard one. This Dionysus was a son of Zeus and Persephone who was, as an infant, attacked and dismembered by the Titans, but later reborn as the son of Zeus and Semele.

The sparagmos

The dismemberment of Dionysus-Zagreus (the sparagmos) is often considered to be the most important myth of Orphism. As pieced together from various ancient sources, the reconstructed story, usually given by modern scholars, goes as follows. Zeus had intercourse with Persephone in the form of a serpent, producing Dionysus. He is taken to Mount Ida where (like the infant Zeus) he is guarded by the dancing Curetes. Zeus intended Dionysus to be his successor as ruler of the cosmos, but a jealous Hera incited the Titans to kill the child. Distracting the infant Dionysus with various toys, including a mirror, the Titans seized Dionysus and tore (or cut) him to pieces. The pieces were then boiled, roasted and partially eaten, by the Titans. But Athena managed to save Dionysus' heart, by which Zeus was able to contrive his rebirth from Semele.

Although the extant Orphic sources do not mention the name "Zagreus" in connection with this dismembered Dionysus (or anywhere else), the (c. 3rd century BC) poet Callimachus perhaps did. We know that Callimachus, as well as his contemporary Euphorion, told the story of the dismembered child, and Byzantine sources quote Callimachus as referring to the birth of a "Dionysos Zagreus", explaining that "Zagreus" was the poet's name for a chthonic Dionysus, the son of Zeus by Persephone. The earliest certain identification of Zagreus with the dismembered Dionysus occurs in the writings of the late 1st century – early 2nd century AD biographer and essayist Plutarch, while the c. 5th century AD Greek epic poet Nonnus' Dionysiaca, which tells the story of this Orphic Dionysus, calls him the "older Dionysos ... illfated Zagreus", "Zagreus the horned baby", "Zagreus, the first Dionysos", "Zagreus the ancient Dionysos", and "Dionysos Zagreus".

The 1st century BC historian Diodorus Siculus says that according to "some writers of myths" there were two gods named Dionysus, an older one, who was the son of Zeus and Persephone, but that the "younger one [born to Zeus and Semele] also inherited the deeds of the older, and so the men of later times, being unaware of the truth and being deceived because of the identity of their names thought there had been but one Dionysus."

According to Diodorus, this older Dionysus, was represented in painting and sculpture with horns, because he "excelled in sagacity and was the first to attempt the yoking of oxen and by their aid to effect the sowing of the seed", and the younger was "called Dimetor (Of Two Mothers) ... because the two Dionysoi were born of one father, but of two mothers". He also said that Dionysus "was thought to have two forms ... the ancient one having a long beard, because all men in early times wore long beards, the younger one being youthful and effeminate and young."

Cooking / eating

Several accounts of the myth involved the Titans cooking and/or eating at least part of Dionysus. In the account attributed to Callimachus and Euphorion, the dismembered pieces of Dionysus were boiled in a cauldron, and Euphorion is quoted as saying that the pieces of Dionysus were placed over a fire. Diodorus also says that the pieces were "boiled", and the late 2nd century Christian writer Clement of Alexandria says that the pieces were "first boiled" in a cauldron, then pierced with spits and roasted. Arnobius, an early 4th century Christian apologist, says that Dionysus' severed parts were "thrown into pots that he might be cooked". None of these sources mention any actual eating, but other sources do. Plutarch says that the Titans "tasted his blood", the 6th century AD Neoplatonist Olympiodorus says that they ate "his flesh", and according to the 4th century euhemeristic account of the Latin astrologer and Christian apologist Firmicus Maternus, the Titans cooked the "members in various ways and devoured them" (membra consumunt), except for his heart.

Resurrection / rebirth

In the version of the story apparently told by Callimachus and Euphorion, the cauldron containing the boiled pieces of Dionysus, is given to Apollo for burial, who "stowed it away beside his tripod" at Delphi. And according to Philodemus, citing Euphorion, the pieces of Dionysus were "reassembled by Rhea, and brought back to life", while according to Diodorus Siculus, the reassembly and resurrection of Dionysus was accomplished by Demeter. Later Orphic sources have Apollo receive Dionysus' remains from Zeus, rather than the Titans, and it was Apollo who reassembled Dionysus, rather than Rhea or Demeter.

In the accounts of Clement, and Firmicus Maternus cited above, as well as Proclus, and a scholium on Lycophron 355, Athena manages to save the heart of Dionysus, from which, according to Clement and the scholium, Athena received the name Pallas from the still beating (πάλλειν) heart. In Proculus' account Athena takes the heart to Zeus, and Dionysus Is born again from Semele. According to Hyginus, Zeus "ground up his heart, put it in a potion, and gave it to Semele to drink", and she became pregnant with Dionysus.

Osiris

In the interpretatio graeca Dionysus is often identified with the Egyptian god Osiris. Stories of the dismemberment and resurrection of Osiris, parallel those of Dionysus Zagreus. According to Diodorus Siculus, Egyptian myths about Priapus said that the Titans conspired against Osiris, killed him, divided his body into equal parts, and "slipped them secretly out of the house". All but Osiris' penis, which since none of them "was willing to take it with him", they threw into the river. Isis, Osiris' wife, hunted down and killed the Titans, reassembled Osiris' body parts "into the shape of a human figure", and gave them "to the priests with orders that they pay Osiris the honours of a god". But since she was unable to recover the penis she ordered the priests "to pay to it the honours of a god and to set it up in their temples in an erect position."

Allegorical accounts

Diodorus Siculus reports an allegorical interpretation of the myth of the dismemberment of Dionysus as representing the production of wine. Diodorus knew of a tradition whereby this Orphic Dionysus was the son of Zeus and Demeter, rather than Zeus and Persephone. This parentage was explained allegorically by identifying Dionysus with the grape vine, Demeter with the earth, and Zeus with the rain, saying that "the vine gets its growth both from the earth and from rains and so bears as its fruit the wine which is pressed out from the clusters of grapes". According to Diodorus, Dionysus' dismemberment by the Titans represented the harvesting of the grapes, and the subsequent "boiling" of his dismembered parts "has been worked into a myth by reason of the fact that most men boil the wine and then mix it, thereby improving its natural aroma and quality."

The Neronian-era Stoic Cornutus relates a similar allegorical interpretation, whereby the dismemberment represented the crushing of the grapes, and the rejoining of the dismembered pieces into a single body, represented the pouring of the juice into a single container.

Rationalized accounts

Diodorus also reports a rationalized account of the older Dionysus. In this account this Dionysus was a wise man, who was the inventor of the plough, as well as many other agricultural inventions. And according to Diodorus, these inventions, which greatly reduced manual labor, so pleased the people that they "accorded to him honours and sacrifices like those offered to the gods, since all men were eager, because of the magnitude of his service to them, to accord to him immortality."

Firmicus Maternus gives a rationalized euhemeristic account of the myth whereby Liber (Dionysus) was the bastard son of a Cretan king named Jupiter (Zeus). When Jupiter left his kingdom in the boy's charge, the king's jealous wife Juno (Hera), conspired with her servants the Titans to murder the bastard child. Beguiling him with toys, the Titans ambushed and killed the boy. To dispose of the evidence of their crime, the Titans chopped the body into pieces, cooked, and ate them. However the boy's sister Minerva (Athena), who had been part of the murder plot, kept the heart. When her father the king returned, the sister turned informer and gave the boy's heart to the king. In his fury the king tortured and killed the Titans, and in his grief, he had a statue of the boy made, which contained the boy's heart in its chest, and a temple erected in the boy's honour. The Cretans, In order to pacify their furious savage and despotic king, established the anniversary of the boy's death as a holy day. Sacred rites were held, in which the celebrants howling and feigning insanity tore to pieces a live bull with their teeth, and the basket in which boy's heart had been saved, was paraded to the blaring of flutes and the crashing of cymbals.

The anthropogony

Most sources make no mention of what happened to the Titans after the murder of Dionysus. In the standard account of the Titans, given in Hesiod's Theogony (which does not mention Dionysus), after being overthrown by Zeus and the other Olympian gods, in the ten-year-long Titanomachy, the Titans are imprisoned in Tartarus. This might seem to preclude any subsequent story of the Titans' killing Dionysus, and perhaps in an attempt to reconcile this standard account with the Dionysus Zagreus myth, according to Arnobius and Nonnus, the Titans end up imprisoned by Zeus in Tartarus, as punishment for their murder of Dionysus.

However, according to one source, from the fate of the Titans came a momentous event, the birth of humankind. Commonly presented as a part of the myth of the dismembered Dionysus Zagreus, is an Orphic anthropogony, that is an Orphic account of the origin of human beings. According to this widely held view, as punishment for the crime of the sparagmos, Zeus struck the Titans with his thunderbolt, and from the remains of the destroyed Titans humankind was born, which resulted in a human inheritance of ancestral guilt, for this original sin of the Titans, and by some accounts "formed the basis for an Orphic doctrine of the divinity of man." However, when and to what extent there existed any Orphic tradition which included these elements is the subject of open debate.

The only ancient source to explicitly connect the sparagmos and the anthropogony is the 6th century AD Neoplatonist Olympiodorus, who writes that, according to Orpheus, after the Titans had dismembered and eaten Dionysus, "Zeus, angered by the deed, blasts them with his thunderbolts, and from the sublimate of the vapors that rise from them comes the matter from which men are created." Olympiodorus goes on to conclude that, because the Titans had eaten his flesh, we their descendants, are a part of Dionysus.

The 2nd century AD biographer and essayist Plutarch, does make a connection between the sparagmos and the punishment of the Titans, but makes no mention of the anthropogony, or Orpheus, or Orphism. In his essay On the Eating of Flesh, Plutarch writes of "stories told about the sufferings and dismemberment of Dionysus and the outrageous assaults of the Titans upon him, and their punishment and blasting by thunderbolt after they had tasted his blood".

Earlier allusions to the myth possibly occur in the works of the poet Pindar, Plato, and Plato's student Xenocrates. A fragment from a poem, presumed to be by Pindar, mentions Persephone accepting "requital for ancient wrong", from the dead, which might be a reference to humans' inherited responsibility for the Titan's killing of Dionysus. Plato, in presenting a succession of stages whereby, because of excessive liberty, men degenerate from reverence for the law, to lawlessness, describes the last stage where "men display and reproduce the character of the Titans of story". This Platonic passage is often taken as referring to the anthropogony, however, whether men are supposed by Plato to "display and reproduce" this lawless character because of their Titanic heritage, or by simple imitation, is unclear. Xenocrates' reference to the Titans (and perhaps Dionysus) to explain Plato's use of the word "custody" (φρούρα), has also been seen as possible evidence of a pre-Hellenistic date for the myth.

Zagreus is the protagonist of the 2020 video game Hades. In the game, Zagreus is the son of Hades and is attempting to escape the underworld to find his mother Persephone and learn why she left.

  1. Gantz, p. 118; Hard, p. 35; Grimal, s.v. Zagreus, p. 456.
  2. Sommerstein, p. 237 n. 1; Gantz, p. 118; Smyth, p. 459.
  3. Gantz, p. 119.
  4. Kerényi, p. 82, quotes Hesychius, who gives characteristically Ionian Greek endings.
  5. Kerényi, pp. 8384.
  6. Kerényi, p. 85.
  7. Gantz, p. 118; West 1983, p. 153.
  8. Alcmeonis fr. 3. According to West 2003, p. 41 n. 17: "The line perhaps comes from a prayer in which Alcmaon called upon the powers of the earth to send up his father Amphiaraus."
  9. Aeschylus, fr. 228 (Sommerstein, pp. 236, 237).
  10. Aeschylus, fr. 5; Sommerstein, p. 237 n. 1; Gantz, p. 118; Smyth, p. 459.
  11. Euripides, fr. 472 (Collard & Cropp, pp. 538, 539); West 1983, p. 153.
  12. West 1983, p. 154.
  13. According to Gantz, p. 118, 'Orphic sources preserved seem not to use the name "Zagreus", and according to West 1983, p. 153, the 'name was probably not used in the Orphic narrative'. Edmonds 1999, p. 37 n. 6 says: 'Lobeck 1892 seems to be responsible for the use of the name Zagreus for the Orphic Dionysos. As Linforth noticed, "It is a curious thing that the name Zagreus does not appear in any Orphic poem or fragment, nor is it used by any author who refers to Orpheus" (Linforth 1941:311). In his reconstruction of the story, however, Lobeck made extensive use of the fifth-century CE epic of Nonnos, who does use the name Zagreus, and later scholars followed his cue. The association of Dionysos with Zagreus appears first explicitly in a fragment of Callimachus preserved in the Etymologicum Magnum (fr. 43.117 P), with a possible earlier precedent in the fragment from Euripides Cretans (fr. 472 Nauck). Earlier evidence, however, (e.g., Alkmaionis fr. 3 PEG; Aeschylus frr. 5, 228) suggests that Zagreus was often identified with other deities.'
  14. Nilsson, p. 202 calls it "the cardinal myth of Orphism"; Guthrie, p. 107, describes the myth as "the central point of Orphic story", Linforth, p. 307 says it is "commonly regarded as essentially and peculiarly Orphic and the very core of the Orphic religion", and Parker 2002, p. 495, writes that "it has been seen as the Orphic 'arch-myth'.
  15. West 1983, pp. 73–74, provides a detailed reconstruction with numerous cites to ancient sources, with a summary on p. 140. For other summaries see Morford, p. 311; Hard, p. 35; Marsh, s.v. Zagreus, p. 788; Grimal, s.v. Zagreus, p. 456; Burkert, pp. 297–298; Guthrie, p. 82; also see Ogden, p. 80. For a detailed examination of many of the ancient sources pertaining to this myth see Linforth, pp. 307–364. The most extensive account in ancient sources is found in Nonnus, Dionysiaca 5.562–70, 6.155 ff., other principal sources include Diodorus Siculus, 3.62.6–8 (= Orphic fr. 301 Kern), 3.64.1–2, 4.4.1–2, 5.75.4 (= Orphic fr. 303 Kern); Ovid, Metamorphoses 6.110–114; Athenagoras of Athens, Legatio 20 Pratten (= Orphic fr. 58 Kern); Clement of Alexandria, Protrepticus 2.15 pp. 36–39 Butterworth (= Orphic frs. 34, 35 Kern); Hyginus, Fabulae 155, 167; Suda s.v. Ζαγρεύς. See also Pausanias, 7.18.4, 8.37.5.
  16. West 1983, p. 160 remarks that while "many sources speak of Dionysus' being 'rent apart' ... those who use more precise language say that he was cut up with a knife".
  17. Gantz, pp. 118–119; West 1983, pp. 152–154; Linforth, pp. 309–311.
  18. Callimachus, fr. 643 Pfeiffer (= Euphorion, fr. 14 Lightfoot); Gantz, p. 118–119; West 1983, p. 151; Linforth, pp. 309–310.
  19. Callimachus, fr. 43.117 Pfeiffer (= fr. 43b.34 Harder); Harder, p. 368; Gantz, p. 118; West 1983, pp. 152–153; Linforth, p. 310.
  20. Linforth, pp. 311, 317–318; Plutarch, The E at Delphi 389 A.
  21. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 5.564–565.
  22. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6.165.
  23. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 10.294.
  24. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 39.72.
  25. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 44.255.
  26. Diodorus Siculus, 4.4.1.
  27. Diodorus Siculus, 4.4.5.
  28. Diodorus Siculus, 4.4.2, see also 3.64.1–2.
  29. Diodorus Siculus, 3.64.2, 4.4.5.
  30. Diodorus Siculus, 4.5.2.
  31. Linforth, pp. 312–313; West 1983, pp. 160–161.
  32. Callimachus, fr. 643 Pfeiffer (= Euphorion, fr. 14 Lightfoot).
  33. Diodorus Siculus, 3.62.6.
  34. Clement of Alexandria, Protrepticus 2.15 pp. 38, 39 Butterworth (= Orphic fr. 35 Kern).
  35. Arnobius, Adversus Gentes 5.19 (p. 242) (= Orphic fr. 34 Kern).
  36. Plutarch, On the Eating of Flesh 996 B–C.
  37. Olympiodorus, In Plato Phaedon 1.3 (= Orphic fr. 220 Kern); translated by Edmonds 1999, p. 40.
  38. Firmicus Maternus, De errore profanarum religionum ("The Error of Pagan Religions") 6.1–5 pp. 54–56 Forbes (= Orphic fr. 214 Kern).
  39. Callimachus, fr. 643 Pfeiffer (= Euphorion, fr. 14 Lightfoot); West 1983, p. 151; Linforth, pp. 311–312.
  40. Euphorion, fr. 40 Lightfoot (= Orphic fr. 36 Kern) (compare with Cornutus, Theologiae Graecae Compendium 30 p. 62, 11 Lang which also has Rhea rivive Dionysus); Diodorus Siculus, 3.62.6. Some Orphic texts identify Demeter and Rhea, see West 1983, pp. 72–74, 81–82, 93, 217.
  41. West 1983, p. 152; Linforth, p. 315; Orphic frs. 34, 35, 209–211 Kern.
  42. Proclus, Hymn to Athena 13–24; In Plato Timaeus 35a (Taylor 1820b, pp. 37–38) (= Orphic fr. 210 Kern).
  43. Linforth, p. 311; Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron Alexandra 355 p. 137 Scheer.
  44. Hyginus, Fabulae 167.
  45. Rutherford, p. 67.
  46. Rutherford, p. 69.
  47. Diodorus Siculus, 4.6.3.
  48. Diodorus, 1.21.1–3, relates another version of the Osiris story which more closely parallels the usual Egyptian account of the murder and dismemberment of Osiris by his brother Set. In this account Typhon (whom the Greeks had come to identified with Set) killed his brother Osiris, the lawful king of Egypt, and cut the body of the slain Osiris into twenty-six pieces, giving one piece to each of his accomplices, so that they all would share equally in the "pollution". But Osiris' sister and wife, Isis, with the help of her son Horus, killed Typhon and became queen.
  49. Edmonds 1999, p. 51; Linforth, p. 316; Diodorus Siculus, 3.62.6–8 (= Orphic fr. 301 Kern); 3.64.1.
  50. Linforth, pp. 316–317; Edmonds 1999, p. 51 n. 46; Cornutus, Theologiae Graecae Compendium 30 Lang.
  51. Diodorus Siculus, 3.64.1–2.
  52. Firmicus Maternus, De errore profanarum religionum 6.1–5 pp. 54–56 Forbes (= Orphic fr. 214 Kern); Linforth, pp. 313–314, 315.
  53. Hesiod, Theogony 630–721.
  54. West 1983, p. 164; Spineto, p. 34.
  55. Arnobius, Adversus Gentes 5.19 (p. 242) (= Orphic fr. 34 Kern); Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6.206–210.
  56. Linforth, pp. 307–308; Spineto, p. 34. For presentations of the myth which include the anthropogony, see Dodds, pp. 155–156; West 1983, pp. 74–75, 140, 164–166; Guthrie, p. 83; Burkert, pp. 297–298; Marsh, s.v. Zagreus, p. 788; Parker 2002, pp. 495–496; Morford, p. 313.
  57. See Spineto pp. 37–39; Edmonds 1999, 2008, 2013 chapter 9; Bernabé 2002, 2003; Parker 2014.
  58. Edmonds 1999, p. 40; Olympiodorus, In Plato Phaedon 1.3 (= Orphic fr. 220 Kern); Spineto p. 34; Burkert, p. 463 n. 15; West 1983, pp. 164–165; Linforth, pp. 326 ff..
  59. Plutarch, On the Eating of Flesh 1.996 C; Linforth, pp. 334 ff. Edmonds 1999, pp. 44–47.
  60. Pindar , fr. 133 Bergk, apud Plato, Meno 81bc (= fr. 127 Bowra); This interpretation, first proposed by H. J. Rose, is discussed by Linforth, pp. 345–350, who while raising several objections and giving other possible explanations, concludes by saying "but after all, and in spite of these objections, one must acknowledge that there is a high degree of probability in Rose's interpretation." Others have agreed: Dodds, pp. 155–156, says the line is "most naturally explained as referring to human responsibility for the slaying of Dionysus", Burkert, p. 298, says this "ancient grief" of Persephone "can only be the death of her child Dionysos"; Parker 2002, p. 496 says "No myth is known which really explains the allusion except that of the murder of Persephone's son Dionysus by man's ancestors". However, West 1983, p. 110 n. 82, Seaford, pp. 7–8, who sees "difficulties" in Rose's interpretation", and Edmonds 1999, pp. 47–49, who rejects Rose's reading, all offer different interpretations.
  61. Plato, Laws 3.701bc (= Orphic fr. 9 Kern).
  62. Linforth, pp. 339–345; Edmonds 1999, pp. 43–44; Edmonds 2013, pp. 326–334.
  63. Xenocrates, fr. 20 Heinze (= Damascius, In Phaedo 1.2); Linforth, pp. 337–339; Dodds, p. 156; West 1983, pp. 21–22; Burkert, p. 298; Edmonds 1999, p. 46; Parker 2002, p. 496
  64. Wiltshire, Alex (February 12, 2020). "How Hades plays with Greek myths". Rock Paper Shotgun. RetrievedMarch 19, 2021. Farokhmanesh, Megan (March 5, 2020). "Hades almost starred its worst character". The Verge. RetrievedMarch 19, 2021.
  65. "What 'Hades' Can Teach Us About Ancient Greek Masculinity". Wired. January 16, 2021. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved2021-09-20. Hades focuses on Zagreus, who plays such a minor role in myth that, as the titular god of the underworld’s son, he makes a great canvas to fill in for the player character.
  66. Gailloreto, Coleman (August 27, 2020). "Does Hades Depict Greek Mythology Authentically?". Screen Rant. RetrievedMarch 19, 2021. Thier, Dave (September 28, 2020). "Spoilers: It's Time To Talk About Hades' Staggering Ending". Forbes. RetrievedMarch 19, 2021. "History Respawned: Hades". YouTube. October 30, 2020. RetrievedMarch 19, 2021.
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  • Pencova, Elka. "À propos du Dionysos thrace". In: Dialogues d'histoire ancienne, vol. 20, n°2, 1994. pp. 151–154. doi:10.3406/dha.1994.2183.
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Look up zagreus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Zagreus
Zagreus Language Watch Edit This article is about the Greek god For other uses see Zagreus disambiguation In ancient Greek religion and mythology Zagreus Greek Zagreys was sometimes identified with a god worshipped by the followers of Orphism the first Dionysus a son of Zeus and Persephone who was dismembered by the Titans and reborn 1 However in the earliest mention of Zagreus he is paired with Gaia and called the highest god though perhaps only in reference to the gods of the underworld Aeschylus however links Zagreus with Hades possibly as Hades son or as Hades himself 2 Noting Hades identity as Zeus katachthonios alter ego Timothy Gantz thought it likely that Zagreus perhaps originally the son of Hades and Persephone later merged with the Orphic Dionysus the son of Zeus and Persephone 3 Contents 1 Etymology and origins 2 Underworld 3 Orphic Dionysus Zagreus 3 1 The sparagmos 3 1 1 Cooking eating 3 1 2 Resurrection rebirth 3 1 3 Osiris 3 1 4 Allegorical accounts 3 1 5 Rationalized accounts 3 2 The anthropogony 4 In popular culture 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksEtymology and origins EditIn Greek a hunter who catches living animals is called zagreus Karl Kerenyi notes and the Ionian word zagre signifies a pit for the capture of live animals 4 We may justifiably ask observes Kerenyi why was this great mythical hunter who in Greece became a mysterious god of the underworld a capturer of wild animals and not a killer 5 Kerenyi links the figure of Zagreus with archaic Dionysiac rites in which small animals were torn limb from limb and their flesh devoured raw not as an emanation of the Greek Dionysian religion but rather as a migration or survival of a prehistoric rite 6 Underworld EditThe early mentions of Zagreus which occur only in fragments from lost works 7 connect Zagreus with the Greek underworld The earliest is in a single quoted line from the 6th century BC epic Alcmeonis Mistress Earth Gaia and Zagreus highest of all the gods Perhaps here meaning the highest god of the underworld 8 Evidently for Aeschylus Zagreus was in fact an underworld god In a fragment from one of Aeschylus lost Sisyphus plays c 5th century BC Zagreus seems to be the son of Hades 9 while in Aeschylus Egyptians Aigyptioi Zagreus was apparently identified with Hades himself 10 A fragment from Euripides lost play Cretan Men Kretes has the chorus describe themselves as initiates of Idaean Zeus and celebrants of night ranging Zagreus performing his feasts of raw flesh 11 Orphic Dionysus Zagreus Edit Dionysus in a mosaic from the House of Poseidon Zeugma Mosaic Museum The Zagreus from the Euripides fragment is suggestive of Dionysus the wine god son of Zeus and Semele 12 and in fact although it seems not to occur anywhere in Orphic sources the name Zagreus is elsewhere identified with an Orphic Dionysus who had a very different tradition from the standard one 13 This Dionysus was a son of Zeus and Persephone who was as an infant attacked and dismembered by the Titans but later reborn as the son of Zeus and Semele The sparagmos Edit The dismemberment of Dionysus Zagreus the sparagmos is often considered to be the most important myth of Orphism 14 As pieced together from various ancient sources the reconstructed story usually given by modern scholars goes as follows 15 Zeus had intercourse with Persephone in the form of a serpent producing Dionysus He is taken to Mount Ida where like the infant Zeus he is guarded by the dancing Curetes Zeus intended Dionysus to be his successor as ruler of the cosmos but a jealous Hera incited the Titans to kill the child Distracting the infant Dionysus with various toys including a mirror the Titans seized Dionysus and tore or cut 16 him to pieces The pieces were then boiled roasted and partially eaten by the Titans But Athena managed to save Dionysus heart by which Zeus was able to contrive his rebirth from Semele Although the extant Orphic sources do not mention the name Zagreus in connection with this dismembered Dionysus or anywhere else the c 3rd century BC poet Callimachus perhaps did 17 We know that Callimachus as well as his contemporary Euphorion told the story of the dismembered child 18 and Byzantine sources quote Callimachus as referring to the birth of a Dionysos Zagreus explaining that Zagreus was the poet s name for a chthonic Dionysus the son of Zeus by Persephone 19 The earliest certain identification of Zagreus with the dismembered Dionysus occurs in the writings of the late 1st century early 2nd century AD biographer and essayist Plutarch 20 while the c 5th century AD Greek epic poet Nonnus Dionysiaca which tells the story of this Orphic Dionysus calls him the older Dionysos illfated Zagreus 21 Zagreus the horned baby 22 Zagreus the first Dionysos 23 Zagreus the ancient Dionysos 24 and Dionysos Zagreus 25 The 1st century BC historian Diodorus Siculus says that according to some writers of myths there were two gods named Dionysus an older one who was the son of Zeus and Persephone 26 but that the younger one born to Zeus and Semele also inherited the deeds of the older and so the men of later times being unaware of the truth and being deceived because of the identity of their names thought there had been but one Dionysus 27 According to Diodorus this older Dionysus was represented in painting and sculpture with horns because he excelled in sagacity and was the first to attempt the yoking of oxen and by their aid to effect the sowing of the seed 28 and the younger was called Dimetor Of Two Mothers because the two Dionysoi were born of one father but of two mothers 29 He also said that Dionysus was thought to have two forms the ancient one having a long beard because all men in early times wore long beards the younger one being youthful and effeminate and young 30 Cooking eating Edit Several accounts of the myth involved the Titans cooking and or eating at least part of Dionysus 31 In the account attributed to Callimachus and Euphorion the dismembered pieces of Dionysus were boiled in a cauldron and Euphorion is quoted as saying that the pieces of Dionysus were placed over a fire 32 Diodorus also says that the pieces were boiled 33 and the late 2nd century Christian writer Clement of Alexandria says that the pieces were first boiled in a cauldron then pierced with spits and roasted 34 Arnobius an early 4th century Christian apologist says that Dionysus severed parts were thrown into pots that he might be cooked 35 None of these sources mention any actual eating but other sources do Plutarch says that the Titans tasted his blood 36 the 6th century AD Neoplatonist Olympiodorus says that they ate his flesh 37 and according to the 4th century euhemeristic account of the Latin astrologer and Christian apologist Firmicus Maternus the Titans cooked the members in various ways and devoured them membra consumunt except for his heart 38 Resurrection rebirth Edit In the version of the story apparently told by Callimachus and Euphorion the cauldron containing the boiled pieces of Dionysus is given to Apollo for burial who stowed it away beside his tripod at Delphi 39 And according to Philodemus citing Euphorion the pieces of Dionysus were reassembled by Rhea and brought back to life while according to Diodorus Siculus the reassembly and resurrection of Dionysus was accomplished by Demeter 40 Later Orphic sources have Apollo receive Dionysus remains from Zeus rather than the Titans and it was Apollo who reassembled Dionysus rather than Rhea or Demeter 41 In the accounts of Clement and Firmicus Maternus cited above as well as Proclus 42 and a scholium on Lycophron 355 43 Athena manages to save the heart of Dionysus from which according to Clement and the scholium Athena received the name Pallas from the still beating pallein heart In Proculus account Athena takes the heart to Zeus and Dionysus Is born again from Semele According to Hyginus Zeus ground up his heart put it in a potion and gave it to Semele to drink and she became pregnant with Dionysus 44 Osiris Edit In the interpretatio graeca Dionysus is often identified with the Egyptian god Osiris 45 Stories of the dismemberment and resurrection of Osiris parallel those of Dionysus Zagreus 46 According to Diodorus Siculus 47 Egyptian myths about Priapus said that the Titans conspired against Osiris killed him divided his body into equal parts and slipped them secretly out of the house All but Osiris penis which since none of them was willing to take it with him they threw into the river Isis Osiris wife hunted down and killed the Titans reassembled Osiris body parts into the shape of a human figure and gave them to the priests with orders that they pay Osiris the honours of a god But since she was unable to recover the penis she ordered the priests to pay to it the honours of a god and to set it up in their temples in an erect position 48 Allegorical accounts Edit Diodorus Siculus reports an allegorical interpretation of the myth of the dismemberment of Dionysus as representing the production of wine Diodorus knew of a tradition whereby this Orphic Dionysus was the son of Zeus and Demeter rather than Zeus and Persephone 49 This parentage was explained allegorically by identifying Dionysus with the grape vine Demeter with the earth and Zeus with the rain saying that the vine gets its growth both from the earth and from rains and so bears as its fruit the wine which is pressed out from the clusters of grapes According to Diodorus Dionysus dismemberment by the Titans represented the harvesting of the grapes and the subsequent boiling of his dismembered parts has been worked into a myth by reason of the fact that most men boil the wine and then mix it thereby improving its natural aroma and quality The Neronian era Stoic Cornutus relates a similar allegorical interpretation whereby the dismemberment represented the crushing of the grapes and the rejoining of the dismembered pieces into a single body represented the pouring of the juice into a single container 50 Rationalized accounts Edit Diodorus also reports a rationalized account of the older Dionysus 51 In this account this Dionysus was a wise man who was the inventor of the plough as well as many other agricultural inventions And according to Diodorus these inventions which greatly reduced manual labor so pleased the people that they accorded to him honours and sacrifices like those offered to the gods since all men were eager because of the magnitude of his service to them to accord to him immortality Firmicus Maternus gives a rationalized euhemeristic account of the myth whereby Liber Dionysus was the bastard son of a Cretan king named Jupiter Zeus When Jupiter left his kingdom in the boy s charge the king s jealous wife Juno Hera conspired with her servants the Titans to murder the bastard child Beguiling him with toys the Titans ambushed and killed the boy To dispose of the evidence of their crime the Titans chopped the body into pieces cooked and ate them However the boy s sister Minerva Athena who had been part of the murder plot kept the heart When her father the king returned the sister turned informer and gave the boy s heart to the king In his fury the king tortured and killed the Titans and in his grief he had a statue of the boy made which contained the boy s heart in its chest and a temple erected in the boy s honour The Cretans In order to pacify their furious savage and despotic king established the anniversary of the boy s death as a holy day Sacred rites were held in which the celebrants howling and feigning insanity tore to pieces a live bull with their teeth and the basket in which boy s heart had been saved was paraded to the blaring of flutes and the crashing of cymbals 52 The anthropogony Edit Most sources make no mention of what happened to the Titans after the murder of Dionysus In the standard account of the Titans given in Hesiod s Theogony which does not mention Dionysus after being overthrown by Zeus and the other Olympian gods in the ten year long Titanomachy the Titans are imprisoned in Tartarus 53 This might seem to preclude any subsequent story of the Titans killing Dionysus 54 and perhaps in an attempt to reconcile this standard account with the Dionysus Zagreus myth according to Arnobius and Nonnus the Titans end up imprisoned by Zeus in Tartarus as punishment for their murder of Dionysus 55 However according to one source from the fate of the Titans came a momentous event the birth of humankind Commonly presented as a part of the myth of the dismembered Dionysus Zagreus is an Orphic anthropogony that is an Orphic account of the origin of human beings According to this widely held view as punishment for the crime of the sparagmos Zeus struck the Titans with his thunderbolt and from the remains of the destroyed Titans humankind was born which resulted in a human inheritance of ancestral guilt for this original sin of the Titans and by some accounts formed the basis for an Orphic doctrine of the divinity of man 56 However when and to what extent there existed any Orphic tradition which included these elements is the subject of open debate 57 The only ancient source to explicitly connect the sparagmos and the anthropogony is the 6th century AD Neoplatonist Olympiodorus who writes that according to Orpheus after the Titans had dismembered and eaten Dionysus Zeus angered by the deed blasts them with his thunderbolts and from the sublimate of the vapors that rise from them comes the matter from which men are created Olympiodorus goes on to conclude that because the Titans had eaten his flesh we their descendants are a part of Dionysus 58 The 2nd century AD biographer and essayist Plutarch does make a connection between the sparagmos and the punishment of the Titans but makes no mention of the anthropogony or Orpheus or Orphism In his essay On the Eating of Flesh Plutarch writes of stories told about the sufferings and dismemberment of Dionysus and the outrageous assaults of the Titans upon him and their punishment and blasting by thunderbolt after they had tasted his blood 59 Earlier allusions to the myth possibly occur in the works of the poet Pindar Plato and Plato s student Xenocrates A fragment from a poem presumed to be by Pindar mentions Persephone accepting requital for ancient wrong from the dead which might be a reference to humans inherited responsibility for the Titan s killing of Dionysus 60 Plato in presenting a succession of stages whereby because of excessive liberty men degenerate from reverence for the law to lawlessness describes the last stage where men display and reproduce the character of the Titans of story 61 This Platonic passage is often taken as referring to the anthropogony however whether men are supposed by Plato to display and reproduce this lawless character because of their Titanic heritage or by simple imitation is unclear 62 Xenocrates reference to the Titans and perhaps Dionysus to explain Plato s use of the word custody froyra has also been seen as possible evidence of a pre Hellenistic date for the myth 63 In popular culture EditZagreus is the protagonist of the 2020 video game Hades 64 65 In the game Zagreus is the son of Hades and is attempting to escape the underworld to find his mother Persephone and learn why she left 66 Notes Edit Gantz p 118 Hard p 35 Grimal s v Zagreus p 456 Sommerstein p 237 n 1 Gantz p 118 Smyth p 459 Gantz p 119 Kerenyi p 82 quotes Hesychius who gives characteristically Ionian Greek endings Kerenyi pp 83 84 Kerenyi p 85 Gantz p 118 West 1983 p 153 Alcmeonis fr 3 According to West 2003 p 41 n 17 The line perhaps comes from a prayer in which Alcmaon called upon the powers of the earth to send up his father Amphiaraus Aeschylus fr 228 Sommerstein pp 236 237 Aeschylus fr 5 Sommerstein p 237 n 1 Gantz p 118 Smyth p 459 Euripides fr 472 Collard amp Cropp pp 538 539 West 1983 p 153 West 1983 p 154 According to Gantz p 118 Orphic sources preserved seem not to use the name Zagreus and according to West 1983 p 153 the name was probably not used in the Orphic narrative Edmonds 1999 p 37 n 6 says Lobeck 1892 seems to be responsible for the use of the name Zagreus for the Orphic Dionysos As Linforth noticed It is a curious thing that the name Zagreus does not appear in any Orphic poem or fragment nor is it used by any author who refers to Orpheus Linforth 1941 311 In his reconstruction of the story however Lobeck made extensive use of the fifth century CE epic of Nonnos who does use the name Zagreus and later scholars followed his cue The association of Dionysos with Zagreus appears first explicitly in a fragment of Callimachus preserved in the Etymologicum Magnum fr 43 117 P with a possible earlier precedent in the fragment from Euripides Cretans fr 472 Nauck Earlier evidence however e g Alkmaionis fr 3 PEG Aeschylus frr 5 228 suggests that Zagreus was often identified with other deities Nilsson p 202 calls it the cardinal myth of Orphism Guthrie p 107 describes the myth as the central point of Orphic story Linforth p 307 says it is commonly regarded as essentially and peculiarly Orphic and the very core of the Orphic religion and Parker 2002 p 495 writes that it has been seen as the Orphic arch myth West 1983 pp 73 74 provides a detailed reconstruction with numerous cites to ancient sources with a summary on p 140 For other summaries see Morford p 311 Hard p 35 Marsh s v Zagreus p 788 Grimal s v Zagreus p 456 Burkert pp 297 298 Guthrie p 82 also see Ogden p 80 For a detailed examination of many of the ancient sources pertaining to this myth see Linforth pp 307 364 The most extensive account in ancient sources is found in Nonnus Dionysiaca 5 562 70 6 155 ff other principal sources include Diodorus Siculus 3 62 6 8 Orphic fr 301 Kern 3 64 1 2 4 4 1 2 5 75 4 Orphic fr 303 Kern Ovid Metamorphoses 6 110 114 Athenagoras of Athens Legatio 20 Pratten Orphic fr 58 Kern Clement of Alexandria Protrepticus 2 15 pp 36 39 Butterworth Orphic frs 34 35 Kern Hyginus Fabulae 155 167 Suda s v Zagreys See also Pausanias 7 18 4 8 37 5 West 1983 p 160 remarks that while many sources speak of Dionysus being rent apart those who use more precise language say that he was cut up with a knife Gantz pp 118 119 West 1983 pp 152 154 Linforth pp 309 311 Callimachus fr 643 Pfeiffer Euphorion fr 14 Lightfoot Gantz p 118 119 West 1983 p 151 Linforth pp 309 310 Callimachus fr 43 117 Pfeiffer fr 43b 34 Harder Harder p 368 Gantz p 118 West 1983 pp 152 153 Linforth p 310 Linforth pp 311 317 318 Plutarch The E at Delphi 389 A Nonnus Dionysiaca 5 564 565 Nonnus Dionysiaca 6 165 Nonnus Dionysiaca 10 294 Nonnus Dionysiaca 39 72 Nonnus Dionysiaca 44 255 Diodorus Siculus 4 4 1 Diodorus Siculus 4 4 5 Diodorus Siculus 4 4 2 see also 3 64 1 2 Diodorus Siculus 3 64 2 4 4 5 Diodorus Siculus 4 5 2 Linforth pp 312 313 West 1983 pp 160 161 Callimachus fr 643 Pfeiffer Euphorion fr 14 Lightfoot Diodorus Siculus 3 62 6 Clement of Alexandria Protrepticus 2 15 pp 38 39 Butterworth Orphic fr 35 Kern Arnobius Adversus Gentes 5 19 p 242 Orphic fr 34 Kern Plutarch On the Eating of Flesh 996 B C Olympiodorus In Plato Phaedon 1 3 Orphic fr 220 Kern translated by Edmonds 1999 p 40 Firmicus Maternus De errore profanarum religionum The Error of Pagan Religions 6 1 5 pp 54 56 Forbes Orphic fr 214 Kern Callimachus fr 643 Pfeiffer Euphorion fr 14 Lightfoot West 1983 p 151 Linforth pp 311 312 Euphorion fr 40 Lightfoot Orphic fr 36 Kern compare with Cornutus Theologiae Graecae Compendium 30 p 62 11 Lang which also has Rhea rivive Dionysus Diodorus Siculus 3 62 6 Some Orphic texts identify Demeter and Rhea see West 1983 pp 72 74 81 82 93 217 West 1983 p 152 Linforth p 315 Orphic frs 34 35 209 211 Kern Proclus Hymn to Athena 13 24 In Plato Timaeus 35a Taylor 1820b pp 37 38 Orphic fr 210 Kern Linforth p 311 Tzetzes Scholiast on Lycophron Alexandra 355 p 137 Scheer Hyginus Fabulae 167 Rutherford p 67 Rutherford p 69 Diodorus Siculus 4 6 3 Diodorus 1 21 1 3 relates another version of the Osiris story which more closely parallels the usual Egyptian account of the murder and dismemberment of Osiris by his brother Set In this account Typhon whom the Greeks had come to identified with Set killed his brother Osiris the lawful king of Egypt and cut the body of the slain Osiris into twenty six pieces giving one piece to each of his accomplices so that they all would share equally in the pollution But Osiris sister and wife Isis with the help of her son Horus killed Typhon and became queen Edmonds 1999 p 51 Linforth p 316 Diodorus Siculus 3 62 6 8 Orphic fr 301 Kern 3 64 1 Linforth pp 316 317 Edmonds 1999 p 51 n 46 Cornutus Theologiae Graecae Compendium 30 Lang Diodorus Siculus 3 64 1 2 Firmicus Maternus De errore profanarum religionum 6 1 5 pp 54 56 Forbes Orphic fr 214 Kern Linforth pp 313 314 315 Hesiod Theogony 630 721 West 1983 p 164 Spineto p 34 Arnobius Adversus Gentes 5 19 p 242 Orphic fr 34 Kern Nonnus Dionysiaca 6 206 210 Linforth pp 307 308 Spineto p 34 For presentations of the myth which include the anthropogony see Dodds pp 155 156 West 1983 pp 74 75 140 164 166 Guthrie p 83 Burkert pp 297 298 Marsh s v Zagreus p 788 Parker 2002 pp 495 496 Morford p 313 See Spineto pp 37 39 Edmonds 1999 2008 2013 chapter 9 Bernabe 2002 2003 Parker 2014 Edmonds 1999 p 40 Olympiodorus In Plato Phaedon 1 3 Orphic fr 220 Kern Spineto p 34 Burkert p 463 n 15 West 1983 pp 164 165 Linforth pp 326 ff Plutarch On the Eating of Flesh 1 996 C Linforth pp 334 ff Edmonds 1999 pp 44 47 Pindar fr 133 Bergk apud Plato Meno 81bc fr 127 Bowra This interpretation first proposed by H J Rose is discussed by Linforth pp 345 350 who while raising several objections and giving other possible explanations concludes by saying but after all and in spite of these objections one must acknowledge that there is a high degree of probability in Rose s interpretation Others have agreed Dodds pp 155 156 says the line is most naturally explained as referring to human responsibility for the slaying of Dionysus Burkert p 298 says this ancient grief of Persephone can only be the death of her child Dionysos Parker 2002 p 496 says No myth is known which really explains the allusion except that of the murder of Persephone s son Dionysus by man s ancestors However West 1983 p 110 n 82 Seaford pp 7 8 who sees difficulties in Rose s interpretation and Edmonds 1999 pp 47 49 who rejects Rose s reading all offer different interpretations Plato Laws 3 701bc Orphic fr 9 Kern Linforth pp 339 345 Edmonds 1999 pp 43 44 Edmonds 2013 pp 326 334 Xenocrates fr 20 Heinze Damascius In Phaedo 1 2 Linforth pp 337 339 Dodds p 156 West 1983 pp 21 22 Burkert p 298 Edmonds 1999 p 46 Parker 2002 p 496 Wiltshire Alex February 12 2020 How Hades plays with Greek myths Rock Paper Shotgun Retrieved March 19 2021 Farokhmanesh Megan March 5 2020 Hades almost starred its worst character The Verge Retrieved March 19 2021 What Hades Can Teach Us About Ancient Greek Masculinity Wired January 16 2021 ISSN 1059 1028 Retrieved 2021 09 20 Hades focuses on Zagreus who plays such a minor role in myth that as the titular god of the underworld s son he makes a great canvas to fill in for the player character Gailloreto Coleman August 27 2020 Does Hades Depict Greek Mythology Authentically Screen Rant Retrieved March 19 2021 Thier Dave September 28 2020 Spoilers It s Time To Talk About Hades Staggering Ending Forbes Retrieved March 19 2021 History Respawned Hades YouTube October 30 2020 Retrieved March 19 2021 References EditArnobius The Seven Books of Arnobius Adversus Gentes translated by Archibald Hamilton Bryce and Hugh Campbell Edinburg T amp T Clark 1871 Internet Archive Bernabe Alberto 2002 La toile de Penelope a t il existe un mythe orphique sur Dionysos et les Titans Revue de l histoire des religions 219 4 401 433 Bernabe Alberto 2003 Autour du mythe orphique sur Dionysos et les Titans Quelque notes critiques in Des Geants a Dionysos Melanges offerts a F Vian D A P Chuvin Alessandria 25 39 Burkert Walter Greek Religion Harvard University Press 1985 ISBN 0 674 36281 0 Clement of Alexandria The Exhortation to the Greeks The Rich Man s Salvation To the Newly Baptized Translated by G W Butterworth Loeb Classical Library No 92 Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press 1919 ISBN 978 0 674 99103 3 Online version at Harvard University Press Internet Archive 1960 edition Collard Christopher and Martin Cropp Euripides Fragments Oedipus Chrysippus Other Fragments Loeb Classical Library No 506 Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press 2008 ISBN 978 0 674 99631 1 Online version at Harvard University Press Diodorus Siculus Diodorus Siculus The Library of History Translated by C H Oldfather Twelve volumes Loeb Classical Library Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press London William Heinemann Ltd 1989 Online version by Bill Thayer Dodds Eric R The Greeks and the Irrational University of California Press 2004 ISBN 978 0 520 93127 5 Edmonds Radcliffe 1999 Tearing Apart the Zagreus Myth A Few Disparaging Remarks On Orphism and Original Sin Classical Antiquity 18 1999 35 73 PDF Edmonds Radcliffe 2008 Recycling Laertes Shroud More on Orphism and Original Sin Center for Hellenic Studies Edmonds Radcliffe 2013 Redefining Ancient Orphism A Study in Greek Religion Cambridge New York Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 1 107 03821 9 Firmicus Maternus Firmicus Maternus the Error of the Pagan Religions translated by Clarence A Forbes Newman Press 1970 ISBN 0 8091 0039 8 Gantz Timothy Early Greek Myth A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources Johns Hopkins University Press 1996 Two volumes ISBN 978 0 8018 5360 9 Vol 1 ISBN 978 0 8018 5362 3 Vol 2 Grimal Pierre The Dictionary of Classical Mythology Wiley Blackwell 1996 ISBN 978 0 631 20102 1 Guthrie W K C Orpheus and Greek Religion A Study of the Orphic Movement Princeton University Press 1935 ISBN 978 0 691 02499 8 Hard Robin The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology Based on H J Rose s Handbook of Greek Mythology Psychology Press 2004 ISBN 978 0 415 18636 0 Harder Annette Callimachus Aetia Introduction Text Translation and Commentary Oxford University Press 2012 ISBN 978 0 19 958101 6 two volume set Google Books Hesiod Theogony in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G Evelyn White Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press London William Heinemann Ltd 1914 Online version at the Perseus Digital Library Hyginus Gaius Julius Fabulae in Apollodorus Libraryand Hyginus Fabuae Two Handbooks of Greek Mythology Translated with Introductions by R Scott Smith and Stephen M Trzaskoma Hackett Publishing Company 2007 ISBN 978 0 87220 821 6 Kerenyi Karl Dionysos Archetypal image of indestructible life trans Ralph Manheim Princeton University Press 1976 ISBN 0 691 09863 8 Kern Otto Orphicorum Fragmenta Berlin 1922 Internet Archive Lightfoot J L Hellenistic Collection Philitas Alexander of Aetolia Hermesianax Euphorion Parthenius Edited and translated by J L Lightfoot Loeb Classical Library No 508 Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press 2010 ISBN 978 0 674 99636 6 Online version at Harvard University Press Linforth Ivan M The Arts of Orpheus Berkeley University of California Press 1941 Online version at HathiTrust Marsh Jenny Cassell s Dictionary of Classical Mythology Casell amp Co 2001 ISBN 0 304 35788 X Internet Archive Morford Mark P O Robert J Lenardon Classical Mythology Eighth Edition Oxford University Press 2007 ISBN 978 0 19 530805 1 Nauck Johann August Tragicorum graecorum fragmenta Leipzig Teubner 1989 Internet Archive Nilsson Martin P Early Orphism and Kindred Religions Movements The Harvard Theological Review Vol 28 No 3 Jul 1935 pp 181 230 JSTOR 1508326 Nonnus Dionysiaca translated by Rouse W H D I Books I XV Loeb Classical Library No 344 Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press London William Heinemann Ltd 1940 Internet Archive Nonnus Dionysiaca translated by Rouse W H D II Books XVI XXXV Loeb Classical Library No 345 Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press London William Heinemann Ltd 1940 Internet Archive Nonnus Dionysiaca translated by Rouse W H D III Books XXXVI XLVIII Loeb Classical Library No 346 Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press London William Heinemann Ltd 1940 Internet Archive Ogden Daniel Drakōn Dragon Myth and Serpent Cult in the Greek and Roman Worlds Oxford University Press 2013 ISBN 978 0 19 955732 5 Ovid Metamorphoses Brookes More Boston Cornhill Publishing Co 1922 Online version at the Perseus Digital Library Parker Robert 2002 Early Orphism in The Greek World edited by Anton Powell Routledge 2002 ISBN 978 1 134 69864 6 Parker Robert 2014 Review of Edmonds 2013 Bryn Mawr Classical Review BMCR 2014 07 13 Pausanias Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W H S Jones Litt D and H A Ormerod M A in 4 Volumes Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press London William Heinemann Ltd 1918 Online version at the Perseus Digital Library Plato Meno in Plato in Twelve Volumes Vol 3 translated by W R M Lamb Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press London William Heinemann Ltd 1967 Online version at the Perseus Digital Library Plato Laws in Plato in Twelve Volumes Vols 10 amp 11 translated by R G Bury Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press London William Heinemann Ltd 1967 amp 1968 Online version at the Perseus Digital Library Plutarch Moralia Volume V Isis and Osiris The E at Delphi The Oracles at Delphi No Longer Given in Verse The Obsolescence of Oracles Translated by Frank Cole Babbitt Loeb Classical Library No 306 Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press 1936 ISBN 978 0 674 99337 2 Online version at Harvard University Press Plutarch Moralia Volume XII Concerning the Face Which Appears in the Orb of the Moon On the Principle of Cold Whether Fire or Water Is More Useful Whether Land or Sea Animals Are Cleverer Beasts Are Rational On the Eating of Flesh Translated by Harold Cherniss W C Helmbold Loeb Classical Library No 406 Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press 1957 ISBN 978 0 674 99447 8 Online version at Harvard University Press Proclus Hymn to Athena in Sallust On the gods and the world and the Pythagoric sentences of Demophilus translated from the Greek and five hymns by Proclus in the original Greek with a poetical version To which are added five hymns by the translator translated by Thomas Taylor London Printed for E Jeffrey 1793 Online version at Hathi Trust Rutherford Ian Greco Egyptian Interactions Literature Translation and Culture 500 BC AD 300 Oxford University Press 2016 ISBN 9780191630118 Scheer Eduard Lycophronis ALexandra Volume II Scholia continens Weidmann Berlin 1908 Internet Archive Seaford R 1986 Immortality Salvation and the Elements Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 90 1 26 JSTOR 311457 Smyth Herbert Weir Aeschylus with an English translation by Herbert Weir Smyth Volume II London Heinemann 1926 Internet Archive Sommerstein Alan H Aeschylus Fragments Edited and translated by Alan H Sommerstein Loeb Classical Library No 505 Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press 2009 ISBN 978 0 674 99629 8 Online version at Harvard University Press Spineto Natale Models of the Relationship between God and Huma in Paganism in The Quest for a Common Humanity Human Dignity and Otherness in the Religious Traditions of the Mediterranean BRILL 2011 ISBN 9789004201651 Taylor Thomas 1820a The Commentaries of Proclus on the Timaeus of Plato Vol 1 London Thomas Taylor 1820 Internet Archive Taylor Thomas 1820b The Commentaries of Proclus on the Timaeus of Plato Vol 2 London Thomas Taylor 1820 Internet Archive West M L 1983 The Orphic Poems Clarendon Press ISBN 978 0 19 814854 8 West M L 2003 Greek Epic Fragments From the Seventh to the Fifth Centuries BC Edited and translated by Martin L West Loeb Classical Library No 497 Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press 2003 ISBN 978 0 674 99605 2 Online version at Harvard University Press Further reading EditMenard Jacques E Le mythe de Dionysos Zagreus chez Philon In Revue des Sciences Religieuses tome 42 fascicule 4 1968 pp 339 345 doi 10 3406 rscir 1968 2519 Pencova Elka A propos du Dionysos thrace In Dialogues d histoire ancienne vol 20 n 2 1994 pp 151 154 doi 10 3406 dha 1994 2183 Verhelst Berenice As Multiform as Dionysus New Perspectives on Nonnus Dionysiaca In L antiquite classique Tome 82 2013 pp 267 278 doi 10 3406 antiq 2013 3840 External links EditLook up zagreus in Wiktionary the free dictionary Article for Zagreus at the Theoi Project Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zagreus amp oldid 1045374989, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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