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Zagros Mountains

The Zagros Mountains (Persian:کوه‌های زاگرس‎; Kuhehai-ye Zagres, Luri: کویل زاگروس‎; Koyal Zagros, Kurdish:چیاکانی زاگرۆس‎, romanized: Çiyayên Zagros;) are a long mountain range in Iran, northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a total length of 1,600 km (990 mi). The Zagros mountain range begins in northwestern Iran and roughly follows Iran's western border, while covering much of southeastern Turkey and northeastern Iraq. From this border region, the range roughly follows Iran's coast on the Persian Gulf. It spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau, ending at the Strait of Hormuz. The highest point is Mount Dena, at 4,409 metres (14,465 ft).

Zagros
Dena, highest point in the Zagros Mountains
Highest point
PeakQash-Mastan (Dena)
Elevation4,409 m (14,465 ft)
Dimensions
Length1,600 km (990 mi)
Width240 km (150 mi)
Naming
Native nameزاگرس Zagros
Geography
LocationIran, Iraq, and Turkey
Middle East or Western Asia
Geology
Age of rockCarboniferous
Mountain typeFold and thrust belt

Contents

See also: Geology of Iran
SRTM shaded relief anaglyph of Zagros Mountains
The Zagros Mountains from space, September 1992

The Zagros fold and thrust belt was mainly formed by the collision of two tectonic plates, the Eurasian Plate and the Arabian Plate. This collision mainly happened during the Miocene (about 25–5 million years ago or mya) and folded the entirety of the rocks that had been deposited from the Paleozoic (541–242 mya) to the Cenozoic (66 mya – present) in the passive continental margin on the Arabian Plate. However, the obduction of Neotethys oceanic crust during the Cretaceous (145–66 mya), and the continental arc collision in the Eocene (56–34 mya) both had major effects on uplifts in the northeastern parts of the belt.

The process of collision continues to the present, and as the Arabian Plate is being pushed against the Eurasian Plate, the Zagros Mountains and the Iranian Plateau are getting higher and higher. Recent GPS measurements in Iran have shown that this collision is still active and the resulting deformation is distributed non-uniformly in the country, mainly taken up in the major mountain belts like Alborz and Zagros. A relatively dense GPS network which covered the Iranian Zagros also proves a high rate of deformation within the Zagros. The GPS results show that the current rate of shortening in the southeast Zagros is ~10 mm/a (0.39 in/year), dropping to ~5 mm/a (0.20 in/year) in the northwest Zagros. The north-south Kazerun strike-slip fault divides the Zagros into two distinct zones of deformation. The GPS results also show different shortening directions along the belt, normal shortening in the southeast, and oblique shortening in the northwest Zagros. The Zagros mountains were created around the time of the second ice age,[citation needed] which caused the tectonic collision, leading to its uniqueness.

The sedimentary cover in the SE Zagros is deforming above a layer of rock salt (acting as a ductile decollement with a low basal friction), whereas in the NW Zagros the salt layer is missing or is very thin. This different basal friction is partly responsible for the different topographies on either side of the Kazerun fault. Higher topography and narrower zone of deformation in the NW Zagros is observed whereas in the SE, deformation was spread more and a wider zone of deformation with lower topography was formed. Stresses induced in the Earth's crust by the collision caused extensive folding of the preexisting layered sedimentary rocks. Subsequent erosion removed softer rocks, such as mudstone (rock formed by consolidated mud) and siltstone (a slightly coarser-grained mudstone) while leaving harder rocks, such as limestone (calcium-rich rock consisting of the remains of marine organisms) and dolomite (rocks similar to limestone containing calcium and magnesium). This differential erosion formed the linear ridges of the Zagros Mountains.

The depositional environment and tectonic history of the rocks were conducive to the formation and trapping of petroleum, and the Zagros region is an important area for oil production. Salt domes and salt glaciers are a common feature of the Zagros Mountains. Salt domes are an important target for petroleum exploration, as the impermeable salt frequently traps petroleum beneath other rock layers. There is also much water-soluble gypsum in the region.

Type and age of rock

Glaciers on Dena

The mountains are completely of sedimentary origin and are made primarily of limestone. In the Elevated Zagros or the Higher Zagros, the Paleozoic rocks can be found mainly in the upper and higher sections of the peaks of the Zagros Mountains, along the Zagros main fault. On both sides of this fault, there are Mesozoic rocks, a combination of Triassic (252–201 mya) and Jurassic (201–145 mya) rocks that are surrounded by Cretaceous rocks on both sides. The Folded Zagros (the mountains south of the Elevated Zagros and almost parallel to the main Zagros fault) is formed mainly of Tertiary rocks, with the Paleogene (66–23 mya) rocks south of the Cretaceous rocks and then the Neogene (23–2.6 mya) rocks south of the Paleogene rocks. The mountains are divided into many parallel sub-ranges (up to 10 or 250 km (6.2 or 155.3 mi) wide), and orogenically have the same age as the Alps.

Iran's main oilfields lie in the western central foothills of the Zagros mountain range. The southern ranges of the Fars Province have somewhat lower summits, reaching 4,000 metres (13,000 feet). They contain some limestone rocks showing abundant marine fossils.

See also: Durupınar site
Middle Paleolithic stone tool discovered in the Sirwan valley of Hawraman, Zagros
Ancient cobblestoned pathway in Zagros, Behbahan
A ceramic ware excavated in Zagros, Dalma Tepe
Ancient pathway in Zagros, Behbahan

The Zagros Mountains were occupied by early humans since the Lower Paleolithic Period. The earliest human fossils discovered in Zagros belongs to Neanderthals and come from Shanidar Cave, Bisitun Cave, and Wezmeh Cave. The remains of ten Neanderthals, dating from around 65,000–35,000 years ago, have been found in the Shanidar Cave. The cave also contains two later "proto-Neolithic" cemeteries, one of which dates back about 10,600 years and contains 35 individuals. Evidence from later Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic occupations come from Yafteh Cave, Kaldar Cave near Khoramabad, and Warwasi, Malaverd near Kermanshah, Kenacheh Cave in Kurdistan, Boof Cave in Fars and a number of other caves and rock shelters.

Location map of the Wezmeh Cave in the range of Neanderthals

Signs of early agriculture date back as far as 9000 BC in the foothills of the mountains. Some settlements later grew into cities, eventually named Anshan and Susa; Jarmo is one archaeological site in this area. Some of the earliest evidence of wine production has been discovered in the mountains; both the settlements of Hajji Firuz Tepe and Godin Tepe have given evidence of wine storage dating between 3500 and 5400 BC.

During early ancient times, the Zagros was the home of peoples such as the ancestors of the Sumerians and, later, the Kassites, Guti, Elamites and Mitanni, who periodically invaded the Sumerian and/or Akkadian cities of Mesopotamia. The mountains create a geographic barrier between the Mesopotamian Plain, which is in Iraq, and the Iranian Plateau. A small archive of clay tablets detailing the complex interactions of these groups in the early second millennium BC has been found at Tell Shemshara along the Little Zab. Tell Bazmusian, near Shemshara, was occupied between 5000 BCE and 800 CE, although not continuously.

The mountains contain several ecosystems. Prominent among them are the forest and forest steppe areas with a semi-arid climate. As defined by the World Wildlife Fund and used in their Wildfinder, the particular terrestrial ecoregion of the mid to high mountain area is Zagros Mountains forest steppe (PA0446). The annual precipitation ranges from 400–800 mm (16–31 in) and falls mostly in winter and spring. Winters are severe, with low temperatures often below −25 °C (−13 °F). The region exemplifies the continental variation of the Mediterranean climate pattern, with a snowy winter and mild, rainy spring, followed by a dry summer and autumn.

Climate data for Amadiya District, Iraq
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −0.2
(31.6)
1.4
(34.5)
6.4
(43.5)
12.2
(54.0)
19.3
(66.7)
24.8
(76.6)
29.7
(85.5)
29.6
(85.3)
25.6
(78.1)
17.7
(63.9)
9.7
(49.5)
2.7
(36.9)
14.9
(58.8)
Average low °C (°F) −8.0
(17.6)
−6.8
(19.8)
−2.0
(28.4)
3.5
(38.3)
8.8
(47.8)
13.0
(55.4)
17.3
(63.1)
16.9
(62.4)
13.0
(55.4)
7.2
(45.0)
2.1
(35.8)
−4.3
(24.3)
5.1
(41.1)
Source:

Glaciation

The mountains of the East-Zagros, the Kuh-i-Jupar (4,135 m (13,566 ft)), Kuh-i-Lalezar (4,374 m (14,350 ft)) and Kuh-i-Hezar (4,469 m (14,662 ft)) do not currently have glaciers. Only at Zard Kuh and Dena some glaciers still survive. However, before the Last Glacial Period they had been glaciated to a depth in excess of 1,900 metres (1.2 miles), and during the Last Glacial Period to a depth in excess of 2,160 metres (7,090 feet). Evidence exists of a 20 km (12 mi) wide glacier fed along a 17 km (11 mi) long valley dropping approximately 1,600 m (5,200 ft) along its length on the north side of Kuh-i-Jupar with a thickness of 350–550 m (1,150–1,800 ft). Under conditions of precipitation comparable to current climatic record-keeping, this size of glacier could be expected to form where the annual average temperature was between 10.5 and 11.2 °C (50.9 and 52.2 °F), but since conditions are expected to have been dryer during the period in which this glacier was formed, the temperature must have been lower.

A view of Persian oak forests that dominate the Zagros Mountains
Men with a restrained lion in Iran. This photograph was taken by Antoin Sevruguin, c. 1880, before the lion's extirpation in the country.

Although currently degraded through overgrazing and deforestation, the Zagros region is home to a rich and complex flora. Remnants of the originally widespread oak-dominated woodland can still be found, as can the park-like pistachio/almond steppelands. The ancestors of many familiar foods, including wheat, barley, lentil, almond, walnut, pistachio, apricot, plum, pomegranate and grape can be found growing wild throughout the mountains. Persian oak (Quercus brantii) (covering more than 50% of the Zagros forest area) is the most important tree species of the Zagros in Iran.

Carcass of a leopard that was found near Zom village in the protected area of Kosalan and Shahu in 2019

Other floral endemics found within the mountain range include: Allium iranicum, Astragalus crenophila, Bellevalia kurdistanica, Cousinia carduchorum, Cousinia odontolepis, Echinops rectangularis, Erysimum boissieri, Iris barnumiae, Ornithogalum iraqense, Scrophularia atroglandulosa, Scorzonera kurdistanica, Tragopogon rechingeri, and Tulipa kurdica. The Zagros are home to many threatened or endangered organisms, including the Zagros Mountains mouse-like hamster (Calomyscus bailwardi), the Basra reed-warbler (Acrocephalus griseldis) and the striped hyena (Hyena hyena). Luristan newt (Neurergus kaiseri) – vulnerable endemic to the central Zagros mountains of Iran. The Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica), an ancient domesticate once thought extinct, was rediscovered in the late 20th century in Khuzestan Province, in the southern Zagros. Also, wild goats can be found almost all over the Zagros mountain range.

Seasonal vegetation cover of the mountain top of Dasht- Kahou, Taq-e Bostan, Kermanshah, Zagros

In the late 19th century, the Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) inhabited the southwestern part of the mountains. It is now extinct in this region.

The entrance to the ancient Mesopotamian underworld was believed to be located in the Zagros Mountains in the far east. A staircase led down to the gates of the underworld. The underworld itself is usually located even deeper below ground than the Abzu, the body of freshwater which the ancient Mesopotamians believed lay deep beneath the earth.

  • A road through the Zagros mountains in Kurdistan region, Iraq

  • Wild goat herd, Zagros, Behbahan

  • Fritillaria imperialis in Dena, Iranian Zagros

  • General view of Rawansar at foot of Shaho Mountain, Kermanshah, Zagros

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Wikimedia Commons has media related toZagros Mountains.

33°40′00″N47°00′00″E /33.66667°N 47.00000°E /33.66667; 47.00000Coordinates: 33°40′00″N47°00′00″E /33.66667°N 47.00000°E /33.66667; 47.00000

Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Zagros The Zagros Mountains Persian کوه های زاگرس Kuhehai ye Zagres Luri کویل زاگروس Koyal Zagros Kurdish چیاکانی زاگرۆس romanized Ciyayen Zagros 2 3 are a long mountain range in Iran northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey This mountain range has a total length of 1 600 km 990 mi The Zagros mountain range begins in northwestern Iran and roughly follows Iran s western border while covering much of southeastern Turkey and northeastern Iraq From this border region the range roughly follows Iran s coast on the Persian Gulf It spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau ending at the Strait of Hormuz The highest point is Mount Dena at 4 409 metres 14 465 ft ZagrosDena highest point in the Zagros MountainsHighest pointPeakQash Mastan Dena Elevation4 409 m 14 465 ft DimensionsLength1 600 1 km 990 mi Width240 1 km 150 mi NamingNative nameزاگرس ZagrosGeographyLocationIran Iraq and Turkey Middle East or Western AsiaGeologyAge of rockCarboniferousMountain typeFold and thrust belt Contents 1 Geology 1 1 Type and age of rock 2 History 3 Climate 3 1 Glaciation 4 Flora and fauna 5 Religion 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksGeology EditSee also Geology of Iran SRTM shaded relief anaglyph of Zagros Mountains The Zagros Mountains from space September 1992 4 The Zagros fold and thrust belt was mainly formed by the collision of two tectonic plates the Eurasian Plate and the Arabian Plate 5 This collision mainly happened during the Miocene about 25 5 million years ago or mya and folded the entirety of the rocks that had been deposited from the Paleozoic 541 242 mya to the Cenozoic 66 mya present in the passive continental margin on the Arabian Plate However the obduction of Neotethys oceanic crust during the Cretaceous 145 66 mya and the continental arc collision in the Eocene 56 34 mya both had major effects on uplifts in the northeastern parts of the belt The process of collision continues to the present and as the Arabian Plate is being pushed against the Eurasian Plate the Zagros Mountains and the Iranian Plateau are getting higher and higher Recent GPS measurements in Iran 6 have shown that this collision is still active and the resulting deformation is distributed non uniformly in the country mainly taken up in the major mountain belts like Alborz and Zagros A relatively dense GPS network which covered the Iranian Zagros 7 also proves a high rate of deformation within the Zagros The GPS results show that the current rate of shortening in the southeast Zagros is 10 mm a 0 39 in year dropping to 5 mm a 0 20 in year in the northwest Zagros The north south Kazerun strike slip fault divides the Zagros into two distinct zones of deformation The GPS results also show different shortening directions along the belt normal shortening in the southeast and oblique shortening in the northwest Zagros The Zagros mountains were created around the time of the second ice age citation needed which caused the tectonic collision leading to its uniqueness The sedimentary cover in the SE Zagros is deforming above a layer of rock salt acting as a ductile decollement with a low basal friction whereas in the NW Zagros the salt layer is missing or is very thin This different basal friction is partly responsible for the different topographies on either side of the Kazerun fault Higher topography and narrower zone of deformation in the NW Zagros is observed whereas in the SE deformation was spread more and a wider zone of deformation with lower topography was formed 8 Stresses induced in the Earth s crust by the collision caused extensive folding of the preexisting layered sedimentary rocks Subsequent erosion removed softer rocks such as mudstone rock formed by consolidated mud and siltstone a slightly coarser grained mudstone while leaving harder rocks such as limestone calcium rich rock consisting of the remains of marine organisms and dolomite rocks similar to limestone containing calcium and magnesium This differential erosion formed the linear ridges of the Zagros Mountains The depositional environment and tectonic history of the rocks were conducive to the formation and trapping of petroleum and the Zagros region is an important area for oil production Salt domes and salt glaciers are a common feature of the Zagros Mountains Salt domes are an important target for petroleum exploration as the impermeable salt frequently traps petroleum beneath other rock layers There is also much water soluble gypsum in the region 9 Type and age of rock Edit Glaciers on Dena The mountains are completely of sedimentary origin and are made primarily of limestone In the Elevated Zagros or the Higher Zagros the Paleozoic rocks can be found mainly in the upper and higher sections of the peaks of the Zagros Mountains along the Zagros main fault On both sides of this fault there are Mesozoic rocks a combination of Triassic 252 201 mya and Jurassic 201 145 mya rocks that are surrounded by Cretaceous rocks on both sides The Folded Zagros the mountains south of the Elevated Zagros and almost parallel to the main Zagros fault is formed mainly of Tertiary rocks with the Paleogene 66 23 mya rocks south of the Cretaceous rocks and then the Neogene 23 2 6 mya rocks south of the Paleogene rocks The mountains are divided into many parallel sub ranges up to 10 or 250 km 6 2 or 155 3 mi wide and orogenically have the same age as the Alps Iran s main oilfields lie in the western central foothills of the Zagros mountain range The southern ranges of the Fars Province have somewhat lower summits reaching 4 000 metres 13 000 feet They contain some limestone rocks showing abundant marine fossils 8 History EditSee also Durupinar site Middle Paleolithic stone tool discovered in the Sirwan valley of Hawraman Zagros Ancient cobblestoned pathway in Zagros Behbahan A ceramic ware excavated in Zagros Dalma Tepe Ancient pathway in Zagros Behbahan The Zagros Mountains were occupied by early humans since the Lower Paleolithic Period The earliest human fossils discovered in Zagros belongs to Neanderthals and come from Shanidar Cave Bisitun Cave and Wezmeh Cave The remains of ten Neanderthals dating from around 65 000 35 000 years ago have been found in the Shanidar Cave 10 The cave also contains two later proto Neolithic cemeteries one of which dates back about 10 600 years and contains 35 individuals 11 Evidence from later Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic occupations come from Yafteh Cave Kaldar Cave near Khoramabad and Warwasi Malaverd near Kermanshah Kenacheh Cave in Kurdistan Boof Cave in Fars and a number of other caves and rock shelters 12 Location map of the Wezmeh Cave in the range of Neanderthals Signs of early agriculture date back as far as 9000 BC in the foothills of the mountains 13 Some settlements later grew into cities eventually named Anshan and Susa Jarmo is one archaeological site in this area Some of the earliest evidence of wine production has been discovered in the mountains both the settlements of Hajji Firuz Tepe and Godin Tepe have given evidence of wine storage dating between 3500 and 5400 BC 14 During early ancient times the Zagros was the home of peoples such as the ancestors of the Sumerians and later the Kassites Guti Elamites and Mitanni who periodically invaded the Sumerian and or Akkadian cities of Mesopotamia The mountains create a geographic barrier between the Mesopotamian Plain which is in Iraq and the Iranian Plateau A small archive of clay tablets detailing the complex interactions of these groups in the early second millennium BC has been found at Tell Shemshara along the Little Zab 15 Tell Bazmusian near Shemshara was occupied between 5000 BCE and 800 CE although not continuously 16 Climate EditThe mountains contain several ecosystems Prominent among them are the forest and forest steppe areas with a semi arid climate As defined by the World Wildlife Fund and used in their Wildfinder the particular terrestrial ecoregion of the mid to high mountain area is Zagros Mountains forest steppe PA0446 The annual precipitation ranges from 400 800 mm 16 31 in and falls mostly in winter and spring Winters are severe with low temperatures often below 25 C 13 F The region exemplifies the continental variation of the Mediterranean climate pattern with a snowy winter and mild rainy spring followed by a dry summer and autumn 17 Climate data for Amadiya District IraqMonth Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearAverage high C F 0 2 31 6 1 4 34 5 6 4 43 5 12 2 54 0 19 3 66 7 24 8 76 6 29 7 85 5 29 6 85 3 25 6 78 1 17 7 63 9 9 7 49 5 2 7 36 9 14 9 58 8 Average low C F 8 0 17 6 6 8 19 8 2 0 28 4 3 5 38 3 8 8 47 8 13 0 55 4 17 3 63 1 16 9 62 4 13 0 55 4 7 2 45 0 2 1 35 8 4 3 24 3 5 1 41 1 Source 18 Glaciation Edit The mountains of the East Zagros the Kuh i Jupar 4 135 m 13 566 ft Kuh i Lalezar 4 374 m 14 350 ft and Kuh i Hezar 4 469 m 14 662 ft do not currently have glaciers Only at Zard Kuh and Dena some glaciers still survive However before the Last Glacial Period they had been glaciated to a depth in excess of 1 900 metres 1 2 miles and during the Last Glacial Period to a depth in excess of 2 160 metres 7 090 feet Evidence exists of a 20 km 12 mi wide glacier fed along a 17 km 11 mi long valley dropping approximately 1 600 m 5 200 ft along its length on the north side of Kuh i Jupar with a thickness of 350 550 m 1 150 1 800 ft Under conditions of precipitation comparable to current climatic record keeping this size of glacier could be expected to form where the annual average temperature was between 10 5 and 11 2 C 50 9 and 52 2 F but since conditions are expected to have been dryer during the period in which this glacier was formed the temperature must have been lower 19 20 21 22 Flora and fauna EditMain article Zagros Mountains forest steppe A view of Persian oak forests that dominate the Zagros Mountains Men with a restrained lion in Iran This photograph was taken by Antoin Sevruguin c 1880 23 before the lion s extirpation in the country Although currently degraded through overgrazing and deforestation the Zagros region is home to a rich and complex flora Remnants of the originally widespread oak dominated woodland can still be found as can the park like pistachio almond steppelands The ancestors of many familiar foods including wheat barley lentil almond walnut pistachio apricot plum pomegranate and grape can be found growing wild throughout the mountains 24 Persian oak Quercus brantii covering more than 50 of the Zagros forest area is the most important tree species of the Zagros in Iran 25 Carcass of a leopard that was found near Zom village in the protected area of Kosalan and Shahu in 2019 Other floral endemics found within the mountain range include Allium iranicum Astragalus crenophila Bellevalia kurdistanica Cousinia carduchorum Cousinia odontolepis Echinops rectangularis Erysimum boissieri Iris barnumiae Ornithogalum iraqense Scrophularia atroglandulosa Scorzonera kurdistanica Tragopogon rechingeri and Tulipa kurdica 26 The Zagros are home to many threatened or endangered organisms including the Zagros Mountains mouse like hamster Calomyscus bailwardi the Basra reed warbler Acrocephalus griseldis and the striped hyena Hyena hyena Luristan newt Neurergus kaiseri vulnerable endemic to the central Zagros mountains of Iran The Persian fallow deer Dama dama mesopotamica an ancient domesticate once thought extinct was rediscovered in the late 20th century in Khuzestan Province in the southern Zagros Also wild goats can be found almost all over the Zagros mountain range Seasonal vegetation cover of the mountain top of Dasht Kahou Taq e Bostan Kermanshah Zagros In the late 19th century the Asiatic lion Panthera leo persica 27 inhabited the southwestern part of the mountains It is now extinct in this region 28 Religion EditThe entrance to the ancient Mesopotamian underworld was believed to be located in the Zagros Mountains in the far east 29 A staircase led down to the gates of the underworld 29 The underworld itself is usually located even deeper below ground than the Abzu the body of freshwater which the ancient Mesopotamians believed lay deep beneath the earth 29 Gallery Edit A road through the Zagros mountains in Kurdistan region Iraq Wild goat herd Zagros Behbahan Fritillaria imperialis in Dena Iranian Zagros General view of Rawansar at foot of Shaho Mountain Kermanshah Zagros Mount OshtorankuhSee also EditAlborz Mountains Al Hajar Mountains technically a continuation of the Zagros in the Arabian Peninsula Caucasus Mountains Geography of Turkey Geography of Iraq Mount Alvand Mount Arbaba Mount Derak Mount Elbrus Mount Judi Qaleh gorikhteh Silakhor Plain Taurus Mountains Wildlife of Iran Wildlife of Iraq Wildlife of TurkeyReferences Edit a b Zagros Mountains Britannica Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 17 August 2017 Li Irane 66 Kes di Ketina Firokeka Bazirgani de Tene Kustin VOA Denge Amerika in Kurdish 18 February 2018 Retrieved 18 December 2019 چەند دیمەنێکی زنجیرە چیاکانی زاگرۆس Basnews in Kurdish Retrieved 18 December 2019 Salt Dome in the Zagros Mountains Iran NASA Earth Observatory Archived from the original on 1 October 2006 Retrieved 27 April 2006 Scheffel Richard L Wernet Susan J eds 1980 Natural Wonders of the World United States of America Reader s Digest Association Inc pp 422 423 ISBN 0 89577 087 3 Nilforoushan F Masson F Vernant P Vigny C Martinod J Abbassi M Nankali H Hatzfeld D Bayer R Tavakoli F Ashtiani A Doerflinger E Daignieres M Collard P Chery J 2003 GPS network monitors the Arabia Eurasia collision deformation in Iran Journal of Geodesy 77 411 422 Hessami K Nilforoushan F Talbot CJ 2006 Active deformation within the Zagros Mountains deduced from GPS measurements Journal of the Geological Society London 163 143 148 a b Nilforoushan F Koyi HA Swantesson J O H Talbot CJ 2008 Effect of basal friction on the surface and volumetric strain in models of convergent settings measured by laser scanner Journal of Structural Geology 30 366 379 Multimedia Gallery Gypsum from land to sea Iran s Zagros Mountains contain much water soluble gypsum NSF National Science Foundation nsf gov Murray Tim 2007 Milestones in Archaeology A Chronological Encyclopedia ABC CLIO p 454 ISBN 9781576071861 Ralph S Solecki Rose L Solecki amp Anagnostis P Agelarakis 2004 The Proto Neolithic Cemetery in Shanidar Cave Texas A amp M University Press pp 3 5 ISBN 9781585442720 Shidrang S 2018 The Middle to Upper Paleolithic Transition in the Zagros The Appearance and Evolution of the Baradostian In The Middle and Upper Paleolithic Archeology of the Levant and Beyond Y Nishiaki T Akazawa eds pp 133 156 Replacement of Neanderthals by Modern Humans Series Tokyo La Mediterranee Braudel Fernand 1985 Flammarion Paris Phillips Rod A Short History of Wine New York Harper Collins 2000 Eidem Jesper Laessoe Jorgen 2001 The Shemshara archives 1 The letters Historisk Filosofiske Skrifter 23 Copenhagen Kongelige Danske videnskabernes selskab ISBN 87 7876 245 6 Al Soof Behnam Abu 1970 Mounds in the Rania Plain and excavations at Tell Bazmusian 1956 Sumer 26 65 104 ISSN 0081 9271 Frey W W Probst 1986 Kurschner Harald ed A synopsis of the vegetation in Iran Contributions to the Vegetation of Southwest Asia Wiesbaden Germany L Reichert 9 43 ISBN 3 88226 297 4 Climate statistics for Amadiya Meteovista Retrieved 6 September 2014 Kuhle M 1974 Vorlaufige Ausfuhrungen morphologischer Feldarbeitsergebnisse aus den SE Iranischen Hochgebirgen am Beispiel des Kuh i Jupar Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie N F 18 4 pp 472 483 Kuhle M 1976 Beitrage zur Quartargeomorphologie SE Iranischer Hochgebirge Die quartare Vergletscherung des Kuh i Jupar Gottinger Geographische Abhandlungen 67 Vol I pp 1 209 Vol II pp 1 105 Kuhle M 2007 The Pleistocene Glaciation LGP and pre LGP pre LGM of SE Iranian Mountains exemplified by the Kuh i Jupar Kuh i Lalezar and Kuh i Hezar Massifs in the Zagros Polarforschung 77 2 3 pp 71 88 Erratum Clarification concerning Figure 15 Vol 78 1 2 2008 p 83 Elsevier Ehlers Quaternary Glaciations Extent and Chronology Volume 15 A closer look Welcome booksite elsevier com Sevruguin A 1880 Men with live lion National Museum of Ethnology in Leiden The Netherlands Stephen Arpee Collection Retrieved 26 March 2018 Cowan edited by C Wesley Nancy L Benco Patty Jo Watson 2006 The origins of agriculture an international perspective New ed ed Tuscaloosa Ala University of Alabama Press ISBN 0 8173 5349 6 Retrieved 5 May 2012 CS1 maint extra text authors list link M Heydari H Poorbabaei T Rostami M Begim Faghir A Salehi R Ostad Hashmei 2013 Plant species in Oak Quercus brantii Lindl understory and their relationship with physical and chemical propertiesof soil in different altitude classes in the Arghvan valley protected area Iran PDF Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences 2013 Vol 11 No 1 pp 97 110 Archived from the original PDF on 3 April 2015 Retrieved 10 April 2014 Haji Omran Mountain IQ018 PDF natrueiraq org Retrieved 22 June 2016 Kitchener A C Breitenmoser Wursten C Eizirik E Gentry A Werdelin L Wilting A Yamaguchi N Abramov A V Christiansen P Driscoll C Duckworth J W Johnson W Luo S J Meijaard E O Donoghue P Sanderson J Seymour K Bruford M Groves C Hoffmann M Nowell K Timmons Z Tobe S 2017 A revised taxonomy of the Felidae The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group PDF Cat News Special Issue 11 Heptner V G Sludskij A A 1992 1972 Lion Mlekopitajuscie Sovetskogo Soiuza Moskva Vyssaia Skola Mammals of the Soviet Union Volume II Part 2 Carnivora Hyaenas and Cats Washington DC Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation pp 82 95 ISBN 90 04 08876 8 a b c Black Jeremy Green Anthony 1992 Gods Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia An Illustrated Dictionary Austin Texas University of Texas Press p 180 ISBN 0714117056External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Zagros Mountains Zagros Photos from Iran Livius The genus Dionysia Iran Timeline of Art History Mesopotamia 9000 500 B C Major Peaks of the Zagros Mountains 33 40 00 N 47 00 00 E 33 66667 N 47 00000 E 33 66667 47 00000 Coordinates 33 40 00 N 47 00 00 E 33 66667 N 47 00000 E 33 66667 47 00000 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zagros Mountains amp oldid 1053575004, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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