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Wikipedia

Zakat

Not to be confused with Zagat.
For other uses, see Zakat (disambiguation).

Zakat (Arabic:زكاة‎; , "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal زكاة المال, "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of almsgiving to the Muslim Ummah treated in Islam as a religious obligation, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (salat) in importance.

Silver or gold coinage is one way of granting zakat.

As one of the Five Pillars of Islam, zakat is a religious duty for all Muslims who meet the necessary criteria of wealth to help the needy. It is a mandatory charitable contribution, often considered to be a tax. The payment and disputes on zakat have played a major role in the history of Islam, notably during the Ridda wars.[page needed]

Zakat on wealth is based on the value of all of one's possessions. It is customarily 2.5% (or140) of a Muslim's total savings and wealth above a minimum amount known as nisab, but Islamic scholars differ on how much nisab is and other aspects of zakat. According to Islamic doctrine, the collected amount should be paid to the poor and the needy, Zakat collectors, recent converts to Islam, those to be freed from slavery, those in debt, in the cause of Allah and to benefit the stranded traveller.

Today, in most Muslim-majority countries, zakat contributions are voluntary, while in Libya, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen, zakat is mandated and collected by the state (as of 2015).

Shias, unlike Sunnis, traditionally regarded zakat as a private and voluntary action, and they give zakat to imam-sponsored rather than state-sponsored collectors.

Contents

It came from Arabic root ز ك و. It means purification . Zakat is considered a way to purify one's income and wealth from sometimes worldly, impure ways of acquisition. According to Sachiko Murata and William Chittick, "Just as ablutions purify the body and salat purifies the soul (in Islam), so zakat purifies possessions and makes them pleasing to God."

Quran

The Quran discusses charity in many verses, some of which relate to zakat. The word zakat, with the meaning used in Islam now, is found, for example, in suras: 7:156, 9:60, 19:31, 19:55, 21:73, 23:4, 27:3, 30:39, 31:4 and 41:7. Zakat is found in the early Medinan suras and described as obligatory for Muslims. It is given for the sake of salvation. Muslims believe those who give zakat can expect reward from God in the afterlife, while neglecting to give zakat can result in damnation. Zakat is considered part of the covenant between God and a Muslim.

Verse 2.177 (Picktall translation) sums up the Quranic view of charity and almsgiving (Another name for Zakat is the "Poor Due"):

It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces to the East and the West; but righteous is he who believeth in Allah and the Last Day and the angels and the Scripture and the Prophets; and giveth his wealth, for love of Him, to kinsfolk and to orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and to those who ask, and to set slaves free; and observeth proper worship and payeth the poor due. And those who keep their treaty when they make one, and the patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress. Such are they who are sincere. Such are the God fearing. - 2:177

According to Yusuf al-Qaradawi, verse 9.5 of the Quran makes zakat one of three prerequisites for pagans to become Muslims: "but if they repent, establish prayers, and practice zakat they are your brethren in faith".

The Quran also lists who should receive the benefits of zakat, discussed in more detail below.

Hadith

Each of the most trusted hadith collections in Islam have a book dedicated to zakat. Sahih Bukhari's Book 24, Sahih Muslim's Book 5, and Sunan Abu-Dawud's Book 9 discuss various aspects of zakat, including who must pay, how much, when and what. The 2.5% rate is also mentioned in the hadiths.

The hadiths admonish those who do not give the zakat. According to the hadith, refusal to pay or mockery of those who pay zakat is a sign of hypocrisy, and God will not accept the prayers of such people. The sunna also describes God's punishment for those who refuse or fail to pay zakat. On the day of Judgment, those who did not give the zakat will be held accountable and punished.

The hadith contain advice on the state-authorized collection of the zakat. The collectors are required not to take more than what is due, and those who are paying the zakat are asked not to evade payment. The hadith also warn of punishment for those who take zakat when they are not eligible to receive it (see Distribution below).

Amount

Main article: Calculation of Zakāt

The amount of zakat to be paid by an individual depends on the amount of money and the type of assets the individual possesses. The Quran does not provide specific guidelines on which types of wealth are taxable under the zakat, nor does it specify percentages to be given. But the customary practice is that the amount of zakat paid on capital assets (e.g. money) is 2.5% (140). Zakat is additionally payable on agricultural goods, precious metals, minerals, and livestock at a rate varying between 2.5% and 20% (1/5), depending on the type of goods.

Zakat is usually payable on assets continuously owned over one lunar year that are in excess of the nisab, a minimum monetary value. However, Islamic scholars have disagreed on this issue. For example, Abu Hanifa did not regard the nisab limit to be a pre-requisite for zakat, in the case of land crops, fruits and minerals. Other differences between Islamic scholars on zakat and nisab are acknowledged as follows by Yusuf al-Qaradawi,

Unlike prayers, we observe that even the ratio, the exemption, the kinds of wealth that are zakatable are subject to differences among scholars. Such differences have serious implications for Muslims at large when it comes to their application of the Islamic obligation of zakat. For example, some scholars consider the wealth of children and insane individuals zakatable, others don't. Some scholars consider all agricultural products zakatable, others restrict zakat to specific kinds only. Some consider debts zakatable, others don't. Similar differences exist for business assets and women's jewelry. Some require certain minimum (nisab) for zakatability, some don't. etc. The same kind of differences also exist about the disbursement of zakat.
– Shiekh Mahmud Shaltut

Failure to pay

A slot for giving zakat at the Zaouia Moulay Idriss II in Fez, Morocco

The consequence of failure to pay zakat has been a subject of extensive legal debate in traditional Islamic jurisprudence, particularly when a Muslim is willing to pay zakat but refuses to pay it to a certain group or the state. According to classical jurists, if the collector is unjust in the collection of zakat but just in its distribution, the concealment of property from him is allowed. If, on the other hand, the collector is just in the collection but unjust in the distribution, the concealment of property from him is an obligation (wajib). Furthermore, if the zakat is concealed from a just collector because the property owner wanted to pay his zakat to the poor himself, they held that he should not be punished for it. If collection of zakat by force was not possible, use of military force to extract it was seen as justified, as was done by Abu Bakr during the Ridda Wars, on the argument that refusing to submit to just orders is a form of treason. However, Abu Hanifa, the founder of the Hanafi school, disapproved of fighting when the property owners undertake to distribute the zakat to the poor themselves.

Some classical jurists held the view that any Muslim who consciously refuses to pay zakat is an apostate, since the failure to believe that it is a religious duty (fard) is a form of unbelief (kufr), and should be killed. However, prevailing opinion among classical jurists prescribed sanctions such as fines, imprisonment or corporal punishment. Some classical and contemporary scholars such as Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh and Yusuf al-Qaradawi have stated that the person who fails to pay Zakat should have the payment taken from them, along with half of his wealth. Additionally, those who failed to pay the zakat would face God's punishment in the afterlife on the day of Judgment.

In modern states where zakat payment is compulsory, failure to pay is regulated by state law similarly to tax evasion.[citation needed]

Distribution

According to the Quran's Surah Al-Tawba, there are eight categories of people (asnaf) who qualify to benefit from zakat funds.

"Alms are for the poor and the needy, and those employed to administer the (funds); for those whose hearts have been (recently) reconciled (to Truth); for those in bondage and in debt; in the cause of Allah; and for the wayfarer: (thus is it) ordained by Allah, and Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom."

Qur'an, Sura 9 (Al-Tawba), ayat 60

Islamic scholars have traditionally interpreted this verse as identifying the following eight categories of Muslim causes to be the proper recipients of zakat:

  1. Those living without means of livelihood (Al-Fuqarā'), the poor
  2. Those who cannot meet their basic needs (Al-Masākīn), the needy
  3. To zakat collectors (Al-Āmilīyn 'Alihā)
  4. To persuade those sympathetic to or expected to convert to Islam (Al-Mu'allafatu Qulūbuhum), recent converts to Islam, and potential allies in the cause of Islam
  5. To free from slavery or servitude (Fir-Riqāb), slaves of Muslims who have or intend to free from their master[clarification needed] by means of a kitabah contract
  6. Those who have incurred overwhelming debts while attempting to satisfy their basic needs (Al-Ghārimīn), debtors who in pursuit of a worthy goal incurred a debt
  7. Those fighting for a religious cause or a cause of God (Fī Sabīlillāh), or for Jihad in the way of Allah by means of pen, word, or sword, or for Islamic warriors who fight against the unbelievers but are not salaried soldiers.: h8.17
  8. Wayfarers, stranded travellers (Ibnu Al-Sabīl), travellers who are traveling with a worthy goal but cannot reach their destination without financial assistance

Zakat should not be given to one's own parents, grandparents, children, grandchildren, spouses or the descendants of the Muhammad.

Neither the Quran nor the Hadiths specify the relative division of zakat into the above eight categories. According to the Reliance of the Traveller, the Shafi'i school requires zakat is to be distributed equally among the eight categories of recipients, while the Hanafi school permits zakat to be distributed to all the categories, some of them, or just one of them.: h8.7 Classical schools of Islamic law, including Shafi'i, are unanimous that collectors of zakat are to be paid first, with the balance to be distributed equally amongst the remaining seven categories of recipients, even in cases where one group's need is more demanding.[citation needed]

Muslim scholars disagree whether zakat recipients can include non-Muslims. Islamic scholarship, historically, has taught that only Muslims can be recipients of zakat. In recent times, some state that zakat may be paid to non-Muslims after the needs of Muslims have been met, finding nothing in the Quran or sunna to indicate that zakat should be paid to Muslims only.

Additionally, the zakat funds may be spent on the administration of a centralized zakat collection system. Representatives of the Salafi movement include propagation of Islam and any struggle in righteous cause among permissible ways of spending, while others argue that zakat funds should be spent on social welfare and economic development projects, or science and technology education. Some hold spending them for defense to be permissible if a Muslim country is under attack. Also, it is forbidden to disburse zakat funds into investments instead of being given to one of the above eight categories of recipients.

Role in society

The zakat is considered by Muslims to be an act of piety through which one expresses concern for the well-being of fellow Muslims, as well as preserving social harmony between the wealthy and the poor. Zakat promotes a more equitable redistribution of wealth and fosters a sense of solidarity amongst members of the Ummah.

Zakat, an Islamic practice initiated by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, was first collected on the first day of Muharram. It has played an important role throughout its history. Schact suggests that the idea of zakat may have entered Islam from Judaism, with roots in the Hebrew and Aramaic word zakut. However, some Islamic scholars disagree that the Qur'anic verses on zakat (or zakah) have roots in Judaism.

The caliph Abu Bakr, believed by Sunni Muslims to be Muhammad's successor, was the first to institute a statutory zakat system. Abu Bakr established the principle that the zakat must be paid to the legitimate representative of Muhammad's authority (i.e. himself). Other Muslims disagreed and refused to pay zakat to Abu Bakr, leading to accusations of apostasy and, ultimately, the Ridda wars.

The second and third caliphs, Umar ibn al-Khattab and Usman ibn Affan, continued Abu Bakr's codification of the zakat. Uthman also modified the zakat collection protocol by decreeing that only "apparent" wealth was taxable, which had the effect of limiting zakat to mostly being paid on agricultural land and produce. During the reign of Ali ibn Abu Talib, the issue of zakat was tied to legitimacy of his government. After Ali, his supporters refused to pay zakat to Muawiyah I, as they did not recognize his legitimacy.

The practice of Islamic state-administered zakat was short-lived in Medina. During the reign of Umar bin Abdul Aziz (717–720 A.D.), it is reported that no one in Medina needed the zakat. After him, zakat came more to be considered as an individual responsibility. This view changed over Islamic history. Sunni Muslims and rulers, for example, considered collection and disbursement of zakat as one of the functions of an Islamic state; this view has continued in modern Islamic countries.

Zakat is one of the five pillars of Islam, and in various Islamic polities of the past was expected to be paid by all practising Muslims who have the financial means (nisab). In addition to their zakat obligations, Muslims were encouraged to make voluntary contributions (sadaqat). The zakat was not collected from non-Muslims, although they were required to pay the jizyah tax. Depending on the region, the dominant portion of zakat went typically to Amil (the zakat collectors) or Sabīlillāh (those fighting for religious cause, the caretaker of local mosque, or those working in the cause of God such as proselytizing non-Muslims to convert to Islam).

According to the researcher Russell Powell in 2010, zakat was mandatory by state law in Libya, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen. There were government-run voluntary zakat contribution programs in Bahrain, Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Maldives and the United Arab Emirates.

In a 2019 study conducted by the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding that examined philanthropy for American Muslims in comparison to other faith and non-faith groups, it was found that for American Muslims, Zakat was an important driver of charitable giving. This results in American Muslims being the most likely faith group studied to be motivated to donate based on a believed religious obligation (zakat), and a “feeling that those with more should help those with less”, referencing again the concept and religious imperative behind Zakat.

Zakat status in Muslim countries

Country Status
Afghanistan No government system
Algeria No government system
Azerbaijan No government system
Bahrain Voluntary
Bangladesh Voluntary
Burkina Faso No government system
Chad No government system
Egypt Voluntary
Guinea No government system
Indonesia Voluntary
Iran Voluntary
Iraq No government system
Jordan Voluntary
Kazakhstan No government system
Kuwait Voluntary
Lebanon Voluntary
Libya Mandatory
Malaysia Mandatory
Maldives Voluntary
Mali No government system
Mauritania No government system
Morocco No government system
Niger No government system
Nigeria No government system
Oman No government system
Pakistan Mandatory
Qatar No government system
Saudi Arabia Mandatory
Senegal No government system
Sierra Leone No government system
Somalia No government system
Sudan Mandatory
Syria No government system
Tajikistan No government system
Gambia No government system
Tunisia No government system
Turkey No government system
Turkmenistan No government system
United Arab Emirates Voluntary
Uzbekistan No government system
Yemen Mandatory

Collection

Today, in most Muslim countries, Zakat is at the discretion of Muslims over how and whether to pay, typically enforced by fear of God, peer pressure and an individual's personal feelings. Among the Sunni Muslims, The Zakat committees are established, linked to a religious cause or local mosque, which collect zakat. Among the Shia Muslims, deputies on behalf of Imams collect the zakat.

In six of the 47 Muslim-majority countries—Libya, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Yemen—zakat is obligatory and collected by the state. In Jordan, Bahrain, Kuwait, Lebanon, and Bangladesh, the zakat is regulated by the state, but contributions are voluntary.

The states where Zakat is compulsory differ in their definition of the base for zakat computation. Zakat is generally levied on livestock (except in Pakistan) and agricultural produce, although the types of taxable livestock and produce differ from country to country. Zakat is imposed on cash and precious metals in four countries with different methods of assessment. Income is subject to zakat in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia, while only Sudan imposes zakat on "wealth that yields income". In Pakistan, property is exempt from the zakat calculation basis, and the compulsory zakat is primarily collected from the agriculture sector.

Under compulsory systems of zakat tax collection, such as Malaysia and Pakistan, evasion is very common and the alms tax is regressive. A considerable number of Muslims accept their duty to pay zakat, but deny that the state has a right to levy it, and they may pay zakat voluntarily while evading official collection. In discretion-based systems of collection, studies suggest zakat is collected from and paid only by a fraction of Muslim population who can pay.

In the United Kingdom, which has a Muslim minority, more than three out of ten Muslims gave to charity (Zakat being described as "the Muslim practice of charitable donations"), according to a 2013 poll of 4000 people. According to the self-reported poll, British Muslims, on average, gave US$567 to charity in 2013, compared to $412 for Jews, $308 for Protestants, $272 for Catholics and $177 for atheists.

Distribution

The primary sources of sharia also do not specify to whom the zakat should be paid – to zakat collectors claiming to represent one class of zakat beneficiary (for example, poor), collectors who were representing religious bodies, or collectors representing the Islamic state. This has caused significant conflicts and allegations of zakat abuse within the Islamic community, both historically and in modern times.

Fi Sabillillah is the most prominent asnaf in Southeast Asian Muslim societies, where it broadly construed to include funding missionary work, Quranic schools and anything else that serves the Islamic community (ummah) in general.

Role in society

In 2012, Islamic financial analysts estimated annual zakat spending exceeded US$200 billion per year, which they estimated to be 15 times more than dai provided than year by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Islamic scholars and development workers state that much of this zakat practice is mismanaged, wasted or ineffective. About a quarter of the Muslim world continues to live on $1.25 a day or less, according to the 2012 report.

A 1999 study of Sudan and Pakistan, where zakat is mandated by the state, estimated that zakat proceeds ranged between 0.3 and 0.5 percent of GDP, while a more recent report put zakat proceeds in Malaysia at 0.1% of GDP. These numbers are far below what was expected when the governments of these countries tried to Islamize their economies, and the collected amount is too small to have a sizeable macroeconomic effect.

In a 2014 study, Nasim Shirazi states widespread poverty persists in Islamic world despite zakat collections every year. Over 70% of the Muslim population in most Muslim countries is impoverished and lives on less than US$2 per day. In over 10 Muslim-majority countries, over 50% of the population lived on less than $1.25 per day income, states Shirazi. Zakat has so far failed to relieve large scale absolute poverty among Muslims in most Muslim countries.

Zakat is required of Muslims only. For non-Muslims living in an Islamic state, sharia was historically seen as mandating jizya (poll tax). Other forms of taxation on Muslims or non-Muslims, that have been used in Islamic history, include kharaj (land tax), khums (tax on booty and loot seized from non-Muslims, sudden wealth), ushur (tax at state border, sea port, and each city border on goods movement, customs), kari (house tax) and chari (sometimes called maara, pasture tax).

There are differences in the interpretation and scope of zakat and other related taxes in various sects of Islam. For example, khums is interpreted differently by Sunnis and Shi'ites, with Shia expected to pay one fifth of their excess income after expenses as khums, and Sunni don't. At least a tenth part of zakat and khums every year, among Shi'ites, after its collection by Imam and his religious deputies under its doctrine of niyaba, goes as income for its hierarchical system of Shia clergy. Among Ismaili sub-sect of Shias, the mandatory taxes which includes zakat, is called dasond, and 20% of the collected amount is set aside as income for the Imams. Some branches of Shia Islam treat the right to lead as Imam and right to receive 20% of collected zakat and other alms as a hereditary right of its clergy.[citation needed]

Sadaqah is another related term for charity, usually construed as a discretionary counterpart to zakat.

Zakat al-Fitr

Further information: Zakat al-Fitr

Zakat al-Fitr or Sadaqat al-Fitr is another, smaller charitable obligation, mandatory for all Muslims — male or female, minor or adult as long as he/she has the means to do so — that is traditionally paid at the end of the fasting in the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. The collected amount is used to pay the zakat collectors and to the poor Muslims so that they may be provided with a means to celebrate 'Eid al-Fitr (the festival of breaking the fast) following Ramadan, along with the rest of the Muslims.

Zakat al-Fitr is a fixed amount assessed per person, while Zakat al mal is based on personal income and property. According to one source, the Hidaya Foundation, the suggested Zakat al Fitr donation is based on the price of 1 Saa (approx. 3 kg) of rice or wheat at local costs, (as of 2015, approximately $7.00 in the U.S.). In U.K, according to Zakatcalc the values would be appx. £3.50 (wheat), £6.40 (barley), £15 (dates) and £20.50 (raisins) for year 2021.

Islam related
Charity practices in other religions
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Citations

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Zakat
Zakat Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Zakah Not to be confused with Zagat For other uses see Zakat disambiguation Zakat Arabic زكاة zaˈkaːt that which purifies 1 also Zakat al mal zaˈkaːt alˈmaːl زكاة المال zakat on wealth 2 or Zakah 3 is a form of almsgiving to the Muslim Ummah 1 treated in Islam as a religious obligation 4 5 which by Quranic ranking is next after prayer salat in importance 6 Silver or gold coinage is one way of granting zakat As one of the Five Pillars of Islam zakat is a religious duty for all Muslims who meet the necessary criteria of wealth to help the needy 7 It is a mandatory charitable contribution often considered to be a tax 8 9 The payment and disputes on zakat have played a major role in the history of Islam notably during the Ridda wars 10 11 page needed Zakat on wealth is based on the value of all of one s possessions 12 13 It is customarily 2 5 or 1 40 14 of a Muslim s total savings and wealth above a minimum amount known as nisab 15 but Islamic scholars differ on how much nisab is and other aspects of zakat 15 According to Islamic doctrine the collected amount should be paid to the poor and the needy Zakat collectors recent converts to Islam those to be freed from slavery those in debt in the cause of Allah and to benefit the stranded traveller Today in most Muslim majority countries zakat contributions are voluntary while in Libya Malaysia Pakistan Saudi Arabia Sudan and Yemen zakat is mandated and collected by the state as of 2015 16 17 Shias unlike Sunnis traditionally regarded zakat as a private and voluntary action and they give zakat to imam sponsored rather than state sponsored collectors 18 19 20 Contents 1 Etymology 2 Doctrine 2 1 Quran 2 2 Hadith 2 3 Amount 2 4 Failure to pay 2 5 Distribution 2 6 Role in society 3 Historical practice 4 Contemporary practice 4 1 Zakat status in Muslim countries 4 2 Collection 4 3 Distribution 4 4 Role in society 5 Related terms 5 1 Zakat al Fitr 6 See also 7 References 7 1 Citations 7 2 Books and articles 8 Further reading 9 External linksEtymology EditIt came from Arabic root ز ك و It means purification 21 1 Zakat is considered a way to purify one s income and wealth from sometimes worldly impure ways of acquisition 1 22 23 24 According to Sachiko Murata and William Chittick Just as ablutions purify the body and salat purifies the soul in Islam so zakat purifies possessions and makes them pleasing to God 25 26 Doctrine EditQuran Edit The Quran discusses charity in many verses some of which relate to zakat The word zakat with the meaning used in Islam now is found for example in suras 7 156 9 60 19 31 19 55 21 73 23 4 27 3 30 39 31 4 and 41 7 27 28 Zakat is found in the early Medinan suras and described as obligatory for Muslims 26 It is given for the sake of salvation Muslims believe those who give zakat can expect reward from God in the afterlife while neglecting to give zakat can result in damnation Zakat is considered part of the covenant between God and a Muslim 26 Verse 2 177 Picktall translation sums up the Quranic view of charity and almsgiving Another name for Zakat is the Poor Due It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces to the East and the West but righteous is he who believeth in Allah and the Last Day and the angels and the Scripture and the Prophets and giveth his wealth for love of Him to kinsfolk and to orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and to those who ask and to set slaves free and observeth proper worship and payeth the poor due And those who keep their treaty when they make one and the patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress Such are they who are sincere Such are the God fearing 2 177 According to Yusuf al Qaradawi verse 9 5 of the Quran 29 makes zakat one of three prerequisites for pagans to become Muslims but if they repent establish prayers and practice zakat they are your brethren in faith 7 The Quran also lists who should receive the benefits of zakat discussed in more detail below 30 Hadith Edit Each of the most trusted hadith collections in Islam have a book dedicated to zakat Sahih Bukhari s Book 24 31 32 Sahih Muslim s Book 5 33 34 and Sunan Abu Dawud s Book 9 35 36 discuss various aspects of zakat including who must pay how much when and what The 2 5 rate is also mentioned in the hadiths 37 The hadiths admonish those who do not give the zakat According to the hadith refusal to pay or mockery of those who pay zakat is a sign of hypocrisy and God will not accept the prayers of such people 38 39 The sunna also describes God s punishment for those who refuse or fail to pay zakat 40 On the day of Judgment those who did not give the zakat will be held accountable and punished 30 The hadith contain advice on the state authorized collection of the zakat The collectors are required not to take more than what is due and those who are paying the zakat are asked not to evade payment The hadith also warn of punishment for those who take zakat when they are not eligible to receive it see Distribution below 30 Amount Edit Main article Calculation of Zakat The amount of zakat to be paid by an individual depends on the amount of money and the type of assets the individual possesses The Quran does not provide specific guidelines on which types of wealth are taxable under the zakat nor does it specify percentages to be given But the customary practice is that the amount of zakat paid on capital assets e g money is 2 5 1 40 41 Zakat is additionally payable on agricultural goods precious metals minerals and livestock at a rate varying between 2 5 and 20 1 5 depending on the type of goods 42 43 Zakat is usually payable on assets continuously owned over one lunar year that are in excess of the nisab a minimum monetary value 44 However Islamic scholars have disagreed on this issue For example Abu Hanifa did not regard the nisab limit to be a pre requisite for zakat in the case of land crops fruits and minerals 45 Other differences between Islamic scholars on zakat and nisab are acknowledged as follows by Yusuf al Qaradawi 15 Unlike prayers we observe that even the ratio the exemption the kinds of wealth that are zakatable are subject to differences among scholars Such differences have serious implications for Muslims at large when it comes to their application of the Islamic obligation of zakat For example some scholars consider the wealth of children and insane individuals zakatable others don t Some scholars consider all agricultural products zakatable others restrict zakat to specific kinds only Some consider debts zakatable others don t Similar differences exist for business assets and women s jewelry Some require certain minimum nisab for zakatability some don t etc The same kind of differences also exist about the disbursement of zakat Shiekh Mahmud Shaltut 15 Failure to pay Edit A slot for giving zakat at the Zaouia Moulay Idriss II in Fez Morocco 46 The consequence of failure to pay zakat has been a subject of extensive legal debate in traditional Islamic jurisprudence particularly when a Muslim is willing to pay zakat but refuses to pay it to a certain group or the state 47 48 According to classical jurists if the collector is unjust in the collection of zakat but just in its distribution the concealment of property from him is allowed 47 If on the other hand the collector is just in the collection but unjust in the distribution the concealment of property from him is an obligation wajib 47 Furthermore if the zakat is concealed from a just collector because the property owner wanted to pay his zakat to the poor himself they held that he should not be punished for it 47 If collection of zakat by force was not possible use of military force to extract it was seen as justified as was done by Abu Bakr during the Ridda Wars on the argument that refusing to submit to just orders is a form of treason 47 However Abu Hanifa the founder of the Hanafi school disapproved of fighting when the property owners undertake to distribute the zakat to the poor themselves 47 Some classical jurists held the view that any Muslim who consciously refuses to pay zakat is an apostate since the failure to believe that it is a religious duty fard is a form of unbelief kufr and should be killed 49 50 51 However prevailing opinion among classical jurists prescribed sanctions such as fines imprisonment or corporal punishment 47 Some classical and contemporary scholars such as Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh and Yusuf al Qaradawi have stated that the person who fails to pay Zakat should have the payment taken from them along with half of his wealth 52 53 Additionally those who failed to pay the zakat would face God s punishment in the afterlife on the day of Judgment 30 In modern states where zakat payment is compulsory failure to pay is regulated by state law similarly to tax evasion citation needed Distribution Edit According to the Quran s Surah Al Tawba there are eight categories of people asnaf who qualify to benefit from zakat funds 54 Alms are for the poor and the needy and those employed to administer the funds for those whose hearts have been recently reconciled to Truth for those in bondage and in debt in the cause of Allah and for the wayfarer thus is it ordained by Allah and Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom Qur an Sura 9 Al Tawba ayat 60 55 Islamic scholars have traditionally interpreted this verse as identifying the following eight categories of Muslim causes to be the proper recipients of zakat 56 57 Those living without means of livelihood Al Fuqara 56 the poor 57 Those who cannot meet their basic needs Al Masakin 56 the needy 57 To zakat collectors Al Amiliyn Aliha 56 57 To persuade those sympathetic to or expected to convert to Islam Al Mu allafatu Qulubuhum 56 recent converts to Islam 54 57 58 and potential allies in the cause of Islam 57 59 To free from slavery or servitude Fir Riqab 56 slaves of Muslims who have or intend to free from their master clarification needed by means of a kitabah contract 57 59 Those who have incurred overwhelming debts while attempting to satisfy their basic needs Al Gharimin 56 debtors who in pursuit of a worthy goal incurred a debt 57 Those fighting for a religious cause or a cause of God Fi Sabilillah 56 or for Jihad in the way of Allah by means of pen word or sword 60 or for Islamic warriors who fight against the unbelievers but are not salaried soldiers 57 59 61 h8 17 Wayfarers stranded travellers Ibnu Al Sabil 56 travellers who are traveling with a worthy goal but cannot reach their destination without financial assistance 57 59 Zakat should not be given to one s own parents grandparents children grandchildren spouses or the descendants of the Muhammad 62 Neither the Quran nor the Hadiths specify the relative division of zakat into the above eight categories 63 According to the Reliance of the Traveller the Shafi i school requires zakat is to be distributed equally among the eight categories of recipients while the Hanafi school permits zakat to be distributed to all the categories some of them or just one of them 61 h8 7 Classical schools of Islamic law including Shafi i are unanimous that collectors of zakat are to be paid first with the balance to be distributed equally amongst the remaining seven categories of recipients even in cases where one group s need is more demanding citation needed Muslim scholars disagree whether zakat recipients can include non Muslims Islamic scholarship historically has taught that only Muslims can be recipients of zakat 64 In recent times some state that zakat may be paid to non Muslims after the needs of Muslims have been met finding nothing in the Quran or sunna to indicate that zakat should be paid to Muslims only 62 Additionally the zakat funds may be spent on the administration of a centralized zakat collection system 41 Representatives of the Salafi movement include propagation of Islam and any struggle in righteous cause among permissible ways of spending while others argue that zakat funds should be spent on social welfare and economic development projects or science and technology education 62 Some hold spending them for defense to be permissible if a Muslim country is under attack 62 Also it is forbidden to disburse zakat funds into investments instead of being given to one of the above eight categories of recipients 65 Role in society Edit The zakat is considered by Muslims to be an act of piety through which one expresses concern for the well being of fellow Muslims 58 as well as preserving social harmony between the wealthy and the poor 66 Zakat promotes a more equitable redistribution of wealth and fosters a sense of solidarity amongst members of the Ummah 67 Historical practice EditZakat an Islamic practice initiated by the Islamic prophet Muhammad was first collected on the first day of Muharram 68 It has played an important role throughout its history 69 Schact suggests that the idea of zakat may have entered Islam from Judaism with roots in the Hebrew and Aramaic word zakut 26 70 However some Islamic scholars 70 disagree that the Qur anic verses on zakat or zakah have roots in Judaism 71 The caliph Abu Bakr believed by Sunni Muslims to be Muhammad s successor was the first to institute a statutory zakat system 72 Abu Bakr established the principle that the zakat must be paid to the legitimate representative of Muhammad s authority i e himself 69 Other Muslims disagreed and refused to pay zakat to Abu Bakr leading to accusations of apostasy and ultimately the Ridda wars 10 69 73 The second and third caliphs Umar ibn al Khattab and Usman ibn Affan continued Abu Bakr s codification of the zakat 69 Uthman also modified the zakat collection protocol by decreeing that only apparent wealth was taxable which had the effect of limiting zakat to mostly being paid on agricultural land and produce 74 During the reign of Ali ibn Abu Talib the issue of zakat was tied to legitimacy of his government After Ali his supporters refused to pay zakat to Muawiyah I as they did not recognize his legitimacy 69 The practice of Islamic state administered zakat was short lived in Medina During the reign of Umar bin Abdul Aziz 717 720 A D it is reported that no one in Medina needed the zakat After him zakat came more to be considered as an individual responsibility 69 This view changed over Islamic history Sunni Muslims and rulers for example considered collection and disbursement of zakat as one of the functions of an Islamic state this view has continued in modern Islamic countries 75 Zakat is one of the five pillars of Islam and in various Islamic polities of the past was expected to be paid by all practising Muslims who have the financial means nisab 76 In addition to their zakat obligations Muslims were encouraged to make voluntary contributions sadaqat 77 The zakat was not collected from non Muslims although they were required to pay the jizyah tax 78 79 Depending on the region the dominant portion of zakat went typically to Amil the zakat collectors or Sabilillah those fighting for religious cause the caretaker of local mosque or those working in the cause of God such as proselytizing non Muslims to convert to Islam 63 80 Contemporary practice EditAccording to the researcher Russell Powell in 2010 zakat was mandatory by state law in Libya Malaysia Pakistan Saudi Arabia Sudan and Yemen There were government run voluntary zakat contribution programs in Bahrain Bangladesh Egypt Indonesia Iran Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Maldives and the United Arab Emirates 81 In a 2019 study conducted by the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding that examined philanthropy for American Muslims in comparison to other faith and non faith groups it was found that for American Muslims Zakat was an important driver of charitable giving This results in American Muslims being the most likely faith group studied to be motivated to donate based on a believed religious obligation zakat and a feeling that those with more should help those with less referencing again the concept and religious imperative behind Zakat 82 Zakat status in Muslim countries Edit Country Status Afghanistan No government system Algeria No government system Azerbaijan No government system Bahrain Voluntary Bangladesh Voluntary Burkina Faso No government system Chad No government system Egypt Voluntary Guinea No government system Indonesia Voluntary Iran Voluntary Iraq No government system Jordan Voluntary Kazakhstan No government system Kuwait Voluntary Lebanon Voluntary Libya Mandatory Malaysia Mandatory Maldives Voluntary Mali No government system Mauritania No government system Morocco No government system Niger No government system Nigeria No government system Oman No government system Pakistan Mandatory Qatar No government system Saudi Arabia Mandatory Senegal No government system Sierra Leone No government system Somalia No government system Sudan Mandatory Syria No government system Tajikistan No government system Gambia No government system Tunisia No government system Turkey No government system Turkmenistan No government system United Arab Emirates Voluntary Uzbekistan No government system Yemen Mandatory 81 Collection Edit Zakat donation box at Taipei Grand Mosque in Taipei Taiwan Today in most Muslim countries Zakat is at the discretion of Muslims over how and whether to pay typically enforced by fear of God peer pressure and an individual s personal feelings 16 Among the Sunni Muslims The Zakat committees are established linked to a religious cause or local mosque which collect zakat 83 Among the Shia Muslims deputies on behalf of Imams collect the zakat 84 In six of the 47 Muslim majority countries Libya Malaysia Pakistan Saudi Arabia Sudan and Yemen zakat is obligatory and collected by the state 16 17 85 86 In Jordan Bahrain Kuwait Lebanon and Bangladesh the zakat is regulated by the state but contributions are voluntary 87 The states where Zakat is compulsory differ in their definition of the base for zakat computation 85 Zakat is generally levied on livestock except in Pakistan and agricultural produce although the types of taxable livestock and produce differ from country to country 85 Zakat is imposed on cash and precious metals in four countries with different methods of assessment 85 Income is subject to zakat in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia while only Sudan imposes zakat on wealth that yields income 85 In Pakistan property is exempt from the zakat calculation basis and the compulsory zakat is primarily collected from the agriculture sector 80 Under compulsory systems of zakat tax collection such as Malaysia and Pakistan evasion is very common and the alms tax is regressive 16 A considerable number of Muslims accept their duty to pay zakat but deny that the state has a right to levy it and they may pay zakat voluntarily while evading official collection 85 In discretion based systems of collection studies suggest zakat is collected from and paid only by a fraction of Muslim population who can pay 16 In the United Kingdom which has a Muslim minority more than three out of ten Muslims gave to charity Zakat being described as the Muslim practice of charitable donations according to a 2013 poll of 4000 people 88 According to the self reported poll British Muslims on average gave US 567 to charity in 2013 compared to 412 for Jews 308 for Protestants 272 for Catholics and 177 for atheists 88 Distribution Edit The primary sources of sharia also do not specify to whom the zakat should be paid to zakat collectors claiming to represent one class of zakat beneficiary for example poor collectors who were representing religious bodies or collectors representing the Islamic state 63 89 This has caused significant conflicts and allegations of zakat abuse within the Islamic community both historically 63 and in modern times 90 Fi Sabillillah is the most prominent asnaf in Southeast Asian Muslim societies where it broadly construed to include funding missionary work Quranic schools and anything else that serves the Islamic community ummah in general 91 Role in society Edit In 2012 Islamic financial analysts estimated annual zakat spending exceeded US 200 billion per year which they estimated to be 15 times more than dai provided than year by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs 92 93 Islamic scholars and development workers state that much of this zakat practice is mismanaged wasted or ineffective 92 About a quarter of the Muslim world 94 continues to live on 1 25 a day or less according to the 2012 report 92 A 1999 study of Sudan and Pakistan where zakat is mandated by the state estimated that zakat proceeds ranged between 0 3 and 0 5 percent of GDP while a more recent report put zakat proceeds in Malaysia at 0 1 of GDP 85 These numbers are far below what was expected when the governments of these countries tried to Islamize their economies and the collected amount is too small to have a sizeable macroeconomic effect 85 In a 2014 study 95 Nasim Shirazi states widespread poverty persists in Islamic world despite zakat collections every year Over 70 of the Muslim population in most Muslim countries is impoverished and lives on less than US 2 per day In over 10 Muslim majority countries over 50 of the population lived on less than 1 25 per day income states Shirazi 95 Zakat has so far failed to relieve large scale absolute poverty among Muslims in most Muslim countries 95 Related terms EditZakat is required of Muslims only For non Muslims living in an Islamic state sharia was historically seen as mandating jizya poll tax 96 Other forms of taxation on Muslims or non Muslims that have been used in Islamic history include kharaj land tax 97 khums tax on booty and loot seized from non Muslims sudden wealth 98 ushur tax at state border sea port and each city border on goods movement customs 99 kari house tax 100 and chari sometimes called maara pasture tax 101 102 There are differences in the interpretation and scope of zakat and other related taxes in various sects of Islam For example khums is interpreted differently by Sunnis and Shi ites with Shia expected to pay one fifth of their excess income after expenses as khums and Sunni don t 103 At least a tenth part of zakat and khums every year among Shi ites after its collection by Imam and his religious deputies under its doctrine of niyaba goes as income for its hierarchical system of Shia clergy 84 104 Among Ismaili sub sect of Shias the mandatory taxes which includes zakat is called dasond and 20 of the collected amount is set aside as income for the Imams 105 Some branches of Shia Islam treat the right to lead as Imam and right to receive 20 of collected zakat and other alms as a hereditary right of its clergy citation needed Sadaqah is another related term for charity usually construed as a discretionary counterpart to zakat 106 Zakat al Fitr Edit Further information Zakat al Fitr Zakat al Fitr or Sadaqat al Fitr 107 is another smaller charitable obligation mandatory for all Muslims male or female minor or adult as long as he she has the means to do so that is traditionally paid at the end of the fasting in the Islamic holy month of Ramadan 108 109 The collected amount is used to pay the zakat collectors and to the poor Muslims so that they may be provided with a means to celebrate Eid al Fitr the festival of breaking the fast following Ramadan along with the rest of the Muslims 110 Zakat al Fitr is a fixed amount assessed per person while Zakat al mal is based on personal income and property 109 According to one source the Hidaya Foundation the suggested Zakat al Fitr donation is based on the price of 1 Saa approx 3 kg of rice or wheat at local costs as of 2015 approximately 7 00 in the U S 107 In U K according to Zakatcalc the values would be appx 3 50 wheat 6 40 barley 15 dates and 20 50 raisins for year 2021 111 See also Edit Economics portal Islam relatedIslamic economics Islamic socialism Islamic taxes Jizya Khums Kharaj Riba Sadaqah Qard al Hassan Zakat Council Pakistan Fitrana a different form of zakat which follows the pillar of Sawm fasting in Ramadan Charity practices in other religionsDana Poor tithe Tithe tithing in Judaism Tzedakah Judaism Related contemporary topicsRemittance Hawala Informal value transfer systemReferences EditCitations Edit a b c d Benda Beckmann Franz von 2007 Social security between past and future Ambonese networks of care and support LIT Verlag Munster p 167 ISBN 978 3 8258 0718 4 Zakat literally means that which purifies It is a form of sacrifice which purifies worldly goods from their worldly and sometimes impure means of acquisition and which according to God s wish must be channeled towards the community Zakat Al Maal Tithing Life USA Archived from the original on 6 October 2016 Retrieved 11 August 2016 Zakah www islam101 com Retrieved 20 April 2017 Salehi M 2014 A Study on the Influences of Islamic Values on Iranian Accounting Practice and Development Journal of Islamic Economics Banking and Finance 10 2 154 182 doi 10 12816 0025175 Zakat is a religious tax that every Muslim has to pay Lessy Z 2009 Zakat almsgiving management in Indonesia Whose job should it be La Riba Journal Ekonomi Islam 3 1 zakat is alms giving and religiously obligatory tax Hallaq Wael 2013 The impossible state Islam politics and modernity s moral predicament New York Columbia University Press p 123 ISBN 9780231162562 a b Yusuf al Qaradawi 1999 Monzer Kahf transl Fiqh az Zakat Dar al Taqwa London Volume 1 ISBN 978 967 5062 766 p XIX Muḥammad ibn al Ḥasan Ṭusi 2010 Concise Description of Islamic Law and Legal Opinions ISBN 978 1904063292 pp 131 135 Hefner R W 2006 Islamic economics and global capitalism Society 44 1 16 22 doi 10 1007 bf02690463 S2CID 153432583 Zakat is a tax levied on income and wealth for the purpose of their purification a b Bonner Michael 2003 Poverty and Charity in Middle Eastern Contexts State University of New York Press ISBN 978 0791457382 p 15 In the old Arabic narratives about the early Muslim community and its conquests and quarrels zakat and sadaqa loom large at several moments of crisis These include the beginning of Muhammad s prophetic career in Mecca when what appear to be the earliest pieces of scripture insist on almsgiving more than any other human activity These moments of crisis also include the wars of the ridda or apostasy in C E 632 634 just after Muhammad s death At that time most of the Arabs throughout the peninsula refused to continue paying zakat now a kind of tax to the central authority in Medina Abu Bakr upon assuming the leadership swore he would force them all to pay this zakat even if they refuse me only a camel s hobble of it and sent armies that subdued these rebels or apostates in large scale battles that were soon followed by the great Islamic conquests beyond the Arabian peninsula itself Shoufani Elias 1973 Al Riddah and the Muslim Conquest of Arabia University of Toronto Press ISBN 978 0802019158 Decobert C 1991 Le mendiant et le combattant L institution de l islam Paris Editions du Seuil pp 238 240 Medani Ahmed and Sebastian Gianci Zakat Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy p 479 quote As one of the Islam s five pillars zakat becomes an obligation due when over a lunar year one controls a combination of income and wealth equal to or above Nisaab Sarwar Muhammad 2015 al Kafi Volume 1 of 8 Second ed New York The Islamic Seminary Inc p 345 ISBN 978 0 9914308 6 4 a b c d Yusuf al Qaradawi 1999 Monzer Kahf transl King Abdulaziz University Saudi Arabia Fiqh az Zakat Volume 1 Dar al Taqwa London ISBN 978 967 5062 766 pp xxi xxii a b c d e Marty Martin E amp Appleby R Scott 1996 Fundamentalisms and the state remaking polities economies and militance University of Chicago Press p 320 ISBN 978 0 226 50884 9 a b Samiul Hasan 2015 Human Security and Philanthropy Islamic Perspectives and Muslim Majority Country Practices Springer p 130 ISBN 9781493925254 Jones Owen Bennett 2003 Pakistan Eye of the Storm illustrated ed Yale University Press pp 21 23 ISBN 978 0300101478 John Wilson 2009 John Wilson ed Pakistan The Struggle Within Pearson Education India p 105 ISBN 978 8131725047 Kumaraswamy P R Copland Ian 18 October 2013 Kumaraswamy P R Copland Ian eds South Asia The Spectre of Terrorism Routledge p 132 ISBN 978 1317967736 The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon cal huc edu Ridgeon Lloyd 2003 Major World Religions From Their Origins to the Present Routledge ISBN 978 0415297967 pp 258 The Quranic term zakat came to signify a form of obligatory charity or alms tax that was seen as a means of purifying the believer s wealth Dean H amp Khan Z 1998 Islam A challenge to welfare professionalism Journal of Interprofessional Care 12 4 399 405 doi 10 3109 13561829809024947 Zakat purifies the wealth of the individual Quran 9 103 Murata S and Chittick W C 1994 The vision of Islam IB Tauris London ISBN 978 1557785169 p 16 a b c d Heck Paul L 2006 Taxation In McAuliffe Jane Dammen ed Encyclopaedia of the Qur an 5 Leiden Brill Publishers ISBN 978 90 04 14743 0 Yusuf al Qaradawi 1999 Monzer Kahf transl Fiqh az Zakat Dar al Taqwa London Volume 1 ISBN 978 967 5062 766 p XL Qur an used the word zakah in the meaning known to Muslims now as early as the beginning of the Makkan period This is found in Suras 7 156 19 31 and 55 21 72 23 4 27 7 30 39 31 3 and 41 7 The English translation of these verses can be read here Archived copy Archived from the original on 10 August 2016 Retrieved 20 August 2016 CS1 maint archived copy as title link University of Southern California Quran 9 5 a b c d A Zysow Zakat Encyclopaedia of Islam Second Edition Sahih al Bukhari Book 24 Obligatory Charity Tax Zakat at sunnah com Obligatory Charity Tax Zakat Archived 4 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine Sahih Bukhari University of Southern California Sahih Muslim Book 12 The Book of Zakat at sunnah com The Book of Zakat Kitab Al Zakat Archived 4 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine Sahih Muslim University of Southern California Sunan Abi Dawud Book 9 Zakat Kitab Al Zakat at sunnah com Zakat Kitab Al Zakat Archived 4 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine Sunan Abu Dawood University of Southern California Sunan Abu Dawood 9 1568 Sahih Muslim Book 12 Hadith 28 Book 12 Hadith 92 Sahih Muslim 5 2161 5 2223 Sahih al Bukhari 2 24 486 a b Medani Ahmed and Sebastian Gianci Zakat Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy p 479 481 Kuran Timur 1996 The Economic Impact of Islamic Fundamentalism In Marty Martin E Appleby R Scott eds Fundamentalisms and the state remaking polities economies and militance University of Chicago Press p 318 ISBN 978 0 226 50884 9 Kuran Timur 2010 Islam and Mammon The Economic Predicaments of Islamism Princeton University Press p 19 ISBN 978 1 4008 3735 9 Scott J C 1987 Resistance without protest and without organization peasant opposition to the Islamic Zakat and the Christian Tithe Comparative studies in society and history 29 03 417 452 Yusuf al Qaradawi 1999 Monzer Kahf transl Fiqh az Zakat Dar al Taqwa London Volume 1 and Volume 2 Fitzpatrick Coeli Walker Adam Hani 2014 Muhammad in History Thought and Culture An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God p 94 ISBN 978 1 61069 177 2 a b c d e f g Nicolas Prodromou Aghnides 1916 Mohammedan Theories of Finance Volume 70 Columbia university pp 302 304 Yusuf al Qaradawi 2011 Fiqh Al Zakah A Comprehensive Study of Zakah Regulations and Philosophy in the Light of the Qurʼan and Sunna Islamic Book Trust in affiliation with The Other Press pp 40 41 ISBN 978 967 5062 76 6 Retrieved 4 February 2016 Abdullahi Ahmed An Na im Na 2010 Islam and the Secular State Negotiating the Future of Shari a Harvard University Press ISBN 978 0674034563 pp 58 63 Koylu Mustafa 2003 Islam and its Quest for Peace Jihad Justice and Education ISBN 978 1565181809 pp 88 89 Nicolas Prodromou Aghnides 1916 Mohammedan Theories of Finance Volume 70 Columbia university p 205 Ruling on one who does not pay zakaah islamqa info islamqa info Retrieved 29 September 2015 Yusuf Al Qardawi 1984 Fiquh of Zakat Volume 1 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia King Abdul Aziz University Center for Research in Islamic Economics p 19 a b Ariff Mohamed 1991 The Islamic voluntary sector in Southeast Asia Islam and the economic development of Southeast Asia Institute of Southeast Asian Studies p 38 ISBN 978 981 3016 07 1 Quran 9 60 a b c d e f g h i M A Mohamed Salih Editor Alexander De Waal 2004 Islamism and its enemies in the Horn of Africa Indiana University Press pp 148 149 ISBN 978 0 253 34403 8 a b c d e f g h i j Benda Beckmann Franz von 2007 Social security between past and future Ambonese networks of care and support LIT Verlag Munster p 167 ISBN 978 3 8258 0718 4 a b Weiss Anita M 1986 Islamic reassertion in Pakistan the application of Islamic laws in a modern state Syracuse University Press p 80 ISBN 978 0 8156 2375 5 a b c d Juynboll T W Handleiding tot de Kennis van de Mohaamedaansche Wet volgens de Leer der Sjafiitische School 3rd Edition Brill Academic pp 85 88 Jonsson David May 2006 Islamic Economics and the Final Jihad Xulon Press p 245 ISBN 978 1 59781 980 0 a b Reliance of the Traveller PDF Archived from the original PDF on 17 March 2013 a b c d Visse Hans Visser Herschel 2009 Islamic finance principles and practice Edward Elgar Publishing p 29 ISBN 978 1 84542 525 8 a b c d Masahiko Aoki Timur Kuran and Gerard Roland 2012 Political consequences of the Middle East s Islamic economic legacy in Institutions and Comparative Economic Development Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 978 1137034038 Chapter 5 pp 124 148 Benthal Jonathan The Qur an s Call to Alms Zakat the Muslim Tradition of Alms giving PDF ISIM Newsletter 98 1 13 حكم استثمار أموال الزكاة والصدقات إسلام ويب مركز الفتوى www islamweb net in Arabic Scott James C 1985 Weapons of the weak everyday forms of peasant resistance Yale University Press p 171 ISBN 978 0 300 03641 1 Jawad Rana 2009 Social welfare and religion in the Middle East a Lebanese perspective The Policy Press p 60 ISBN 978 1 86134 953 8 Neyshabouri Abd al Husayn Shia Calendar Washington Islamic Education Center Retrieved 16 December 2017 a b c d e f Weiss Anita M 1986 Islamic reassertion in Pakistan the application of Islamic laws in a modern state Syracuse University Press p 81 ISBN 978 0 8156 2375 5 a b Yusuf al Qaradawi 1999 Monzer Kahf transl Fiqh az Zakat Dar al Taqwa London Volume 1 ISBN 978 967 5062 766 pp XXXIX XL See the discussion about Children of Israel in verses Quran 9 60 66 Hawting Gerald R ed 2006 The development of Islamic ritual Ashgate Publishing p 301 ISBN 978 0 86078 712 9 Turner Bryan 2007 Religious authority and the new media Theory Culture amp Society 24 2 117 134 doi 10 1177 0263276407075001 S2CID 145564662 Hashmi Sohail H 2010 The Problem of Poverty in Islamic Ethics In Galston William A Hoffenberg Peter H eds Poverty and Morality Religious and Secular Perspectives Cambridge University Press p 202 ISBN 978 0 521 12734 9 Faiz Mohammad 1991 Prospects of Poverty Eradication Through the Existing Zakat System in Pakistan The Pakistan Development Review Vol 30 No 4 1119 1129 Tamimi Azzam 2001 Rachid Ghannouchi a democrat within Islamism Oxford University Press p 140 ISBN 978 0 19 514000 2 Bogle Emory C 1998 Islam origin and belief University of Texas Press p 31 ISBN 978 0 292 70862 4 Khatab Sayed 2006 The power of sovereignty the political and ideological philosophy of Sayyid Qutb Taylor amp Francis p 62 ISBN 978 0 415 37250 3 Zaman M Raquibuz 2001 Islamic Perspectives on Territorial Boundaries and Autonomy In Miller David Hashmi Sohail H eds Boundaries and justice diverse ethical perspectives Princeton University Press p 189 ISBN 978 0 691 08800 6 a b Marty Martin E amp Appleby R Scott 1996 Fundamentalisms and the state remaking polities economies and militance University of Chicago Press pp 320 321 ISBN 978 0 226 50884 9 a b Powell Russell 2009 Zakat Drawing Insights for Legal Theory and Economic Policy from Islamic Jurisprudence University of Pittsburgh Tax Review 7 43 SSRN 1351024 Institute for Social Policy and Understanding The 17 July 2019 American Muslim Philanthropy A Data Driven Comparative Profile ISPU org Clark Janine A 2004 Islam charity and activism middle class networks and social welfare in Egypt Jordan and Yemen Indiana University Press p 153 ISBN 978 0 253 34306 2 a b Ghobadzadeh Naser 2014 Religious Secularity A Theological Challenge to the Islamic State Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0199391172 pp 193 195 a b c d e f g h Sohrab Behdad Farhad Nomani 2006 Islam and the moral economy the challenge of capitalism Routledge p 268 ISBN 9781134206742 Tripp Charles 2006 Islam and the Everyday World Public Policy Dilemmas Cambridge University Press p 125 ISBN 978 0 521 86377 3 Kogelmann Franz 2002 Sidi Fredj A Case Study of a Religious Endowment in Morocco under the French Protectorate In Weiss Holger ed Social welfare in Muslim societies in Africa Nordic Africa Institute p 68 ISBN 978 91 7106 481 3 a b Muslims give more to charity than others UK poll says nbcnews com 22 July 2013 Archived from the original on 26 July 2013 Retrieved 29 July 2013 Lessy Z 2009 Zakat Alms Giving Management In Indonesia Whose Job Should It Be La Riba Journal of Islamic Economy 3 1 pp 155 175 A H bin Mohd Noor 2011 Non recipients of zakat funds NRZF and its impact on the performance of zakat institution A conceptual model in Humanities Science and Engineering CHUSER 2011 IEEE Colloquium ISBN 978 1 4673 0021 6 pp 568 573 Ariff Mohamed 1991 The Islamic voluntary sector in Southeast Asia Islam and the economic development of Southeast Asia Institute of Southeast Asian Studies p 39 ISBN 978 981 3016 07 1 a b c Analysis A faith based aid revolution in the Muslim world irinnews org 1 June 2012 Retrieved 2 December 2012 However that same year the National Center for Charitable Statistics reported that individual charitable giving in one non Muslim country amounted to 228 93 billion source Charitable Giving in America Some Facts and Figures 2012 Retrieved 8 April 2015 about 400 million people a b c Shirazi Nasim May 2014 Integrating Zakat and Waqf into the Poverty Reduction Strategy of the IDB Member Countries Islamic Economic Studies 22 1 79 108 doi 10 12816 0004131 S2CID 150993630 Bowering Gerhard ed 2013 The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought Princeton University Press p 545 Lewis Bernard 2002 The Arabs in History Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN 0 19 280310 7 page 70 74 Iqbal Zafar and Lewis Mervyn 2009 An Islamic Perspective on Governance ISBN 978 1847201386 pp 99 115 Nienhaus Volker 2006 Zakat taxes and public finance in Islam in Islam and the Everyday World Public Policy Dilemmas Sohrab Behdad Farhad Nomani eds ISBN 978 0415368230 pp 176 189 Lambton K S October 1948 An Account of the Tarikhi Qumm Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 12 3 4 586 596 doi 10 1017 s0041977x00083154 Hamid S 1995 Bookkeeping and accounting control systems in a tenth century Muslim administrative office Accounting Business amp Financial History 5 3 321 333 doi 10 1080 09585209500000049 Kulke H and Rothermund D 1998 A History of India 3rd Edition Routledge ISBN 0 415 15482 0 pp 158 163 Momen Moojan 1987 An Introduction to Shi i Islam The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi ism Yale University Press p 179 ISBN 978 0 300 03531 5 Martin Richard 2003 Encyclopedia of Islam amp the Muslim World Macmillan Reference ISBN 978 0028656038 pp 274 350 351 Rose Ebaugh and Cherry 2014 Global Religious Movements Across Borders Sacred Service Ashgate pp 149 150 ISBN 978 1409456872 Meri Josef W ed 31 October 2005 Medieval Islamic Civilization An Encyclopedia Psychology Press p 145 ISBN 9780415966900 a b Sadaqat ul Fitr Hidaya Foundation Retrieved 8 April 2015 Kasule O H 1986 Muslims in Trinidad and Tobago Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs 7 1 195 213 doi 10 1080 13602008608715974 a b Buehler M 2008 The rise of shari a by laws in Indonesian districts An indication for changing patterns of power accumulation and political corruption PDF South East Asia Research 16 2 255 285 doi 10 5367 000000008785260473 S2CID 54834534 Al Hamar M Dawson R amp Guan L 2010 A culture of trust threatens security and privacy in Qatar IEEE 10th International Conference ISBN 978 1 4244 7547 6 pp 991 995 Zakat ul Fit r Sadaqah al Fitr Fitrana for 1442 2021 UK ZakatCalc com 25 April 2021 Books and articles Edit P Bearman ed 2012 Encyclopaedia of Islam Second Edition Brill Online Joseph J Cordes Robert D Ebel Jane Gravelle ed 2005 Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy Urban Institute John L Esposito ed 2009 The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World Oxford University Press Hunter Shireen Malik Huma Senturk Recep 2005 Islam and Human Rights Advancing a U S Muslim Dialogue Center for Strategic and International Studies 2005 Further reading EditTimur Kuran 2019 Zakat Islam s Missed Opportunity to Limit Predatory Taxation Mattson Ingrid 2003 Status Based Definitions of Need in Early Islamic Zakat and Maintenance Laws In Michael Bonner Mine Ener Amy Singer eds Poverty and charity in Middle Eastern contexts SUNY Press ISBN 978 0 7914 5737 5 Weiss Holger 2002 Zakat and the Question of Social Welfare An Introductory Essay on Islamic Economics and Its Implications for Social Welfare In Weiss Holger ed Social welfare in Muslim societies in Africa Nordic Africa Institute ISBN 978 91 7106 481 3 Fiqh al Zakah Vol I Dr Yusuf al Qardawi The Zakat Handbook A Practical Guide for Muslims in the West The Institution of Zakat An Obligation and an Opportunity 2005 The Central Zakat Committee of The Council of Islamic Organizations of Greater ChicagoExternal links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Zakah Wikiquote has quotations related to ZakatShia Muslims view on Zakat Sunni Muslims view on Zakat Peasant opposition to the Islamic Zakat and the Christian Tithe James Scott 1987 Journal Comparative Studies in Society and History The Influential Legacy of Dutch Islamic Policy on the Formation of Zakat ALMS Law in Modern Indonesia Arskal Salim 2006 Journal Pacific Rim Law amp Policy Review Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zakat amp oldid 1051072581, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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