fbpx
Wikipedia

Zalmoxis

For the arachnid with this name, see Zalmoxis (harvestman). For the assassin bug with this name, see Zalmoxis (bug). For the dinosaur, see Zalmoxes.
This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources.(May 2011) ()

Zalmoxis (Greek:Ζάλμοξις) is a divinity of the Getae and Dacians (a people of the lower Danube), mentioned by Herodotus in his Histories Book IV, 93–96, written before 425 BC.

According to Jordanes's Getica, he was a learned philosopher, before whom two other learned men existed, by the names of Zeuta and Deceneus.

In modern times, theories and debate on Zalmoxis's religion by such scholars as Mircea Eliade are influenced by considerations of Romanian nationalism as well by pure historical interest.

Contents

Herodotus writes about Zalmoxis in book 4 of his Histories:

93. ... the Getae are the bravest of the Thracians and the most just. 94. They believe they are immortal forever living in the following sense: they think they do not die and that the one who dies joins Zalmoxis, a divine being; some call this same divine being Gebeleizis. Every four years, they send a messenger to Zalmoxis, who is chosen by chance. They ask him to tell Zalmoxis what they want on that occasion. The mission is performed in the following way: men standing there for that purpose hold three spears; other people take the one who is sent to Zalmoxis by his hands and feet and fling him in the air on the spears. If he dies pierced, they think that the divinity is going to help them; if he does not die, it is he who is accused and they declare that he is a bad person. And, after he has been charged, they send another one. The messenger is told the requests while he is still alive. The same Thracians, on other occasions, when he thunders and lightens, shoot with arrows up in the air against the sky and menace the divinity because they think there is no god other than their own.

Herodotus asserts that Zalmoxis was originally a human being, a slave who converted the Thracians to his beliefs. The Greeks of the Hellespont and the Black Sea tell that Zalmoxis was a slave of Pythagoras, son of Mnesarchos, on the island of Samos. After being liberated, he gathered huge wealth and, once rich, went back to his homeland. Thracians lived simple hard lives. Zalmoxis had lived among the wisest of Greeks, such as Pythagoras, and had been initiated into Ionian life and the Eleusinian Mysteries. He built a banquet hall, and received the chiefs and his fellow countrymen at a banquet. He taught that neither his guests nor their descendants would ever die, but instead would go to a place where they would live forever in complete happiness. He then dug an underground residence. When it was finished, he disappeared from Thrace, living for three years in his underground residence. The Thracians missed him and wept fearing him dead. The fourth year, he came back among them and thus they believed what Zalmoxis had told them.

Zalmoxis may have lived much earlier than Pythagoras and was rumored either to be a divine being or from the country of the Getae.

"Now I neither disbelieve nor entirely believe the tale about Salmoxis and his underground chamber; but I think that he lived many years before Pythagoras; [2] and as to whether there was a man called Salmoxis or this is some deity native to the Getae, let the question be dismissed." — Herodotus: IV 96

Scholars have several different theories about this account by Herodotus the disappearance and return of Zalmoxis:

  • Herodotus is mocking the barbarian beliefs of the Getae.
  • Zalmoxis created a ritual of passage. This theory is mainly supported by Mircea Eliade, who wrote the first coherent interpretation of the myth about Zalmoxis.
  • Zalmoxis is related to Pythagoras, stating that he founded a mystical cult. This theory may be found in Eliade's work.
  • Zalmoxis is a Christ-like figure who dies and is resurrected. This position was defended by Jean (Ioan) Coman, a professor of patristics and Orthodox priest, who was a friend of Mircea Eliade and published in Eliade's journal Zalmoxis, which appeared in the 1930s.[citation needed]

This last theory precisely parallels the legend of the universal king Frode, given in both Ynglingsaga and Gesta Danorum of Saxo Grammaticus, particularly Ynglingsaga 12 and Gesta Danorum, in which Frode disappears into the earth for three years after his death.

It is difficult to define the time when a cult to Zalmoxis may have existed. It is only certain that it antecedes Herodotus. Some scholars have suggested that the archaic doctrine of Zalmoxis points to a heritage from before the times of Indo-Europeans, but this is difficult, if not impossible, to demonstrate.

Plato claims that Zalmoxis was also a great physician who took a holistic approach to healing body and soul (psyche), being thus used by Plato for his own philosophical conceptions.

Strabo in his Geography mentions a certain Deceneus (Dékainéos) whom he calls a γόητα "magician". According to Strabo, king Burebista (82–44 BC) hired Deceneus, who had been in Egypt, to "tame" his people. As a sign of the people's obedience, they consented to destroy all their wines as ordered by Deceneus. The "reform of Deceneus" is the interpretation by the 6th-century bishop and historian Jordanes, who includes the Getae in his history of the Goths (as assumed ancestors of the Goths). Jordanes describes how Deceneus taught the Getae philosophy and physics. Even if it is more probable that Jordanes interjected his own philosophical knowledge into the text, many modern Romanian authors consider that Deceneus was a priest who reformed the religion of the Getae, changing the worship of Zalmoxis into a popular religion and imposing strict religious rules, such as the restriction of wine consumption. Jean Coman deems this prohibition as the origin of the dietary restrictions followed by the modern Orthodox Church during Lent.

According to Iamblichus (280-333 AD), "for instructing the Getae in these things, and for having written laws for them, Zalmoxis was by them considered as the greatest of the gods."

Aristotle is said, in the brief epitome of his Magicus given by Diogenes Laertes, to have compared Zalmoxis with the Phoenician Okhon and Libyan Atlas. Some authors[who?] assume Zalmoxis was another name of Sabazius, the Thracian Dionysus, or Zeus. Sabazius appears in Jordanes as Gebelezis. Leaving aside the suffixes -zius/-zis, the root Saba- = Gebele-,[citation needed] suggesting a relationship of the name of the goddess Cybele, as "Cybele's Zeus". Mnaseas of Patrae identified Zalmoxis with Cronos, as does Hesychius, who has "Σάλμοξις ὁ Κρόνος".[citation needed]

In Plato's writings, Zalmoxis is mentioned as skilled in the arts of incantation. Zalmoxis gave his name to a particular type of singing and dancing (Hesych). His realm as a god is not very clear, as some considered him to be a sky-god, a god of the dead, or a god of the Mysteries.[citation needed]

Lactantius (an early Christian author, c. 240–320 AD), referring to the religion of the Getae, provides an approximate translation of Julian the Apostate's purported quotation of Trajan:

"We have conquered even these Getai (Dacians), the most warlike of all people that have ever existed, not only because of the strength in their bodies, but, also due to the teachings of Zalmoxis who is among their most hailed. He has told them that in their hearts they do not die, but change their location and, due to this, they go to their deaths happier than on any other journey."[citation needed]

A tomb painting at the Aleksandrovska Grobnitsa (Bulgaria), which possibly depicts Zalmoxis.

The "Zalmoxian religion" is the subject of a scholarly debate that has continued since the beginning of the 20th century. According to some scholars, such as Vasile Pârvan, Jean Coman, R. Pettazzon, E. Rohde and Sorin Paliga, since ancient sources do not mention any god of the Getae other than Zalmoxis, the Getae were monotheistic. However, Herodotus is the only ancient author who explicitly states that the Getae had only one divinity. The sending of a messenger to Zalmoxis and the fact that Getae shot arrows towards the sky have prompted some authors to believe Zalmoxis was a sky god, but his journey into a cavern has led others to suggest that he was a chthonic divinity.

A third group of scholars believe that the Getae, like other Indo-European peoples, were polytheistic. They draw on ancient authors such as Diodorus Siculus, who states that the Getae worshipped Hestia as well as Zalmoxis.

A number of etymologies have been given for the name. In his Vita Pythagorae, Porphyrius (3rd century) says that he was so named because he had been wrapped in a bearskin at birth, and zalmon is the Thracian word for "hide" (τὴν γὰρ δορὰν οἱ Θρᾷκες ζαλμὸν καλοῦσιν). Hesychius (ca. 5th century) has zemelen (ζέμελεν) as a Phrygian word for "foreign slave".

The correct spelling of the name is also uncertain. Manuscripts of Herodotus' Historiae have all four spellings, viz. Zalmoxis, Salmoxis, Zamolxis, Samolxis, with a majority of manuscripts favouring Salmoxis. Later authors show a preference for Zamolxis. Hesychius quotes Herodotus, using Zalmoxis.

The -m-l- variant (Zamolxis) is favoured by those wishing to derive the name from a conjectured Thracian word for "earth", *zamol. Comparisons have also been made with the name of Zemelo and Žemelė, the Phrygian and Lithuanian goddess of the earth, and with the Lithuanian chthonic god Žemeliūkštis. The Lithuanian word Žalmuo means "corn shoot" or "fresh grass". Žalmokšnis is another possible form of it.

The -l-m- variant is admitted to be the older form and the correct form by the majority of Thracologists, as this is the form found in the older Herodotus manuscripts and other ancient sources. The -l-m- form is further attested in Daco-Thracian in Zalmodegikos, the name of a Getic King; and in Thracian zalmon, 'hide', and zelmis, 'hide' (PIE *kel-, 'to cover'; cf. English helm).

The other name for Zalmoxis, Gebeleizis, is also spelled Belaizis and Belaixis in Herodotus manuscripts.

According to Mircea Eliade:

The fact that Romanian folk mythology around their prophet Elijah contains many elements of a god of the storm proves at least that Gebeleizis was still active in the moment when Dacia was christianised, whatever his name was in this era. It can also be admitted that subsequently a religious syncretism, encouraged by the high priest and the priestly class, ended up on confusing Gebeleizis with Zalmoxis.

The Romanian rock band Sfinx worked from around 1975 through 1978 on Zalmoxe, a progressive rock LP, with lyrics by poet Alexandru Basarab (actually a pen name for Adrian Hoajă), which retold the story of Zalmoxis.

The dinosaur Zalmoxes is named after the deity.

  1. also known as Salmoxis (Σάλμοξις), Zalmoxes (Ζάλμοξες), Zamolxis (Ζάμολξις), Samolxis (Σάμολξις), Zamolxes (Ζάμολξες), or Zamolxe (Ζάμολξε)
  2. http://classics.mit.edu/Herodotus/history.mb.txt
  3. "THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS". people.ucalgary.ca.
  4. Herodotus (1920). Histories. book 4. Translated by Godley, A.D. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  5. Odgen, Daniel (2009). Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-19-538520-5.
  6. Saxo Grammaticus. Gesta Danorum. 5.16.3.
  7. Paliga, Sorin. "La divinité suprême des Thraco-Daces". Dialogues d'histoire ancienne (in French). Persée revue.
  8. Plato. Charmides (dialogue). lines 156 D – 157 B.
  9. Strabo, Geography, book 7, 3, 1–11
  10. Rousell, Patrick (ed.) The Complete Pythagoras
  11. Znamenski, Andrei A. Shamanism
  12. Wagner, Hans (5 August 2004). "Die Thraker". Eurasisches Magazin (in German). Retrieved19 January 2020.
  13. Dimitrov, Kalin (12 September 2008). "Thracian tomb of Aleksandrovo". Chain. Retrieved19 January 2020.
  14. Lurker, Manfred. The Routledge Dictionary Of Gods Goddesses Devils And Demons. Routledge. 2004. p. 207. ISBN 978-04-15340-18-2
  15. Diodorus Siculus, Book 1, c. 94: "...among the people known as the Getae who represent themselves to be immortal, Zalmoxis asserted the same of their common goddess Hestia..."
  16. Alexandrescu, Petre. "La nature de Zalmoxis selon Hérodote". In: Dialogues d'histoire ancienne, vol. 6, 1980. pp. 119-120 (footnote nr. 1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/dha.1980.1403; www.persee.fr/doc/dha_0755-7256_1980_num_6_1_1403
  17. Eliade, Mircea. Istoria credințelor și ideilor religioase, Editura Științifică, Bucuresti, 1992, p. 163.

Primary sources

Secondary sources

  • Dana, Dan. Zalmoxis de la Herodot la Mircea Eliade. Istorii despre un zeu al pretextului, Polirom, Iași, 2008
  • Eliade, Mircea. Zalmoxis, the Vanishing God, Univ of Chicago Press, 1972, 1986
  • Hansen, Christopher M., “A Thracian Resurrection: Is Zalmoxis a Dying-Rising God who Parallels Jesus?” Journal of Higher Criticism 14.4 (2019), pp. 70–98.
  • Kernbach, Victor. Miturile Esenţiale, Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, Bucharest, 1978
  • Popov, Dimitar. Bogat s mnogoto imena (The God with Multiple Names), Sofia, 1995
  • Venedikov, Ivan. Mitove na bulgarskata zemya: Mednoto Gumno (Myths of the Bulgarian Land: The Copper Threshing Floor), Sofia, 1982
  • Drugaş, Şerban George Paul. "The Name of Zalmoxis and Its Significance in the Dacian Language and Religion". In: Hiperboreea 3, no. 2 (2016): 5-66. www.jstor.org/stable/10.5325/hiperboreea.3.2.0005.
  • Eliade, Mircea, and Willard R. Trask. "Zalmoxis". In: History of Religions 11, no. 3 (1972): 257–302. www.jstor.org/stable/1061899.
  • Paliga, Sorin. "La divinité suprême des Thraco-Daces". In: Dialogues d'histoire ancienne, vol. 20, n°2, 1994. pp. 137–150. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/dha.1994.2182; www.persee.fr/doc/dha_0755-7256_1994_num_20_2_2182
  • Pandrea, Andrei. "Quelques observations concernant l'étymologie et la genèse d'un ancien nom de dieu: Zalmoxis”. In: Balkan Studies 22 (1981). pp. 229–245.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article "Zalmoxis".

Zalmoxis
Zalmoxis Language Watch Edit For the arachnid with this name see Zalmoxis harvestman For the assassin bug with this name see Zalmoxis bug For the dinosaur see Zalmoxes This article relies too much on references to primary sources Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources May 2011 Learn how and when to remove this template message Zalmoxis Greek Zalmo3is 1 is a divinity of the Getae and Dacians a people of the lower Danube mentioned by Herodotus in his Histories Book IV 93 96 written before 425 BC 2 According to Jordanes s Getica he was a learned philosopher before whom two other learned men existed by the names of Zeuta and Deceneus 3 In modern times theories and debate on Zalmoxis s religion by such scholars as Mircea Eliade are influenced by considerations of Romanian nationalism as well by pure historical interest Contents 1 Herodotus 2 Religion of the Getae 3 Zalmoxian religion 4 Etymology 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 8 1 Primary sources 8 2 Secondary sources 9 Further reading 10 External linksHerodotus EditHerodotus writes about Zalmoxis in book 4 of his Histories 2 93 the Getae are the bravest of the Thracians and the most just 94 They believe they are immortal forever living in the following sense they think they do not die and that the one who dies joins Zalmoxis a divine being some call this same divine being Gebeleizis Every four years they send a messenger to Zalmoxis who is chosen by chance They ask him to tell Zalmoxis what they want on that occasion The mission is performed in the following way men standing there for that purpose hold three spears other people take the one who is sent to Zalmoxis by his hands and feet and fling him in the air on the spears If he dies pierced they think that the divinity is going to help them if he does not die it is he who is accused and they declare that he is a bad person And after he has been charged they send another one The messenger is told the requests while he is still alive The same Thracians on other occasions when he thunders and lightens shoot with arrows up in the air against the sky and menace the divinity because they think there is no god other than their own Herodotus asserts that Zalmoxis was originally a human being a slave who converted the Thracians to his beliefs 4 The Greeks of the Hellespont and the Black Sea tell that Zalmoxis was a slave of Pythagoras son of Mnesarchos on the island of Samos After being liberated he gathered huge wealth and once rich went back to his homeland Thracians lived simple hard lives Zalmoxis had lived among the wisest of Greeks such as Pythagoras and had been initiated into Ionian life and the Eleusinian Mysteries He built a banquet hall and received the chiefs and his fellow countrymen at a banquet He taught that neither his guests nor their descendants would ever die but instead would go to a place where they would live forever in complete happiness He then dug an underground residence When it was finished he disappeared from Thrace living for three years in his underground residence The Thracians missed him and wept fearing him dead The fourth year he came back among them and thus they believed what Zalmoxis had told them 5 Zalmoxis may have lived much earlier than Pythagoras and was rumored either to be a divine being or from the country of the Getae Now I neither disbelieve nor entirely believe the tale about Salmoxis and his underground chamber but I think that he lived many years before Pythagoras 2 and as to whether there was a man called Salmoxis or this is some deity native to the Getae let the question be dismissed Herodotus 4 IV 96 Scholars have several different theories about this account by Herodotus the disappearance and return of Zalmoxis Herodotus is mocking the barbarian beliefs of the Getae Zalmoxis created a ritual of passage This theory is mainly supported by Mircea Eliade who wrote the first coherent interpretation of the myth about Zalmoxis Zalmoxis is related to Pythagoras stating that he founded a mystical cult This theory may be found in Eliade s work Zalmoxis is a Christ like figure who dies and is resurrected This position was defended by Jean Ioan Coman a professor of patristics and Orthodox priest who was a friend of Mircea Eliade and published in Eliade s journal Zalmoxis which appeared in the 1930s citation needed This last theory precisely parallels the legend of the universal king Frode given in both Ynglingsaga and Gesta Danorum of Saxo Grammaticus particularly Ynglingsaga 12 and Gesta Danorum 6 in which Frode disappears into the earth for three years after his death It is difficult to define the time when a cult to Zalmoxis may have existed It is only certain that it antecedes Herodotus Some scholars have suggested that the archaic doctrine of Zalmoxis points to a heritage from before the times of Indo Europeans but this is difficult if not impossible to demonstrate 7 Plato claims 8 that Zalmoxis was also a great physician who took a holistic approach to healing body and soul psyche being thus used by Plato for his own philosophical conceptions Religion of the Getae EditStrabo in his Geography mentions a certain Deceneus Dekaineos whom he calls a gohta magician 9 According to Strabo king Burebista 82 44 BC hired Deceneus who had been in Egypt to tame his people As a sign of the people s obedience they consented to destroy all their wines as ordered by Deceneus The reform of Deceneus is the interpretation by the 6th century bishop and historian Jordanes who includes the Getae in his history of the Goths as assumed ancestors of the Goths Jordanes describes how Deceneus taught the Getae philosophy and physics Even if it is more probable that Jordanes interjected his own philosophical knowledge into the text many modern Romanian authors consider that Deceneus was a priest who reformed the religion of the Getae changing the worship of Zalmoxis into a popular religion and imposing strict religious rules such as the restriction of wine consumption Jean Coman deems this prohibition as the origin of the dietary restrictions followed by the modern Orthodox Church during Lent According to Iamblichus 280 333 AD for instructing the Getae in these things and for having written laws for them Zalmoxis was by them considered as the greatest of the gods 10 Aristotle is said in the brief epitome of his Magicus given by Diogenes Laertes to have compared Zalmoxis with the Phoenician Okhon and Libyan Atlas Some authors who assume Zalmoxis was another name of Sabazius the Thracian Dionysus or Zeus Sabazius appears in Jordanes as Gebelezis Leaving aside the suffixes zius zis the root Saba Gebele citation needed suggesting a relationship of the name of the goddess Cybele as Cybele s Zeus Mnaseas of Patrae identified Zalmoxis with Cronos as does Hesychius who has Salmo3is ὁ Kronos citation needed In Plato s writings Zalmoxis is mentioned as skilled in the arts of incantation Zalmoxis gave his name to a particular type of singing and dancing Hesych 11 His realm as a god is not very clear as some considered him to be a sky god a god of the dead or a god of the Mysteries citation needed Lactantius an early Christian author c 240 320 AD referring to the religion of the Getae provides an approximate translation of Julian the Apostate s purported quotation of Trajan We have conquered even these Getai Dacians the most warlike of all people that have ever existed not only because of the strength in their bodies but also due to the teachings of Zalmoxis who is among their most hailed He has told them that in their hearts they do not die but change their location and due to this they go to their deaths happier than on any other journey citation needed Zalmoxian religion Edit A tomb painting at the Aleksandrovska Grobnitsa Bulgaria which possibly depicts Zalmoxis 12 13 The Zalmoxian religion is the subject of a scholarly debate that has continued since the beginning of the 20th century According to some scholars such as Vasile Parvan Jean Coman R Pettazzon E Rohde and Sorin Paliga since ancient sources do not mention any god of the Getae other than Zalmoxis the Getae were monotheistic 7 However Herodotus is the only ancient author who explicitly states that the Getae had only one divinity The sending of a messenger to Zalmoxis and the fact that Getae shot arrows towards the sky have prompted some authors to believe Zalmoxis was a sky god but his journey into a cavern has led others to suggest that he was a chthonic divinity 14 A third group of scholars believe that the Getae like other Indo European peoples were polytheistic They draw on ancient authors such as Diodorus Siculus who states that the Getae worshipped Hestia as well as Zalmoxis 15 Etymology EditA number of etymologies have been given for the name In his Vita Pythagorae Porphyrius 3rd century says that he was so named because he had been wrapped in a bearskin at birth and zalmon is the Thracian word for hide tὴn gὰr dorὰn oἱ 8rᾷkes zalmὸn kaloῦsin Hesychius ca 5th century has zemelen zemelen as a Phrygian word for foreign slave The correct spelling of the name is also uncertain Manuscripts of Herodotus Historiae have all four spellings viz Zalmoxis Salmoxis Zamolxis Samolxis with a majority of manuscripts favouring Salmoxis Later authors show a preference for Zamolxis Hesychius quotes Herodotus using Zalmoxis The m l variant Zamolxis is favoured by those wishing to derive the name from a conjectured Thracian word for earth zamol Comparisons have also been made with the name of Zemelo and Zemele the Phrygian and Lithuanian goddess of the earth and with the Lithuanian chthonic god Zemeliukstis 16 The Lithuanian word Zalmuo means corn shoot or fresh grass Zalmoksnis is another possible form of it The l m variant is admitted to be the older form and the correct form by the majority of Thracologists as this is the form found in the older Herodotus manuscripts and other ancient sources The l m form is further attested in Daco Thracian in Zalmodegikos the name of a Getic King and in Thracian zalmon hide and zelmis hide PIE kel to cover cf English helm The other name for Zalmoxis Gebeleizis is also spelled Belaizis and Belaixis in Herodotus manuscripts According to Mircea Eliade The fact that Romanian folk mythology around their prophet Elijah contains many elements of a god of the storm proves at least that Gebeleizis was still active in the moment when Dacia was christianised whatever his name was in this era It can also be admitted that subsequently a religious syncretism encouraged by the high priest and the priestly class ended up on confusing Gebeleizis with Zalmoxis 17 In popular culture EditThe Romanian rock band Sfinx worked from around 1975 through 1978 on Zalmoxe a progressive rock LP with lyrics by poet Alexandru Basarab actually a pen name for Adrian Hoajă which retold the story of Zalmoxis The dinosaur Zalmoxes is named after the deity See also EditAllegory of the cave Analogy of the sunNotes Edit also known as Salmoxis Salmo3is Zalmoxes Zalmo3es Zamolxis Zamol3is Samolxis Samol3is Zamolxes Zamol3es or Zamolxe Zamol3e a b http classics mit edu Herodotus history mb txt THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS people ucalgary ca a b Herodotus 1920 Histories book 4 Translated by Godley A D Cambridge MA Harvard University Press Odgen Daniel 2009 Magic Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds p 11 ISBN 978 0 19 538520 5 Saxo Grammaticus Gesta Danorum 5 16 3 a b Paliga Sorin La divinite supreme des Thraco Daces Dialogues d histoire ancienne in French Persee revue Plato Charmides dialogue lines 156 D 157 B Strabo Geography book 7 3 1 11 Rousell Patrick ed The Complete Pythagoras Znamenski Andrei A Shamanism Wagner Hans 5 August 2004 Die Thraker Eurasisches Magazin in German Retrieved 19 January 2020 Dimitrov Kalin 12 September 2008 Thracian tomb of Aleksandrovo Chain Retrieved 19 January 2020 Lurker Manfred The Routledge Dictionary Of Gods Goddesses Devils And Demons Routledge 2004 p 207 ISBN 978 04 15340 18 2 Diodorus Siculus Book 1 c 94 among the people known as the Getae who represent themselves to be immortal Zalmoxis asserted the same of their common goddess Hestia Alexandrescu Petre La nature de Zalmoxis selon Herodote In Dialogues d histoire ancienne vol 6 1980 pp 119 120 footnote nr 1 DOI https doi org 10 3406 dha 1980 1403 www persee fr doc dha 0755 7256 1980 num 6 1 1403 Eliade Mircea Istoria credințelor și ideilor religioase Editura Științifică Bucuresti 1992 p 163 References EditPrimary sources Edit Herodotus Histories Book IV 93 96 Herodotus Histories History of Herodotus Book IV 94 Jordanes Getica V 39 Strabo Geographica VII 3 5 Plato Charmides 156 158 Apuleius Pro Se De Magia Apologia 2 26 Diodorus Siculus Bibliotheca historica 94 2 Porphyry Life of Pythagoras 14Secondary sources Edit Dana Dan Zalmoxis de la Herodot la Mircea Eliade Istorii despre un zeu al pretextului Polirom Iași 2008 Eliade Mircea Zalmoxis the Vanishing God Univ of Chicago Press 1972 1986 Hansen Christopher M A Thracian Resurrection Is Zalmoxis a Dying Rising God who Parallels Jesus Journal of Higher Criticism 14 4 2019 pp 70 98 Kernbach Victor Miturile Esenţiale Editura Stiinţifică si Enciclopedică Bucharest 1978 Popov Dimitar Bogat s mnogoto imena The God with Multiple Names Sofia 1995 Venedikov Ivan Mitove na bulgarskata zemya Mednoto Gumno Myths of the Bulgarian Land The Copper Threshing Floor Sofia 1982Further reading EditDrugas Serban George Paul The Name of Zalmoxis and Its Significance in the Dacian Language and Religion In Hiperboreea 3 no 2 2016 5 66 www jstor org stable 10 5325 hiperboreea 3 2 0005 Eliade Mircea and Willard R Trask Zalmoxis In History of Religions 11 no 3 1972 257 302 www jstor org stable 1061899 Paliga Sorin La divinite supreme des Thraco Daces In Dialogues d histoire ancienne vol 20 n 2 1994 pp 137 150 DOI https doi org 10 3406 dha 1994 2182 www persee fr doc dha 0755 7256 1994 num 20 2 2182 Pandrea Andrei Quelques observations concernant l etymologie et la genese d un ancien nom de dieu Zalmoxis In Balkan Studies 22 1981 pp 229 245 External links EditWikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica article Zalmoxis Media related to Zalmoxis at Wikimedia Commons History by Herodotus about Zalmoxis Journey to the Land of the Cloud Rovers slideshow of Dacian fortresses and the Getae Requires Macromedia Shockwave Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zalmoxis amp oldid 1053050869, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.