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Wikipedia

Zambales

This article is about the Philippine province. For other uses, see Zambales (disambiguation).

Zambales (Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Zambales; Ilocano: Probinsia ti Zambales; Sambal: Probinsya nin Zambales; Kapampangan: Lalawigan ning Zambales; Pangasinan: Luyag na Zambales) is a province in the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. Its capital is Iba, which is located in the middle of the province. Zambales borders Pangasinan to the north and northeast, Tarlac to the east, Pampanga to the southeast, Bataan to the south and the South China Sea to the west. With a total land area of 3,830.83 square kilometres (1,479.09 sq mi) (including the independent city of Olongapo), Zambales is the second largest among the seven provinces of Central Luzon after Nueva Ecija. The province is noted for its mangoes, which are abundant from January to April.

Zambales
Province of Zambales
Provincial Capitol in Iba, decorated for theMango Festival
Flag
Seal
Nickname(s):
Chromite Capital of the Philippines
Anthem: Himno ng Zambales
English: Zambales Hymn
Marcha Zambaleña
English: March of the Zambaleans
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates:15°20′N120°10′E /15.33°N 120.17°E /15.33; 120.17Coordinates: 15°20′N120°10′E /15.33°N 120.17°E /15.33; 120.17
CountryPhilippines
RegionCentral Luzon
Founded1578
CapitalIba
Government
• TypeSangguniang Panlalawigan
• GovernorHermogenes E. Ebdane, Jr.
• Vice GovernorJefferson F. Khonghun
Area
• Total3,645.83 km2 (1,407.66 sq mi)
Area rank35th out of 81
(excluding Olongapo City)
Highest elevation2,037 m (6,683 ft)
Population
(2020 census)
• Total649,615
• Rank50th out of 81
• Density180/km2 (460/sq mi)
• Density rank54th out of 81
(excluding Olongapo City)
Divisions
Independent cities
1
Component cities0
Municipalities
Barangays
Districts1st and 2nd districts of Zambales(shared with Olongapo City)
Demographics
Ethnic groups
Languages
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
IDD: area code+63 (0)47
ISO 3166 codePH-ZMB
Websitehttp://www.zambales.gov.ph/

Zambales does not have a functional airport - the closest functional airport is the Clark International Airport in Angeles City in the neighbouring province of Pampanga. Subic Bay International Airport, which is located in Cubi Point (geographically located inside Morong, Bataan) in the Subic Bay Freeport Zone is no longer functional for domestic and international flights.

The Freeport Zone (SBFZ) is host to many tourist attractions which include casinos, parks, malls, beach-side huts, cottages and resorts, as well as historical sites.

Contents

The province's name came from the word zambal, which is a Hispanized term for Sambali. Sambal refers to the native language spoken by the early Austronesian inhabitants of the area. A contending version states that the name was derived from the word samba, meaning worship, because the Spanish supposedly found the native inhabitants to be highly superstitious; worshipping the spirits of their ancestors.

It could also originate from the word "Zambo", a term used by the Iberian (Spanish and Portuguese) empires to distinguish people of African ethnicity/descent. The province is home to the Aetas, the aboriginal people of the Philippines who share Afro-ethnic similarities.

Zambales map in 1918

Prior to colonization, the Aeta people became the first human population who inhabited what is now Zambales. Due to Malay migration waves, the Tagalog people displaced the Sambal people in southern Luzon, which led to the arrival of the Sambal people into present-day Zambales.

The Spanish first explored the area in 1572, led by Juan de Salcedo. Off Cape Bolinao (now part of Pangasinan), he and his men liberated a Zambal chieftain and his followers from a Chinese pirate ship. This act gained the natives' goodwill. Shortly thereafter, the province was organized. Among the earliest towns founded were Subic (1572), Botolan (1572), Masinloc (1607), Iba (1611), and Santa Cruz (1612).

During the Spanish period, a 1774 map was made, which clearly named Scarborough Shoals as Panacot Shoal, a feature under complete sovereignty of Spanish Philippines, specifically of Zambales. The shoal's current name was chosen by Captain Philip D'Auvergne, whose East India Company East Indiaman Scarborough briefly grounded on one of the rocks on 12 September 1784, before sailing on to China. When the Philippines was granted independence in the 19th century and 20th century, Scarborough Shoal was passed by the colonial governments to the sovereign Republic of the Philippines.

Masinloc became the province's first capital. However, the capital was moved among the last three towns above during its history before finally settling in Iba, due to its strategic location. Seven of the province's original northern towns, which included Bolinao, Infanta, San Isidro, now Burgos, Anda, Bani, Agno and Alaminos were later transferred under the jurisdiction of Pangasinan because of their distance from the capital. The first civil governor of Zambales during the colonial American era was Potenciano Lesaca from 1901 to 1903. During the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, Zambales was one of the most militarized areas in the Philippines as majority of the people were against martial rule. Many opposition Sambals were detained, tortured, killed, electrocuted at the genitalia, or were listed as 'missing'. The province was one of the main supporters of the People Power Revolution in Manila, which topped the 21-year dictatorship and installed Corazon Aquino as president, bringing back democracy to the country. The province was heavily affected by the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo. Due to this, the economy of the province weakened for some time, but regained vitality a few years after the government ordered the revitalization of the province and established growth in its southern towns, which later became a significant economic zone in the country by 1995.

The 2012 Scarborough Shoal standoff led to a situation where access to the shoal was restricted by the People's Republic of China. However, in 2016, following meetings between the Philippine president Duterte and his PRC counterparts, the PRC allowed Filipino fishermen to access the shoals for fishing.

In 2018, it was revealed that for every 3,000 peso worth of fish catch by Sambal fisherfolks, China siphoned them in exchange for 'two bottles of mineral water' worth 20 pesos. The revelations led to public unrest against China and the Duterte-administered Philippine government. Filipino president Rodrigo Duterte fired back against his fellow Filipinos, including those from Zambales, saying that China's acts were 'fine' as they were 'only barter'. On June 14, 2018, China's destruction of Scarborough Shoal's reefs surged to an extent which they became visible via Google Earth and Philippine satellites, as confirmed by the University of the Philippines Diliman.

Western coastline of the province featuring several coves
The Zambales Mountains seen from San Antonio

Zambales lies on the western shores of Luzon island along the South China Sea. Its shoreline is rugged and features many coves and inlets. The Zambales Mountains in the eastern length of the province occupies about 60% of the total land area of Zambales. Subic Bay, at the southern end of the province, provides a natural harbor, and was the location of the U.S. Naval Base Subic Bay until its closure in 1992.

The summit and crater lake of Mount Pinatubo lies within Botolan municipality in Zambales, near the tripoint of Zambales, Pampanga and Tarlac provinces. This volcano, once considered dormant, erupted violently in June 1991. The former summit of the volcano was obliterated by the massive eruption and replaced by a 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide caldera, within which Lake Pinatubo is situated. With an average depth of 800 m (2,600 ft), Lake Pinatubo is the deepest lake in the Philippines. The highest point of the caldera rim is 1,485 m (4,872 ft) above sea level, some 260 m (850 ft) lower than the pre-eruption summit. A vast portion of the Zambales province acquired desert-like features in 1991, after being buried by more than 20 feet (6.1 m) of lahar.

Climate

Zambales has two pronounced seasons: dry from October to June, and wet from July to September.

Administrative divisions

Zambales comprises 13 municipalities and 1 highly urbanized city, which are divided into two legislative districts. Olongapo City is a highly urbanized city and administers itself autonomously from the province. Panatag Shoal (Scarborough Shoal) a Philippine-claimed territory, is a designated part of the province.

Political map

Disputed territoryScarborough shoal, locally known as PanatagShoal or BajoMasinloc, is designated under Masinloc municipality. Internationally disputed. Claimed by the People's Republic of China, Philippines, and Republic of China (Taiwan). Defacto controlled by the People's Republic of China since 2012.


6 Botolan
7 Cabangan
2 Candelaria
12 Castillejos
5 Iba
3 Masinloc
14 Olongapo
4 Palauig
11 San Antonio
8 San Felipe
10 San Marcelino
9 San Narciso
1 Santa Cruz
13 Subic

  • Provincial capital
  • Municipality
  • Highly urbanized city (geographically within but independent from the province)
Cityor municipality District Population ±% p.a. Area Density Barangay Coordinates[A]
(2015) (2010) km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi
Botolan 2nd 9.8% 57,707 54,434 1.12% 735.28 283.89 78 200 31 15°17′20″N120°01′29″E /15.2889°N 120.0247°E /15.2889; 120.0247 (Botolan)
Cabangan 2nd 4.3% 25,163 23,082 1.66% 175.29 67.68 140 360 22 15°09′32″N120°03′20″E /15.1589°N 120.0555°E /15.1589; 120.0555 (Cabangan)
Candelaria 2nd 4.6% 27,174 25,020 1.58% 333.59 128.80 81 210 16 15°37′38″N119°55′45″E /15.6271°N 119.9291°E /15.6271; 119.9291 (Candelaria)
Castillejos 1st 11.0% 64,841 48,845 5.54% 92.99 35.90 700 1,800 14 14°55′48″N120°12′18″E /14.9301°N 120.2051°E /14.9301; 120.2051 (Castillejos)
Iba 2nd 8.5% 50,506 46,761 1.48% 153.38 59.22 330 850 14 15°19′35″N119°58′43″E /15.3264°N 119.9786°E /15.3264; 119.9786 (Iba)
Masinloc 2nd 8.1% 47,719 44,342 1.41% 331.50 127.99 140 360 13 15°32′16″N119°57′06″E /15.5379°N 119.9516°E /15.5379; 119.9516 (Masinloc)
Olongapo 1st 233,040 221,178 1.00% 185.00 71.43 1,300 3,400 17 14°49′53″N120°17′01″E /14.8314°N 120.2835°E /14.8314; 120.2835 (Olongapo)
Palauig 2nd 5.9% 34,947 33,286 0.93% 310.00 119.69 110 280 19 15°26′03″N119°54′30″E /15.4343°N 119.9084°E /15.4343; 119.9084 (Palauig)
San Antonio 2nd 5.9% 34,661 34,217 0.25% 188.12 72.63 180 470 14 14°56′56″N120°05′20″E /14.9488°N 120.0889°E /14.9488; 120.0889 (San Antonio)
San Felipe 2nd 3.9% 23,183 22,020 0.98% 111.60 43.09 210 540 11 15°03′40″N120°04′13″E /15.0610°N 120.0702°E /15.0610; 120.0702 (San Felipe)
San Marcelino 1st 5.7% 33,665 31,879 1.04% 416.86 160.95 81 210 18 14°58′31″N120°09′24″E /14.9754°N 120.1566°E /14.9754; 120.1566 (San Marcelino)
San Narciso 2nd 4.8% 28,360 26,966 0.96% 71.60 27.64 400 1,000 17 15°00′54″N120°04′44″E /15.0149°N 120.0789°E /15.0149; 120.0789 (San Narciso)
Santa Cruz 2nd 9.8% 58,151 53,867 1.47% 438.46 169.29 130 340 25 15°45′45″N119°54′36″E /15.7626°N 119.9100°E /15.7626; 119.9100 (Santa Cruz)
Subic 1st 17.7% 104,771 89,724 3.00% 287.16 110.87 360 930 16 14°52′39″N120°14′04″E /14.8774°N 120.2344°E /14.8774; 120.2344 (Subic)
Total[B] 590,848 534,443 1.93% 3,645.83 1,407.66 160 410 230 (see GeoGroup box)
  1. ^ Coordinates mark the city/town center, and are sortable by latitude.
  2. ^ Total figures exclude the highly urbanized city of Olongapo.

Barangays

Further information: List of barangays in Zambales

The 13 municipalities and 1 city of the province comprise a total of 247 barangays, with Santa Rita in Olongapo City as the most populous in 2010, and Owaog-Nibloc in Botolan as the least. If cities are excluded, Calapacuan in Subic has the highest population as of 2010.

Population census of Zambales
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 59,930
1918 83,750+2.26%
1939 106,945+1.17%
1948 138,536+2.92%
1960 213,442+3.67%
1970 235,249+0.98%
1975 269,171+2.74%
1980 287,607+1.33%
1990 369,665+2.54%
1995 389,512+0.98%
2000 433,542+2.32%
2007 493,085+1.79%
2010 534,443+2.97%
2015 590,848+1.93%
2020 649,615+1.88%
(excluding Olongapo City)
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

The population of Zambales in the 2020 census was 649,615 people, with a density of 180 inhabitants per square kilometre or 470 inhabitants per square mile. When Olongapo City is included for geographical purposes, the province's population is 909,932 people, with a density of215/km2 (557/sq mi).

Inhabitants

The Aetas of Mount Pinatubo were the earliest inhabitants of what is now the province of Zambales. They were later displaced by the Sambal, an Austronesian people after whom the province is named. Many Sambal still believe in superstitions and mysteries that have been handed down through the generations.

The Tagalogs, the Ilocanos, the Sambal, the Kapampangans, and the Pangasinans today constitute the five largest ethnic groups in Zambales; these identities may and do, however, overlap with one another due to intermarriage and other factors. Most of the people of southern Zambales are migrants from different parts of the country owing the influx of job opportunities brought on by the U.S Subic Naval Base (San Antonio and Subic) during the American regime of the country. Many people found jobs and permanently settled there. The presence of the Americans greatly influenced the culture and way of life of the inhabitants.

Religion

The Shrine of Ina Poon Bato in Botolan

The people of Zambales are predominantly Roman Catholic (78.22%). A sizeable portion of the population also belongs to the Aglipay (6.12%) and Iglesia ni Cristo (4.89%). The remaining are divided with other Christian groups such as Born-again Christians, United Methodist Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-day Adventist, United Church of Christ in the Philippines as well as Non Christians which is usually represented by Muslims.

Town fiestas honoring patron saints are practiced in each parish.

Further information: Roman Catholic Diocese of Iba

Languages

Languages Spoken (2000)
Language Number of speakers
Tagalog
164,000
Ilocano
119,000
Sambal
117,000

Sambal, Tagalog, and Ilocano are the three main languages of Zambales. Ilocano has 115,337 native speakers, Sambal has 114,637, and Tagalog has 250,637 (plus 24,995 non-native speakers). More than 119,126 spoke other languages as their parent tongue, such as Kapampangan and Pangasinan, including non-Philippine languages such as English and Hokkien Chinese. About 75 percent of the population speaks and understands English to varying degrees of fluency, and road signs are mostly written in that language.

Poverty Incidence of Zambales
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

Tourism plays a large role in the economy of Zambales. Local and foreign tourist flock its many beaches creating many job opportunities and contributing to the economy. Most of the province is still agricultural but there are considerable industrial zones that provide jobs not just for residents of Zambales but also for neighboring provinces. Mining has recently been booming in Zambales where there is an abundant deposit of Nickel and other minerals.

Mangoes from Zambales

Zambales is basically an agricultural province. The chief products are rice, mangoes, corn, vegetables, and root crops. Major industries include farming, fishing, and mining.

This section reads like a directory. Wikipedia policy generally considers directories in articles to be unencyclopedic and potential spam. Please help rewrite it, to better conform with the Wikipedia Manual of Style standards on lists. If it cannot be properly modified, it may be considered for deletion.(September 2018) ()
  • Feast Day of Ina Poon Bato(Botolan) — January24. The Ina Poón Bató is a purportedly miraculous, syncretised image of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Legend has it that before the arrival of the Spanish in the area sometime in the 17th century, local Aeta peoples had discovered a carved wooden statue on a large rock that they called Apo Apang ("Little Queen") and began worshipping the image. On the arrival of Recollect missionaries in 1607, the natives associated the statue with the Roman Catholic depictions of the Virgin Mary, and the image was subsequently Christianised as Ina Poón Bato ("Mother of the Lord Rock").
  • Singkamas Festival and Town Fiesta(SanMarcelino) — 3rd Week of February
  • Town Fiesta(SanNarciso)February 19–25
  • Pundakit Festival of the Arts(SanAntonio) — February‑July
  • Zambales Multi Sports Festival Senakulo — 3rd Week of March
  • Panagkakadua-an Festival(San Felipe) - 1st Week of April
  • Good Friday(Castillejos) — April
  • Foundation Day Celebration(Palauig) — April10
  • Grand Fiesta(Cabangan)April 21–25
  • The Dinamulag Festival "Zambales Mango Festival"(Iba) — 3rd Tuesday of April The Dinamulag Festival also known as the Zambales Mango Festival is an annual festival held in the province of Zambales in the Philippines to celebrate or encourage bountiful harvest of the province's mangoes. The festival was first held in 1999.
  • Paynawen Festival(Iba) — 3rd Week of April Paynauen ‘Duyan’ Festival is held every April 25 – May 1 in Iba, Zambales. It commemorates the provincial capital's founding anniversary (founded in 1611) traces its origin from a Zambal word which means rest or pahingahan – the ancient name of Iba before the Spanish conquistadores founded the village on the shore of the Bancal River in 1611. The festival features photo competition and exhibit, sand sculpture competition, skate boarding, 2-cock derby, carabao race, beauty pageant, kite flying, banca race, boxing tournament, street dancing / Duyan Parade, among other activities.
  • Marunggay Festival and Town Fiesta(SanAntonio) — Last Week of April
  • Domorokdok Festival(Botolan) — May4
  • Laruk Laruk Festival(Candelaria) — Last Week of October
  • Binabayani Festival and Town Fiesta(Masinloc) — November30 The Binabayani Festival occurs every November in the city of Masinloc in Zambales. . A dance/play depicting the clash between the Spanish and the Natives of Masinloc or the triumph of Christianity over Paganism. The war dance starts with a procession in the afternoon of November 29 and opens in a mass on November 30. This annual religious festival is celebrated with day long activities in honor of San Andres, the patron saint of Masinloc. Binabayani is a war dance that portrays the battle between the Christian and the Aetas in the town of Masinloc. It is a word that means “bravery”. It is usually featured at the town plaza on the 30th day of November for the public to witness.
  • Kaligawan Ha Mayanan(Candelaria)December 29–30
  • Olongapo Mardigras(Olongapo) — Last Week of October

There are a number of higher educational institutions in the province. The President Ramon Magsaysay State University, the first state university in the province can be found in Iba. It has also satellite campuses in the municipalities of Santa Cruz, Candelaria, Masinloc, Botolan, San Marcelino, and Castillejos. St. Joseph College-Olongapo, a college run by the Roman Catholic Church can be found in Olongapo City. The Columban College, run by the Catholic Church can be found also in Olongapo. The Magsaysay Memorial College is also run by the Roman Catholic Church and can be found in San Narciso.

Colleges and universities

This section reads like a directory. Wikipedia policy generally considers directories in articles to be unencyclopedic and potential spam. Please help rewrite it, to better conform with the Wikipedia Manual of Style standards on lists. If it cannot be properly modified, it may be considered for deletion.(September 2018) ()
President Ramon Magsaysay State University (PRMSU)
The President Ramon Magsaysay State University, commonly referred to as PRMSU, is a state university/government-funded higher education institution in Iba, established in 1910. The university is named after former President Ramon Magsaysay, a native of the province. Its main campus is situated in the capital town of Iba, while satellite campuses are located in Santa Cruz, Candelaria, Masinloc, Botolan, San Marcelino, and Castillejos. The university also offers nursing courses at the Mondriaan Aura College in Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Business Administration at the Wesleyan College of Manila under a consortium program.
Columban College, Olongapo
The Columban College, is a private-catholic educational institution in Zambales that was established in 1961. the college was founded by the missionaries from Ireland under the Missionary Society of St. Columban until they turn over the institution to the Diocese of Iba. the institution's main campus is situated at the heart of Olongapo City, other campuses situated at Bo. Barretto, Olongapo which focuses on the southern part of Zambales, and Santa Cruz, Zambales which focuses on the northern part of Zambales. they value Christian Character like any other Catholic Schools as a Christ-centered but competing institution. they offer academic programs within their reach.
  1. "Mining Firms Seek to Export Black Sand Thru Subic Port". Dean Alegado Reality. PIA Press Release. 14 March 2011. Retrieved23 March 2016. The miners told Salonga that Zambales was known before as the chromite capital of the Philippines, but with big developments in China today, magnetite iron ore has become more important than chromite.
  2. "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved13 February 2013.
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  6. "Municipalities". Zambales Now, Official Website of Zambales. Retrieved on 2012-05.24.
    ** The year of 1542 in the founding of Subic is a misprint and should be the year 1572 like in Botolan as Salcedo was born in 1549.
  7. W. Gilbert (1804) A New Nautical Directory for the East-India and China Navigation .., pp.480=482.
  8. Joseph Huddart (1801). The Oriental Navigator, Or, New Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies: Also for the Use of Ships Trading in the Indian and China Seas to New Holland, &c. &c. James Humphreys. p. 454.
  9. Nonato, Dexter Cabalza, DJ Yap, Gabriel Cardinoza, Jeannette I. Andrade, Julie M. Aurelio, Matthew Reysio-Cruz, Philip C. Tubeza, Vince F. "'Never again to martial law'".
  10. "Life During Martial Law". www.clarkhumanities.org.
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  14. Tordesillas, Ellen (January 21, 2013). "Chinese 'occupation' of Bajo de Masinloc could reduce PH territorial waters by 38 percent". VERA Files. ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. Retrieved15 February 2014.
  15. Krishnamoorthy, Nandini (9 February 2017). "South China Sea: Philippines sees Chinese attempt to build on reef near its coast". IBT International Business Times. Retrieved9 February 2017.
  16. "'2 bottles of water for P3,000 worth of fish in Panatag Shoal'".
  17. News, Dharel Placido, ABS-CBN. "Palace: PH not conceding Scarborough Shoal rights to China".
  18. "'UNACCEPTABLE': Bayan condemns China Coast Guard harassment of Pinoy fishermen in Scarborough Shoal".
  19. Torres-Tupas, Tetch. "Carpio: Duterte admin should stand by Filipinos harassed at Scarborough Shoal".
  20. "Destruction of Scarborough Shoal seen on Google Earth". Philstar.com. 2018-06-15. Retrieved2018-10-22.
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  31. https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province%20%20-%202006%2C%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015.xlsx; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
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  33. https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province%20%20-%202006%2C%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015.xlsx; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  34. https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Updated%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%20with%20Measures%20of%20Precision%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province_2015%20and%202018.xlsx; publication date: 4 June 2020; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap
Download coordinates as: KML

Zambales
Zambales Language Watch Edit This article is about the Philippine province For other uses see Zambales disambiguation Zambales Tagalog Lalawigan ng Zambales Ilocano Probinsia ti Zambales Sambal Probinsya nin Zambales Kapampangan Lalawigan ning Zambales Pangasinan Luyag na Zambales is a province in the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region Its capital is Iba which is located in the middle of the province Zambales borders Pangasinan to the north and northeast Tarlac to the east Pampanga to the southeast Bataan to the south and the South China Sea to the west With a total land area of 3 830 83 square kilometres 1 479 09 sq mi including the independent city of Olongapo Zambales is the second largest among the seven provinces of Central Luzon after Nueva Ecija The province is noted for its mangoes which are abundant from January to April ZambalesProvinceProvince of ZambalesProvincial Capitol in Iba decorated for the Mango FestivalFlagSealNickname s Chromite Capital of the Philippines 1 Anthem Himno ng Zambales English Zambales Hymn Marcha Zambalena English March of the ZambaleansLocation within the PhilippinesCoordinates 15 20 N 120 10 E 15 33 N 120 17 E 15 33 120 17 Coordinates 15 20 N 120 10 E 15 33 N 120 17 E 15 33 120 17CountryPhilippinesRegionCentral LuzonFounded1578CapitalIbaGovernment TypeSangguniang Panlalawigan GovernorHermogenes E Ebdane Jr Vice GovernorJefferson F KhonghunArea 2 Total3 645 83 km2 1 407 66 sq mi Area rank35th out of 81 excluding Olongapo City Highest elevation Mount Tapulao 2 037 m 6 683 ft Population 2020 census 3 Total649 615 Rank50th out of 81 Density180 km2 460 sq mi Density rank54th out of 81 excluding Olongapo City Divisions Independent cities1 Olongapo Highly Urbanized City Component cities0 Municipalities13 BotolanCabanganCandelariaCastillejosIbaMasinlocPalauigSan AntonioSan FelipeSan MarcelinoSan NarcisoSanta CruzSubic Barangays230including independent cities 247 Districts1st and 2nd districts of Zambales shared with Olongapo City Demographics Ethnic groupsTagalog 42 Ilocano 28 Sambal 27 Others 3 LanguagesTagalogIlocanoSambalKapampanganPangasinanEnglishTime zoneUTC 8 PST IDD area code 63 0 47ISO 3166 codePH ZMBWebsitehttp www zambales gov ph Zambales does not have a functional airport the closest functional airport is the Clark International Airport in Angeles City in the neighbouring province of Pampanga Subic Bay International Airport which is located in Cubi Point geographically located inside Morong Bataan in the Subic Bay Freeport Zone is no longer functional for domestic and international flights 4 The Freeport Zone SBFZ is host to many tourist attractions which include casinos parks malls beach side huts cottages and resorts as well as historical sites Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography 3 1 Climate 3 2 Administrative divisions 3 3 Barangays 4 Demographics 4 1 Inhabitants 4 2 Religion 4 3 Languages 5 Economy 6 Festivals and events 7 Education 7 1 Colleges and universities 8 Notable people 9 References 10 External linksEtymology EditThe province s name came from the word zambal which is a Hispanized term for Sambali Sambal refers to the native language spoken by the early Austronesian inhabitants of the area A contending version states that the name was derived from the word samba meaning worship because the Spanish supposedly found the native inhabitants to be highly superstitious worshipping the spirits of their ancestors 5 It could also originate from the word Zambo a term used by the Iberian Spanish and Portuguese empires to distinguish people of African ethnicity descent The province is home to the Aetas the aboriginal people of the Philippines who share Afro ethnic similarities History Edit Zambales map in 1918 Prior to colonization the Aeta people became the first human population who inhabited what is now Zambales Due to Malay migration waves the Tagalog people displaced the Sambal people in southern Luzon which led to the arrival of the Sambal people into present day Zambales The Spanish first explored the area in 1572 led by Juan de Salcedo 5 Off Cape Bolinao now part of Pangasinan he and his men liberated a Zambal chieftain and his followers from a Chinese pirate ship This act gained the natives goodwill Shortly thereafter the province was organized Among the earliest towns founded were Subic 1572 Botolan 1572 Masinloc 1607 Iba 1611 and Santa Cruz 1612 6 During the Spanish period a 1774 map was made which clearly named Scarborough Shoals as Panacot Shoal a feature under complete sovereignty of Spanish Philippines specifically of Zambales The shoal s current name was chosen by Captain Philip D Auvergne whose East India Company East Indiaman Scarborough briefly grounded on one of the rocks on 12 September 1784 before sailing on to China When the Philippines was granted independence in the 19th century and 20th century Scarborough Shoal was passed by the colonial governments to the sovereign Republic of the Philippines 7 8 Masinloc became the province s first capital However the capital was moved among the last three towns above during its history before finally settling in Iba due to its strategic location Seven of the province s original northern towns which included Bolinao Infanta San Isidro now Burgos Anda Bani Agno and Alaminos were later transferred under the jurisdiction of Pangasinan because of their distance from the capital 5 The first civil governor of Zambales during the colonial American era was Potenciano Lesaca from 1901 to 1903 During the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos Zambales was one of the most militarized areas in the Philippines as majority of the people were against martial rule Many opposition Sambals were detained tortured killed electrocuted at the genitalia or were listed as missing 9 10 The province was one of the main supporters of the People Power Revolution in Manila which topped the 21 year dictatorship and installed Corazon Aquino as president bringing back democracy to the country 11 The province was heavily affected by the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo Due to this the economy of the province weakened for some time but regained vitality a few years after the government ordered the revitalization of the province and established growth in its southern towns which later became a significant economic zone in the country by 1995 12 13 The 2012 Scarborough Shoal standoff led to a situation where access to the shoal was restricted by the People s Republic of China 14 However in 2016 following meetings between the Philippine president Duterte and his PRC counterparts the PRC allowed Filipino fishermen to access the shoals for fishing 15 In 2018 it was revealed that for every 3 000 peso worth of fish catch by Sambal fisherfolks China siphoned them in exchange for two bottles of mineral water worth 20 pesos 16 The revelations led to public unrest against China and the Duterte administered Philippine government Filipino president Rodrigo Duterte fired back against his fellow Filipinos including those from Zambales saying that China s acts were fine as they were only barter 17 18 19 On June 14 2018 China s destruction of Scarborough Shoal s reefs surged to an extent which they became visible via Google Earth and Philippine satellites as confirmed by the University of the Philippines Diliman 20 Geography Edit Western coastline of the province featuring several coves The Zambales Mountains seen from San Antonio Zambales lies on the western shores of Luzon island along the South China Sea Its shoreline is rugged and features many coves and inlets The Zambales Mountains in the eastern length of the province occupies about 60 of the total land area of Zambales Subic Bay at the southern end of the province provides a natural harbor and was the location of the U S Naval Base Subic Bay until its closure in 1992 5 The summit and crater lake of Mount Pinatubo lies within Botolan municipality in Zambales near the tripoint of Zambales Pampanga and Tarlac provinces 21 This volcano once considered dormant erupted violently in June 1991 The former summit of the volcano was obliterated by the massive eruption and replaced by a 2 5 km 1 6 mi wide caldera within which Lake Pinatubo is situated With an average depth of 800 m 2 600 ft Lake Pinatubo is the deepest lake in the Philippines The highest point of the caldera rim is 1 485 m 4 872 ft above sea level some 260 m 850 ft lower than the pre eruption summit A vast portion of the Zambales province acquired desert like features in 1991 5 after being buried by more than 20 feet 6 1 m of lahar Climate Edit Zambales has two pronounced seasons dry from October to June and wet from July to September Administrative divisions Edit Zambales comprises 13 municipalities and 1 highly urbanized city which are divided into two legislative districts 22 Olongapo City is a highly urbanized city and administers itself autonomously from the province Panatag Shoal Scarborough Shoal a Philippine claimed territory is a designated part of the province Political map 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 3 disputed Luzon Is Disputed territory Scarborough shoal locally known as Panatag Shoal or Bajo Masinloc is designated under Masinloc municipality Internationally disputed Claimed by the People s Republic of China Philippines and Republic of China Taiwan De facto controlled by the People s Republic of China since 2012 6 Botolan7 Cabangan2 Candelaria12 Castillejos5 Iba3 Masinloc14 Olongapo4 Palauig11 San Antonio8 San Felipe10 San Marcelino9 San Narciso1 Santa Cruz13 Subic Provincial capital Municipality Highly urbanized city geographically within but independent from the province City or municipality District 22 Population p a Area 22 Density Barangay Coordinates A 2015 23 2010 24 km2 sq mi km2 sq miBotolan 2nd 9 8 57 707 54 434 1 12 735 28 283 89 78 200 31 15 17 20 N 120 01 29 E 15 2889 N 120 0247 E 15 2889 120 0247 Botolan Cabangan 2nd 4 3 25 163 23 082 1 66 175 29 67 68 140 360 22 15 09 32 N 120 03 20 E 15 1589 N 120 0555 E 15 1589 120 0555 Cabangan Candelaria 2nd 4 6 27 174 25 020 1 58 333 59 128 80 81 210 16 15 37 38 N 119 55 45 E 15 6271 N 119 9291 E 15 6271 119 9291 Candelaria Castillejos 1st 11 0 64 841 48 845 5 54 92 99 35 90 700 1 800 14 14 55 48 N 120 12 18 E 14 9301 N 120 2051 E 14 9301 120 2051 Castillejos Iba 2nd 8 5 50 506 46 761 1 48 153 38 59 22 330 850 14 15 19 35 N 119 58 43 E 15 3264 N 119 9786 E 15 3264 119 9786 Iba Masinloc 2nd 8 1 47 719 44 342 1 41 331 50 127 99 140 360 13 15 32 16 N 119 57 06 E 15 5379 N 119 9516 E 15 5379 119 9516 Masinloc Olongapo 1st 233 040 221 178 1 00 185 00 71 43 1 300 3 400 17 14 49 53 N 120 17 01 E 14 8314 N 120 2835 E 14 8314 120 2835 Olongapo Palauig 2nd 5 9 34 947 33 286 0 93 310 00 119 69 110 280 19 15 26 03 N 119 54 30 E 15 4343 N 119 9084 E 15 4343 119 9084 Palauig San Antonio 2nd 5 9 34 661 34 217 0 25 188 12 72 63 180 470 14 14 56 56 N 120 05 20 E 14 9488 N 120 0889 E 14 9488 120 0889 San Antonio San Felipe 2nd 3 9 23 183 22 020 0 98 111 60 43 09 210 540 11 15 03 40 N 120 04 13 E 15 0610 N 120 0702 E 15 0610 120 0702 San Felipe San Marcelino 1st 5 7 33 665 31 879 1 04 416 86 160 95 81 210 18 14 58 31 N 120 09 24 E 14 9754 N 120 1566 E 14 9754 120 1566 San Marcelino San Narciso 2nd 4 8 28 360 26 966 0 96 71 60 27 64 400 1 000 17 15 00 54 N 120 04 44 E 15 0149 N 120 0789 E 15 0149 120 0789 San Narciso Santa Cruz 2nd 9 8 58 151 53 867 1 47 438 46 169 29 130 340 25 15 45 45 N 119 54 36 E 15 7626 N 119 9100 E 15 7626 119 9100 Santa Cruz Subic 1st 17 7 104 771 89 724 3 00 287 16 110 87 360 930 16 14 52 39 N 120 14 04 E 14 8774 N 120 2344 E 14 8774 120 2344 Subic Total B 590 848 534 443 1 93 3 645 83 1 407 66 160 410 230 see GeoGroup box Coordinates mark the city town center and are sortable by latitude Total figures exclude the highly urbanized city of Olongapo Barangays Edit Further information List of barangays in Zambales The 13 municipalities and 1 city of the province comprise a total of 247 barangays with Santa Rita in Olongapo City as the most populous in 2010 and Owaog Nibloc in Botolan as the least If cities are excluded Calapacuan in Subic has the highest population as of 2010 24 Demographics EditPopulation census of ZambalesYearPop p a 190359 930 191883 750 2 26 1939106 945 1 17 1948138 536 2 92 1960213 442 3 67 1970235 249 0 98 1975269 171 2 74 1980287 607 1 33 1990369 665 2 54 1995389 512 0 98 2000433 542 2 32 2007493 085 1 79 2010534 443 2 97 2015590 848 1 93 2020649 615 1 88 excluding Olongapo City Source Philippine Statistics Authority 23 24 24 See also Aeta Sambal people Tagalog people Ilocano people Kapampangan people and Pangasinan people The population of Zambales in the 2020 census was 649 615 people 3 with a density of 180 inhabitants per square kilometre or 470 inhabitants per square mile When Olongapo City is included for geographical purposes the province s population is 909 932 people with a density of 215 km2 557 sq mi Inhabitants Edit The Aetas of Mount Pinatubo were the earliest inhabitants of what is now the province of Zambales 5 They were later displaced 5 by the Sambal an Austronesian people after whom the province is named Many Sambal still believe in superstitions and mysteries that have been handed down through the generations The Tagalogs the Ilocanos the Sambal the Kapampangans and the Pangasinans today constitute the five largest ethnic groups in Zambales these identities may and do however overlap with one another due to intermarriage 25 and other factors Most of the people of southern Zambales are migrants from different parts of the country owing the influx of job opportunities brought on by the U S Subic Naval Base San Antonio and Subic during the American regime of the country Many people found jobs and permanently settled there The presence of the Americans greatly influenced the culture and way of life of the inhabitants Religion Edit The Shrine of Ina Poon Bato in Botolan The people of Zambales are predominantly Roman Catholic 78 22 A sizeable portion of the population also belongs to the Aglipay 6 12 and Iglesia ni Cristo 4 89 The remaining are divided with other Christian groups such as Born again Christians United Methodist Church The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints Jehovah s Witnesses Seventh day Adventist United Church of Christ in the Philippines as well as Non Christians which is usually represented by Muslims Town fiestas honoring patron saints are practiced in each parish Further information Roman Catholic Diocese of Iba Languages Edit Languages Spoken 2000 26 Language Number of speakersTagalog 164 000Ilocano 119 000Sambal 117 000 Main articles Sambalic languages Tagalog language Ilocano language Kapampangan language and Pangasinan language Sambal Tagalog and Ilocano are the three main languages of Zambales 5 Ilocano has 115 337 native speakers Sambal has 114 637 and Tagalog has 250 637 plus 24 995 non native speakers 27 More than 119 126 spoke other languages as their parent tongue such as Kapampangan and Pangasinan including non Philippine languages such as English and Hokkien Chinese 27 About 75 percent of the population speaks and understands English to varying degrees of fluency and road signs are mostly written in that language Economy EditPoverty Incidence of ZambalesSource Philippine Statistics Authority 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Tourism plays a large role in the economy of Zambales Local and foreign tourist flock its many beaches creating many job opportunities and contributing to the economy Most of the province is still agricultural but there are considerable industrial zones that provide jobs not just for residents of Zambales but also for neighboring provinces Mining has recently been booming in Zambales where there is an abundant deposit of Nickel and other minerals 5 Mangoes from Zambales Zambales is basically an agricultural province The chief products are rice mangoes corn vegetables and root crops Major industries include farming fishing and mining Festivals and events EditThis section reads like a directory Wikipedia policy generally considers directories in articles to be unencyclopedic and potential spam Please help rewrite it to better conform with the Wikipedia Manual of Style standards on lists If it cannot be properly modified it may be considered for deletion September 2018 Learn how and when to remove this template message Feast Day of Ina Poon Bato Botolan January 24 The Ina Poon Bato is a purportedly miraculous syncretised image of the Blessed Virgin Mary Legend has it that before the arrival of the Spanish in the area sometime in the 17th century local Aeta peoples had discovered a carved wooden statue on a large rock that they called Apo Apang Little Queen and began worshipping the image On the arrival of Recollect missionaries in 1607 the natives associated the statue with the Roman Catholic depictions of the Virgin Mary and the image was subsequently Christianised as Ina Poon Bato Mother of the Lord Rock Singkamas Festival and Town Fiesta San Marcelino 3rd Week of February Town Fiesta San Narciso February 19 25 Pundakit Festival of the Arts San Antonio February July Zambales Multi Sports Festival Senakulo 3rd Week of March Panagkakadua an Festival San Felipe 1st Week of April Good Friday Castillejos April Foundation Day Celebration Palauig April 10 Grand Fiesta Cabangan April 21 25 The Dinamulag Festival Zambales Mango Festival Iba 3rd Tuesday of April The Dinamulag Festival also known as the Zambales Mango Festival is an annual festival held in the province of Zambales in the Philippines to celebrate or encourage bountiful harvest of the province s mangoes The festival was first held in 1999 Paynawen Festival Iba 3rd Week of April Paynauen Duyan Festival is held every April 25 May 1 in Iba Zambales It commemorates the provincial capital s founding anniversary founded in 1611 traces its origin from a Zambal word which means rest or pahingahan the ancient name of Iba before the Spanish conquistadores founded the village on the shore of the Bancal River in 1611 The festival features photo competition and exhibit sand sculpture competition skate boarding 2 cock derby carabao race beauty pageant kite flying banca race boxing tournament street dancing Duyan Parade among other activities Marunggay Festival and Town Fiesta San Antonio Last Week of April Domorokdok Festival Botolan May 4 Laruk Laruk Festival Candelaria Last Week of October Binabayani Festival and Town Fiesta Masinloc November 30 The Binabayani Festival occurs every November in the city of Masinloc in Zambales A dance play depicting the clash between the Spanish and the Natives of Masinloc or the triumph of Christianity over Paganism The war dance starts with a procession in the afternoon of November 29 and opens in a mass on November 30 This annual religious festival is celebrated with day long activities in honor of San Andres the patron saint of Masinloc Binabayani is a war dance that portrays the battle between the Christian and the Aetas in the town of Masinloc It is a word that means bravery It is usually featured at the town plaza on the 30th day of November for the public to witness Kaligawan Ha Mayanan Candelaria December 29 30 Olongapo Mardigras Olongapo Last Week of OctoberEducation EditThere are a number of higher educational institutions in the province The President Ramon Magsaysay State University the first state university in the province can be found in Iba It has also satellite campuses in the municipalities of Santa Cruz Candelaria Masinloc Botolan San Marcelino and Castillejos St Joseph College Olongapo a college run by the Roman Catholic Church can be found in Olongapo City The Columban College run by the Catholic Church can be found also in Olongapo The Magsaysay Memorial College is also run by the Roman Catholic Church and can be found in San Narciso Colleges and universities Edit This section reads like a directory Wikipedia policy generally considers directories in articles to be unencyclopedic and potential spam Please help rewrite it to better conform with the Wikipedia Manual of Style standards on lists If it cannot be properly modified it may be considered for deletion September 2018 Learn how and when to remove this template message AIE College International Olongapo City AMA Computer College Olongapo City AMA Computer Learning Center Olongapo City Asian Institute of Computer Studies Olongapo City Best Freeport Colleges Inc Subic Bay Freeport Zone Polytechnic College of Botolan Botolan Capstone Institute of Business and Arts Olongapo City Central Luzon College of Science and Technology Olongapo City College of Subic Montessori Subic Bay Subic Bay Freeport Zone Collegio de Castillejos Castillejos Columban College Barreto Campus Olongapo City Columban College Santa Cruz Campus Santa Cruz Columban College Main Campus Olongapo City Comteq Computer and Business College Subic Bay Freeport Zone Don Bosco College of Zambales Castillejos Don Luis Orin Junior College of Criminology Inc Iba First EDT Learning Center Inc Subic Bay Freeport Zone Freeport SBLC Inc Subic Bay Freeport Zone GIS Institute of Technology Phils Inc San Marcelino Global City Innovative College Subic Olongapo City Gordon College Olongapo City Holy Infant Jesus College Olongapo City Hopeful Beginnings Institute Iba Keystone Subic International Language Center Subic Bay Freeport Zone Kolehiyo ng Subic Subic Lorraine Technical School Olongapo City Lyceum of Subic Bay Subic Bay Freeport Zone Magsaysay Memorial College San Narciso Metro Subic Colleges Olongapo City Micro Asia College of Science and Technology Santa Cruz Micro Asia College of Science and Technology Iba Mondrian Aura College Subic Bay Freeport Zone Network Computer and Business Colleges Olongapo City Northern Zambales College Masinloc Philippine Merchants Marine Academy San Narciso President Ramon Magsaysay State University Candelaria Candelaria President Ramon Magsaysay State University Castillejos Castillejos President Ramon Magsaysay State University Main Campus Iba President Ramon Magsaysay State University Masinloc Masinloc President Ramon Magsaysay State University Western Luzon Agricultural College San Marcelino San Antonio Institute of Commerce and Technology San Antonio Sand Valley Institute of Arts and Trades Iba St Benilde Center for Global Competence Olongapo City St Joseph College Olongapo City St Nicolas Systeq College Palauig St Theresa s College San Marcelino STI College Olongapo City Subic Bay Foreign Language Center Subic Bay Freeport Zone Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority Law Enforcement Academy Subic Bay Freeport Zone Subic Bay Colleges Inc Iba Subic Institute of International Studies Subic Bay Freeport Zone Technological College of San Felipe San Felipe The Thomasites Center for International Studies Subic Bay Freeport Zone University of the Philippines Extension Program in Olongapo Subic Bay Freeport Zone Virgen de los Remedios College Olongapo City Virgin de los Remedios College of Criminology Iba Zambales Academy San Narciso Zambales Lifesaving Inc PCG Accredited Lifeguard training organization Botolan President Ramon Magsaysay State University PRMSU The President Ramon Magsaysay State University commonly referred to as PRMSU is a state university government funded higher education institution in Iba established in 1910 The university is named after former President Ramon Magsaysay a native of the province Its main campus is situated in the capital town of Iba while satellite campuses are located in Santa Cruz Candelaria Masinloc Botolan San Marcelino and Castillejos The university also offers nursing courses at the Mondriaan Aura College in Subic Bay Freeport Zone Business Administration at the Wesleyan College of Manila under a consortium program Columban College Olongapo The Columban College is a private catholic educational institution in Zambales that was established in 1961 the college was founded by the missionaries from Ireland under the Missionary Society of St Columban until they turn over the institution to the Diocese of Iba the institution s main campus is situated at the heart of Olongapo City other campuses situated at Bo Barretto Olongapo which focuses on the southern part of Zambales and Santa Cruz Zambales which focuses on the northern part of Zambales they value Christian Character like any other Catholic Schools as a Christ centered but competing institution they offer academic programs within their reach Notable people EditManuel C Espolong Jr Gerald Anderson Manuel D Barretto Governor Norman Balbuena a k a Boobay Megan Young Elmer Borlongan Coke Bolipata Rafael Corpus Hermogenes Ebdane Loi Ejercito Richard J Gordon Luz Magsaysay Mitos Magsaysay Ramon Magsaysay Ramon Magsaysay Jr Lou Diamond Phillips Isabel Rivas Dennis Roldan Ruben Torres Teodoro R Yangco Freddie Aguilar K Brosas Gladys Guevarra Wowie de Guzman Kristofer Martin Blakdyak Willie Miller Topex Robinson Arnel Pineda Angelee delos Reyes Lauren Young Tom Rodriguez Angelu de Leon Raikko Mateo Ruby Rodriguez Jay Washington Daisy D EdanolReferences Edit Mining Firms Seek to Export Black Sand Thru Subic Port Dean Alegado Reality PIA Press Release 14 March 2011 Retrieved 23 March 2016 The miners told Salonga that Zambales was known before as the chromite capital of the Philippines but with big developments in China today magnetite iron ore has become more important than chromite List of Provinces PSGC Interactive Makati Philippines National Statistical Coordination Board Retrieved 13 February 2013 a b Census of Population 2020 Region III Central Luzon Total Population by Province City Municipality and Barangay PSA Retrieved 8 July 2021 Orejas Tonnette 7 March 2012 It s more fun than an airport in Subic Inquirer Retrieved 15 May 2014 a b c d e f g h i Lancion Jr Conrado M de Guzman Rey cartography 1995 The Provinces Fast Facts about Philippine Provinces The 2000 Millenium ed Makati Metro Manila Tahanan Books pp 162 163 ISBN 971 630 037 9 Retrieved 7 February 2015 Municipalities Zambales Now Official Website of Zambales Retrieved on 2012 05 24 The year of 1542 in the founding of Subic is a misprint and should be the year 1572 like in Botolan as Salcedo was born in 1549 W Gilbert 1804 A New Nautical Directory for the East India and China Navigation pp 480 482 Joseph Huddart 1801 The Oriental Navigator Or New Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies Also for the Use of Ships Trading in the Indian and China Seas to New Holland amp c amp c James Humphreys p 454 Nonato Dexter Cabalza DJ Yap Gabriel Cardinoza Jeannette I Andrade Julie M Aurelio Matthew Reysio Cruz Philip C Tubeza Vince F Never again to martial law Life During Martial Law www clarkhumanities org Pimentel Benjamin Defying Marcos Filipino Americans emerged as a force against tyranny Learn About the 1991 Mount Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo Philippines Fact Sheet 113 97 pubs usgs gov Tordesillas Ellen January 21 2013 Chinese occupation of Bajo de Masinloc could reduce PH territorial waters by 38 percent VERA Files ABS CBN News and Current Affairs Retrieved 15 February 2014 Krishnamoorthy Nandini 9 February 2017 South China Sea Philippines sees Chinese attempt to build on reef near its coast IBT International Business Times Retrieved 9 February 2017 2 bottles of water for P3 000 worth of fish in Panatag Shoal News Dharel Placido ABS CBN Palace PH not conceding Scarborough Shoal rights to China UNACCEPTABLE Bayan condemns China Coast Guard harassment of Pinoy fishermen in Scarborough Shoal Torres Tupas Tetch Carpio Duterte admin should stand by Filipinos harassed at Scarborough Shoal Destruction of Scarborough Shoal seen on Google Earth Philstar com 2018 06 15 Retrieved 2018 10 22 U S Army Corps of Engineers 1955 Tarlac map University of Texas in Austin Library Retrieved on 2012 05 24 a b c Province Zambales PSGC Interactive Quezon City Philippines Philippine Statistics Authority Retrieved 8 January 2016 a b Census of Population 2015 Region III Central Luzon Total Population by Province City Municipality and Barangay PSA Retrieved 20 June 2016 a b c d Census of Population and Housing 2010 Region III Central Luzon Total Population by Province City Municipality and Barangay NSO Retrieved 29 June 2016 Iba travel guide Archived from the original on 2008 12 03 Retrieved 2008 12 04 Zambales Dependency Ratio Down by Five Persons Results from the 200 19 June 2013 Archived from the original on 19 June 2013 a b Zambales Archived from the original on 2007 09 12 Retrieved 2007 08 13 Poverty incidence PI Philippine Statistics Authority Retrieved 28 December 2020 https psa gov ph sites default files NSCB LocalPovertyPhilippines 0 pdf publication date 29 November 2005 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority https psa gov ph sites default files 2009 20Poverty 20Statistics pdf publication date 8 February 2011 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority https psa gov ph sites default files Table 202 20 20Annual 20Per 20Capita 20Poverty 20Threshold 2C 20Poverty 20Incidence 20and 20Magnitude 20of 20Poor 20Population 2C 20by 20Region 20and 20Province 20 20 202006 2C 202009 2C 202012 20and 202015 xlsx publication date 27 August 2016 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority https psa gov ph sites default files Table 202 20 20Annual 20Per 20Capita 20Poverty 20Threshold 2C 20Poverty 20Incidence 20and 20Magnitude 20of 20Poor 20Population 2C 20by 20Region 20and 20Province 20 20 202006 2C 202009 2C 202012 20and 202015 xlsx publication date 27 August 2016 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority https psa gov ph sites default files Table 202 20 20Annual 20Per 20Capita 20Poverty 20Threshold 2C 20Poverty 20Incidence 20and 20Magnitude 20of 20Poor 20Population 2C 20by 20Region 20and 20Province 20 20 202006 2C 202009 2C 202012 20and 202015 xlsx publication date 27 August 2016 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority https psa gov ph sites default files Table 202 20 20Updated 20Annual 20Per 20Capita 20Poverty 20Threshold 2C 20Poverty 20Incidence 20and 20Magnitude 20of 20Poor 20Population 20with 20Measures 20of 20Precision 2C 20by 20Region 20and 20Province 2015 20and 202018 xlsx publication date 4 June 2020 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority External links EditMap all coordinates using OpenStreetMap Download coordinates as KML Media related to Zambales at Wikimedia Commons Geographic data related to Zambales at OpenStreetMap Baluate Ng Sambal Archived 2020 11 30 at the Wayback Machine 1 Olongapo city news archive Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zambales amp oldid 1046002674, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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