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Zamboanga City

For other uses, see Zamboanga (disambiguation).

Zamboanga City, officially the City of Zamboanga (Chavacano and Spanish: Ciudad de Zamboanga, Tausūg: Sambuangan, Tagalog: Lungsod ng Zamboanga), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the Zamboanga Peninsula region of the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 977,234 people. It is the fifth-most populous and third-largest city by land area in the Philippines. It is the commercial and industrial center of the Zamboanga Peninsula Region.

Zamboanga City
City of Zamboanga
Clockwise from top: Zamboanga City Hall, Great Santa Cruz Island, Zamboanga City view, Santa Barbara Mosque
Flag
Seal
Nickname(s):
City of Flowers
Asia's Latin City
Sardines Capital of The Philippines
Motto(s):
Build Back Better Zamboanga
Anthem: Zamboanga Hermosa (Beautiful Zamboanga)
Map of Zamboanga Peninsula with Zamboanga City highlighted
OpenStreetMap
Zamboanga City
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates:6°55′N122°05′E /6.92°N 122.08°E /6.92; 122.08Coordinates: 6°55′N122°05′E /6.92°N 122.08°E /6.92; 122.08
CountryPhilippines
RegionZamboanga Peninsula
ProvinceZamboanga del Sur (statistically only)
District1st (West Coast) and 2nd (East Coast) districts of Zamboanga City
FoundedJune 23, 1635
CharteredOctober 12, 1936
CityhoodFebruary 26, 1937
Highly Urbanized CityNovember 22, 1983
Barangays98 (see Barangays)
Government
• TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
MayorMaria Isabelle Climaco-Salazar (LP)
Vice MayorRommel S. Agan (UNA)
Representatives
City Council
Members
  • 1st District
  • Josephine E. Pareja
  • Elbert C. Atilano Sr.
  • Khymer Adan T. Olaso
  • Joselito A. Macrohon
  • Rogelio L. Valesco Jr.
  • Cesar M. Jimenez
  • Crisanto B. dela Cruz
  • El King K. Omaga
  • 2nd District
  • John M. Dalipe
  • Benjamin B. Guingona IV
  • Juan Climaco P. Elago II
  • Lilibeth N. Belloso
  • Miguel C. Alavar III
  • Al-Jihan R. Edding
  • Jimmy B. Villaflores
  • Vincent Paul A. Elago
Electorate467,535 voters (2019)
Area
• Total1,414.7 km2 (546.2 sq mi)
Area rank3rd (city)
Elevation
96 m (315 ft)
Highest elevation
1,358 m (4,455 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
(2020 census)
• Total977,234
• Rank5th
• Density690/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
Households
185,621
Demonym(s)Zamboangueño (Major Ethnicity)
Economy
Income class1st city income class
Poverty incidence17.26% (2015)
Revenue₱4,120,731,000.00 (2020)
Assets₱19,775,074,000.00 (2020)
Expenditure₱3,116,112,000.00 (2020)
Service provider
ElectricityZamboanga City Electric Cooperative (ZAMCELCO)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
7000
PSGC
IDD: area code+63 (0)62
Native languages
Websitewww.zamboanga.gov.ph

On October 12, 1936, Zamboanga became a chartered city under Commonwealth Act No. 39. It was inaugurated on February 26, 1937.

Zamboanga City is an independent, chartered city and was designated highly urbanized on November 22, 1983.

Although geographically separated, and an independent and chartered city, Zamboanga City is grouped with the province of Zamboanga del Sur for statistical purposes, yet governed independently from it.

Contents

A polity that is similar sounding to Zamboanga and is a neighbor of the Rajahnate of Butuan have been mentioned in 10th Century Chinese texts as "Sanmanlan".

Zamboanga City was founded in the late 12th or early 13th century as a settlement by the Subanen people. Zamboanga peninsula was also the homelands of the ancestors of the Yakan, the Balanguingui, and other closely related Sama-Bajau peoples.

The area was inhabited by the Subanen people and was the site of trade among the Chinese, Malays and different native ethnic groups around the area.

During the 13th century the Tausūg people began migrating to Zamboanga and the Sulu archipelago from their homelands in northeastern Mindanao. They became the dominant ethnic group after they were Islamized in the 14th century and established the Sultanate of Sulu in the 15th century. A majority of the Yakan, the Balanguingui, and the Sama-Bajau were also Islamized, though most of the Subanen remained animist (with the exception of the Kolibugan subgroup in southwestern Zamboanga).

The city used to be known as Samboangan in historical records. Samboangan is a Sinama term for "mooring place" (also spelled sambuangan; and in Subanen, sembwangan), from the root word samboang ("mooring pole"). The name was later Hispanicized as Zamboanga.

This is commonly contested by folk etymologies which instead attribute the name to the Indonesian word jambangan (claimed to mean "place of flowers", but actually means "pot" or "bowl"), usually with claims that all ethnic groups in Zamboanga were "Malays". However, this name has never been attested in any historical records prior to the 1960s. The city's nickname "City of Flowers" is derived from such folk etymologies.

Spanish rule

Illustration of Zamboanga and Fort Pilar, detail from the Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas, 1734

Spanish explorers, led by Ferdinand Magellan, arrived in the Philippine archipelago in 1521. Zamboanga was chosen in 1569 as the site of the Spanish settlement and garrison on La Caldera (now part of Barangay Recodo). Zamboanga City was one of the main strongholds in Mindanao, supporting colonizing efforts in the south of the island and making way for Christian settlements. It also served as a military outpost, protecting the island against foreign invaders and Moro pirates.

In 1599, the Zamboanga fort was closed and transferred to Cebú due to great concerns about attack by the English on that island, which did not occur. After having abandoned the city, the Spaniards as well as some Latin-American mercenaries from Peru and Mexico, joined forces with troops from Pampanga and Visayan soldiers (from Bohol, Cebu and Iloilo) and reached the shore of Zamboanga to bring peace to the island against Moro pirates.

In 1635, Spanish officers and soldiers, along with Visayan laborers, settled in the area and construction began on Fort San José (what is now known as Fort Pilar) to protect the inhabitants of the area from piracy by the Moro.

Zamboanga became the main headquarters of the Spaniards on June 23, 1635, upon approval of King Philip IV of Spain, and the Spanish officially founded the city. Thousands of Spanish troops, headed by a governor general from Spain, took the approval to build the first Zamboanga fortress (now called Fort Pilar) in Zamboanga to forestall enemies in Mindanao like Moro pirates and other foreign invaders. There were also a hundred Spanish troops sent to fortify the nearby Presidio of Iligan. The Zamboanga fortress became the main focus of a number of battles between Moros and Spaniards during Spanish rule in the region from the 16th century to the 18th. Spain was forced to abandon Zamboanga temporarily and withdraw its soldiers to Manila in 1662 after the Chinese under Koxinga threatened to invade the Spanish Philippines.

The Spanish returned to Zamboanga in 1718 and rebuilding of the fort began the following year. The fort would serve as defence for the Christian settlement against Moro pirates and foreign invaders for the coming years. There was deportation of mostly Latin-American and Spanish vagrants from Manila to Zamboanga which helped advance a colonizing program against the Muslim south, further illustrating how the resistance to Spanish sovereignty in Mindanao and Borneo determined imperial policies on the islands

While the region was already dominated by Catholicism, Muslims kept up a protracted struggle into the 18th century against the ruling Spaniards. A British naval squadron conducted a raid on Zamboanga in January 1798, but was driven off by the city's defensive fortifications. During 1821, the Uruguayan, Juan Fermín de San Martín, brother of the leader of the Argentinian Revolution, José de San Martín, was commander of the fortress-city of Zamboanga for a year. At 1823, inspired by the Latin American Wars of Independence, the Latin-Americans who had been sent to Zamboanga and Philippines as soldiers, joined in the revolt of Andres Novales, and he fought for sovereignty and became the short lived Emperor of the Philippines. In 1831, the custom house in Zamboanga was established as a port, and it became the main port for direct communication, trading some goods and other services to most of Europe, Southeast Asia and Latin America. The Americans arrived in the Philippines, headed by General Weyler with thousands of troops to defeat the Spaniards who ruled it more than three centuries.

The Spanish government sent more than 80,000 Spanish troops to the Philippines. The Spanish government completely and peacefully surrendered the islands to the United States in the 1890s.

Establishing its own Republic

Inauguration of the Municipality of Zamboanga with Datu Kalun (1901)

The Republic of Zamboanga was established directly on 28 May 1899 after the Zamboangueño revolutionary forces defeated the last Spanish government in Zamboanga. Fort Pilar was turned over to General Vicente Álvarez, who between May and November 1899 was the first president of the República de Zamboanga. This republic continued to exist until 1903, with Isidoro Midel as its second President under a puppet government of the United States; he was succeeded by Mariano Arquiza.

American occupation

Upon the firm establishment of American colonization and dissolution of the Republic in 1903, Zamboanga, as a municipality, was designated as the capital of the Moro Province, a semi-military government consisting of five districts: Zamboanga, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao and Sulu. it established itself the center of commerce, trade, and government of Mindanao Island. During this period, Zamboanga hosted a number of American regional governors, including General John J. Pershing, who was military commander/governor of the Moro Province from 1909 to 1914.

In 1920, Zamboanga City ceased to be capital of the Moro Province when the department was divided into provinces in which the city became under the large province of Zamboanga. This encompasses the present-day Zamboanga Peninsula with the inclusion of the whole province of Basilan.

Commonwealth era and city charter

President Manuel L. Quezon signing the City Charter of Zamboanga in a ceremony held at the Malacañang Palace in (1936)

When the Commonwealth government was established in 1935, calls to convert the municipality of Zamboanga into a city increased. On September 23, 1936, through Assemblyman Juan Alano, the National Assembly of the Philippines passed Commonwealth Act No. 39 making Zamboanga a chartered city consisting of "the present territorial jurisdiction of the municipality of Zamboanga, the municipality of Bolong, the municipal district of Taluksangay, the whole island of Basilan and the adjacent islands, i.e., the municipality of Isabela, the municipal district of Lamitan, and the municipal district of Maluso." It was later signed by President Manuel Quezon on October 12, 1936. The charter made Zamboanga City as the largest city in the world in terms of land area. During these times, Zamboanga was the leading commercial and industrial city of Mindanao.

Before World War II, Pettit Barracks, a part of the U.S. Army's 43d Infantry Regiment (PS), was stationed there.

World War II

When the Japanese invaded the Philippines, they were headed by Vice Admiral Rokuzo Sugiyama, accompanied by Rear Admiral Naosaburo Irifune. The Japanese landed at Zamboanga City on March 2, 1942.

The Japanese government in the city was overthrown by American and Filipino forces following a fierce battle on March 10–12, 1945. The rebuilt general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary was stationed in Zamboanga City from March 13, 1945, to June 30, 1946, during the military operations in Mindanao and Sulu against the Japanese.[citation needed]

Contemporary history

After World War II

After the war, citizens on the island of Basilan found it difficult to appear in courts, pay their taxes, or seek help from the mayor and other officials. Going from Basilan to the mainland required three or more hours of ferry travel. To fix the problem, Representative Juan Alano filed a bill in Congress to separate Basilan from Zamboanga City. The island of Basilan was proclaimed a separate city through Republic Act No. 288 on July 16, 1948.

On April 7, 1953, by virtue of Republic Act No. 840, the city was classified as first-class city according to its revenue.

On April 29, 1955, a special law changed the landscape of the city government when Republic Act No. 1210 amended the City Charter that made elective the position of city mayor and the creation of an elective vice mayor and eight elective city councilors. The vice mayor is the presiding-officer of the City Council. In November 1955, Liberal Party candidate Cesar Climaco with his running-mate, Tomas Ferrer won the first local elections. They were inducted into office on January 1, 1956, as determined by the Revised Election Code.

Martial law years

On September 21, 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos signed Proclamation No. 1081 placing the Philippines under martial law. Zamboanga City's local government came under presidential control for the first time since 1955. Marcos extended Enriquez's term when his tenure was about to end in 1975, causing public outrage in the city.

President Marcos reorganized the local government on November 14, 1975, and the city council was replaced by a Sangguniang Panlungsod with the mayor as its new presiding officer and its members included the vice mayor, the chairman of the Katipunan ng mga Kabataang Barangay, the president of the Association of Barangay Captains, and sectoral representatives of agriculture, business and labor.

When Mayor Enriquez resigned and bid for the newly created Interim Batasang Pambansa in 1978, Vice Mayor Jose Vicente Atilano II was appointed by President Marcos to replace him. Throughout the martial law years, more than a thousand Zamboanga citizens were either killed, tortured, raped, harassed, castrated, or electrocuted at the genitalia.

Climaco's return (1980–1984)

In 1980, Cesar Climaco staged his political comeback when he was elected again to the mayoral post under his new party, the Concerned Citizen's Aggregation. He had gone into exile to the United States in protest against Marcos' declaration of martial law.

In the 1984 Philippine parliamentary election, Climaco was elected a member of the Regular Batasang Pambansa. However, he declined to assume his seat until he had completed his six-year term as mayor in his consistent protest against Marcos. Climaco's protest against the dictator earned Zamboanga City the distinction of 'the beacon of democracy in Mindanao'.

21st century

On November 19, 2001, the Cabatangan Government Complex in Barangay Cabatangan, the seat of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, was raided by former MNLF fighters in protest of Misuari's ouster as Governor of the autonomous region in which they took residents hostage. The complex also houses the different regional government offices such as the Commission on Audit, Population Commission, Civil Service Commission, Area Vocational Rehabilitation Center, DECS Training Center and the Zamboanga Arturo Eustaquio College Department of Criminology. An air strike by the military began on November 27 in which the hostages were later released after the government agreed to escort the rebels to a safe zone in Panubigan where they were allowed to go free.

In 2013, Maria Isabelle Climaco Salazar, niece of former Mayor Cesar Climaco, was elected the second woman mayor of the city.

Zamboanga City crisis

On September 9, 2013, a faction of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) under the leadership of Nur Misuari seized hostages in Zamboanga City and attempted to raise the flag of the self-proclaimed Bangsamoro Republik, a state which declared its independence earlier in August, in Talipao, Sulu. This armed incursion has been met by the Armed Forces of the Philippines, which seeks to free the hostages and expel the MNLF from Zamboanga City. The standoff degenerated into urban warfare, and brought parts of the city under standstill for days.

Mayor Climaco-Salazar and her administration are relocating the internal displaced persons (IDPs) affected by the crisis to transitory sites and later, permanent housings in various places around Zamboanga City. Her rehabilitation plan, "Zamboanga City Roadmap to Recovery and Rehabilitation (Z3R)", envisions building back a better Zamboanga City and rehabilitating the areas affected by the crisis.

Geology

The southwest and eastern sides of Zamboanga City are bounded by irregular coastlines with generally rocky terrain and occasional stretches of sandy or gravelly beaches. The coastal profile usually descends abruptly towards the sea. Where rivers enter the sea, bays have formed, and the surrounding area has filled up with alluvial soils, producing small to large coastal plains.[citation needed]

Topography

The overall topography of the city could be described as rolling to very steep. There are some flat lands, mostly narrow strips along the east coast. The urban center is mostly flat with a gentle slope to the interior, ranging from 0% to 3%. A portion, about 38,000 hectares, has slopes ranging from 18% to 30%. Another 26,000 hectares has slopes of less than 3%, while about 37% of the area (52,000 hectares) has slopes ranging from 30% to more than 50%. The highest registered elevation is 1,200 metres.

The territorial jurisdiction of the city includes the islands of big and small Santa Cruz, Tictabon, Sacol, Manalipa, Tumalutap, Vitali, as well as other numerous islands. The total land area of the city is recorded to be 142,099.99 hectares or 1,420.99 square kilometers. This does not include the area of about 25 other islands within the territorial jurisdiction of the city — which have an aggregate area of 6,248.5 hectares as verified by the Office of the City Engineer. Putting these all together, the city's new total land area would come to 148,338.49 hectares.

Climate

Climate data for Zamboanga City (1981–2010, extremes 1903–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.5
(95.9)
35.5
(95.9)
36.0
(96.8)
36.9
(98.4)
36.1
(97.0)
36.0
(96.8)
35.2
(95.4)
35.7
(96.3)
35.8
(96.4)
36.0
(96.8)
35.5
(95.9)
35.2
(95.4)
36.9
(98.4)
Average high °C (°F) 32.3
(90.1)
32.6
(90.7)
33.0
(91.4)
33.1
(91.6)
32.8
(91.0)
32.1
(89.8)
31.8
(89.2)
32.1
(89.8)
32.3
(90.1)
32.2
(90.0)
32.5
(90.5)
32.5
(90.5)
32.4
(90.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.9
(82.2)
28.1
(82.6)
28.5
(83.3)
28.8
(83.8)
28.8
(83.8)
28.2
(82.8)
28.0
(82.4)
28.2
(82.8)
28.3
(82.9)
28.1
(82.6)
28.2
(82.8)
28.1
(82.6)
28.3
(82.9)
Average low °C (°F) 23.5
(74.3)
23.6
(74.5)
24.0
(75.2)
24.4
(75.9)
24.7
(76.5)
24.4
(75.9)
24.2
(75.6)
24.3
(75.7)
24.2
(75.6)
24.0
(75.2)
23.9
(75.0)
23.7
(74.7)
24.1
(75.4)
Record low °C (°F) 15.8
(60.4)
15.6
(60.1)
17.5
(63.5)
16.7
(62.1)
20.7
(69.3)
20.4
(68.7)
20.0
(68.0)
19.0
(66.2)
19.9
(67.8)
18.4
(65.1)
18.5
(65.3)
16.7
(62.1)
15.6
(60.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 49.7
(1.96)
43.7
(1.72)
56.3
(2.22)
69.0
(2.72)
90.0
(3.54)
149.1
(5.87)
152.6
(6.01)
144.9
(5.70)
144.9
(5.70)
178.9
(7.04)
120.6
(4.75)
66.8
(2.63)
1,266.5
(49.86)
Average rainy days(≥ 0.1 mm) 7 6 7 8 12 16 14 13 13 14 13 10 133
Average relative humidity (%) 80 79 78 79 81 82 83 82 82 83 82 82 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 220.5 213.0 225.2 222.4 219.4 164.2 187.2 213.1 187.4 172.9 217.6 226.6 2,469.5
Source 1: PAGASA
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990)

Zamboanga City features a tropical wet and dry climate under the Köppen climate classification (Aw).

Barangays

The city of Zamboanga is politically subdivided into 98 barangays. These are grouped into two congressional districts, with 38 barangays in the West Coast and 60 barangays in the East Coast.

Population census of Zamboanga City
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 20,692
1918 42,007+4.83%
1939 43,894+0.21%
1948 103,317+9.98%
1960 131,489+2.03%
1970 199,901+4.27%
1975 265,023+5.82%
1980 343,722+5.34%
1990 442,345+2.56%
1995 511,139+2.75%
2000 601,794+3.56%
2007 774,407+3.54%
2010 807,129+1.52%
2015 861,799+1.26%
2020 977,234+2.50%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

Zamboanga City is the 6th most populous in the Philippines and the 2nd most populous in Mindanao after Davao City. The city's population had an increase of 54,670 over the five years since 2010. It had an annual population growth rate at 1.26%, lower than from in the year 2000 to 2010 which was 2.98%. The city's population is expected to reach 1 million between 2020 and 2025.

Among the city's 98 barangays, Talon-Talon is the most populous with 4.1% share of this city's population, followed by Mampang (4.0%), Tumaga (3.6%), Tetuan (3.5%), Calarian (3.4%), San Roque and Pasonanca (both with 3.2%).

Religion

According to statistics compiled by the Philippine government, the most dominant religion in Zamboanga City is Roman Catholicism, followed by Islam and Evangelical Protestantism.

Other religious practices and denominations in the city were Buddhism, paganism, animism and Sikhism.

Roman Catholicism

With 60% of the city's population, Roman Catholicism remains the predominant religion in the city. Zamboanga City was the first to establish its own Catholic diocese in Mindanao (now the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zamboanga).

The Metropolitan Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception serves as the seat of the Archdiocese of Zamboanga. It was designed by Domingo Abarro III. The first church was located at the front of Plaza Pershing, where the present Universidad de Zamboanga stands. The church was designated a cathedral in 1910 when the diocese of Zamboanga City was created. In 1943, the cathedral was one of the edifices bombarded by Japanese soldiers during World War II. In 1956, the cathedral was relocated beside Ateneo de Zamboanga University, formerly known as the Jardin de Chino.

The titular patroness is Nuestra Señora La Virgen del Pilar de Zaragoza, and its secondary patron is Pope Pius X.

Islam

Muslims have also been an integral part of Zamboanga, comprising 35% of the city's population. Some barangays like in Campo Islam today are now populated by 100% Muslims due to migration from people of Sulu who are mostly Tausug.[citation needed] The Yakan, a minority group of Muslim people from Basilan also migrated to the city and had their own villages. These barangays with Muslim majority population, do not celebrate Fiestas, but instead, they do celebrate Hari Raya (the eid celebration).

Other Christian denominations

With the inception of the American era, Protestant sects were introduced. Christian and Missionary Alliance, Philippine Independent Church, Seventh-day Adventist, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and United Church of Christ in the Philippines are included. Most Protestants are migrants who are mostly of Cebuano or Ilocano ethnicity.[citation needed]

Several members of Iglesia ni Cristo live in Zamboanga City and have created several locales.[citation needed]

Ethnicities

Further information: Zamboangueño people

The Zamboangueño people or Zamboangueño nation (Chavacano/Spanish: Pueblo/Nación Zamboangueño) are a creole ethnolinguistic nation of the Philippines originating in Zamboanga City.

The ancestors of the present inhabitants of the city are said to also have migrated to other areas in the Southwestern Mindanao. Due to migration, a number of other ethnicities have a visible presence in the city such as the Samal, Yakan, Tausug and Badjao peoples.

As a result of Spanish colonization, according to a genetic study written by Maxmilian Larena, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, the Philippine ethnic groups with the highest amount of Spanish/European descent are the Zamboangueños, with 4 out of 10 Zamboangueños being of Spanish descent, this is followed by Bicolanos, with 2 out of 10 Bicolanos being of Spanish descent. Meanwhile, there is only "some" Spanish descent among the people of the lowland Christianized Filipino ethnic groups.

The Spanish descent is due to Zamboanga city being a historical Spanish fortress reinforced by soldiers from Mexico and Peru.

Language

Zamboangueño is one of six Spanish-based creole language varieties of the Philippines identified by linguists. Zamboangueño, known locally as Chavacano, with Spanish as its lexifier and grammar influenced by other Philippine languages, is the native language of inhabitants living around the city and the nearby island of Basilan. Aside from Chavacano, English are also understood. Tausug is the second-most spoken language in the city after Chavacano, due to significant Tausug migration from the Sulu Archipelago.

The Subanen, Yakan, Sama, Cebuano and Hiligaynon languages can also be heard being spoken within the city.

Poverty Incidence of Zamboanga City
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

Sardine industry

Zamboanga-made Sardines in supermarket shelves

Zamboanga City is also dubbed as the Sardines Capital of the Philippines, for 11 out of 12 sardines companies in the country are produced here. The canning factories are converged in the west coast of Zamboanga. Sardine fishing and processing account for about 70 percent of the city's economy. Situated at the western tip of the Mindanao mainland, Zamboanga City is a natural docking point for vessels traversing the rich fishing grounds of the Zamboanga Peninsula and the Sulu Archipelago.

The production of canned sardines in this city have upgraded their production to conform to international food safety and quality standards. Companies that produce these goods are looking to enter new markets in Russia and other European countries.

Most sardine fishing fleets and canning factories have located in Zamboanga City due to its proximity to the rich fishing grounds of the Sulu Sea. To date, 26 registered commercial fishing companies operating 87 sardine purse seine fleets and 569 boats of different classifications that are fishing in the Zamboanga and Sulu waters are based in Zamboanga City (BFAR IX 2015).

The 11 canned sardine corporations operating 12 manufacturing plants; four tin can manufacturers; and, 4 ship construction and ship repair companies. The city supplies approximately 85-90% of the country's canned sardine requirements and the canned sardines sector contributes at least US$16 million in annual export earnings to the City

Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone

The administrative building of the Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority

The Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority and Freeport (ZamboEcoZone), also known as Zamboanga Freeport Authority (ZFA), was created by virtue of the Republic Acts of the Philippines 7903 of the Philippines Constitution in the year 1995. It was authored by then Congresswoman María Clara L. Lobregat.

The Special Economic Zone was enacted into law on February 23, 1995, and made operational a year later with the appointment of a chairman and administrator and the members of the Board by former President Fidel V. Ramos. It is located about 23 km from the city proper. It is one of the three current Economic Freeport Zones outside Luzon.

Shopping malls

Alta Mall was the city's first shopping mall to operate in the city. However, it closed in 1996 and the 3-hectare mall complex was deserted.

On December 10, 2015, KCC Malls opened their fourth branch in Zamboanga as KCC Mall de Zamboanga and is currently the second-largest mall in Mindanao in terms of Gross Floor Area.

The country's largest shopping retailer, SM Supermalls bought Mindpro Citimall in 2016 and the mall shall be converted with an SM brand. It was reportedly as one of their future malls in 2020.

Seaweed industry

Seaweed production plants in Zamboanga City, along with Cebu and Southern Luzon, produce most of the world's supply of carrageenan. Seventy-five percent of the country's eucheuma and kappaphycus seaweed is produced mostly in the Zamboanga Peninsula and the Sulu Archipelago.

International trade

Zamboanga City is a member of East ASEAN Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA), a regional economic cooperation initiative between the several countries in Southeast Asia. As a result of its membership, air and sea routes have been opened between Zamboanga City and Sandakan in Malaysia. The two cities have existing trade relations and have had historical cultural interactions.

Pulverized Red Organ Pipe Corals gives that pinkish tint on Santa Cruz's Beach.

The Department of Tourism has selected Zamboanga City as a flagship tourism destination in Zamboanga Peninsula. Domestic and foreign tourist arrivals increased 8 percent to 439,160 in 2005, according to data from the regional tourism office. The same report notes that Filipinos accounted for 80 percent of the tourist arrivals. Moreover, 50 percent of those tourists visited the city before.

Zamboanga City's famous Pink Sand Beach of Santa Cruz was recognized by the National Geographic as one of the "World's 21 Best Beaches" in 2018. A surge in tourist arrivals was recorded in 2018 that hit almost 100,000. A day-trip to the island includes a hop to Little Santa Cruz's long white sand bar and a tour of the island's lagoon known for its rich ecosystem.

Another rising tourist hub is the newly opened 11 Islands (commonly called Onçe Islas), a group of islands with white-sand beaches and sand bars located in the city's east coast.

Despite the warnings and seasonal advisories, growth in terms of arrivals tells otherwise. The negative impressions shows no effect on the Tourist's perception of the place in general.

The whole Zamboanga Peninsula Region recorded 723,455 tourist arrivals in 2018 of which 11,190 are foreigners, 10,523 Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs), and 701,742 were domestic tourists according to the Department of Tourism.

Executive

Old flag of Zamboanga
Plaza Rizal and the Zamboanga City Hall since 1907

Zamboanga City is the third oldest city in the Philippines, with a mayor-council form of government.

The city government of Zamboanga was in a commission form shortly between 1912 and 1914 with an appointed mayor.[citation needed] It then was replaced by a municipal form of government headed by a municipal mayor assisted by a municipal vice-president.

When the City Charter of Zamboanga was signed on October 12, 1936,[citation needed] the municipal government was converted into a city one headed by a mayor appointed by the President of the Philippine Commonwealth.

With the passage of Republic Act No. 1210 on April 29, 1955, the position of mayor became elective and the post of vice mayor was created.

Representation in Congress

Zamboanga City received its own representation for the Philippine Congress in 1984 when the Regular Batasang Pambansa was convened. Previously, the city was part of the representation of the Zamboanga Province from 1935 to 1953, of Zamboanga del Sur from 1953 to 1972 and in Zamboanga Peninsula from 1978 to 1984.

The former lone congressional district was further divided into two separate districts: the West Coast, comprises from the City Proper to Barangay Limpapa is represented by Congressman Celso Lobregat, while in the East Coast, comprises from Barangay Tetuán to Barangay Licomo is represented by Congressman Manuel Jose "Mannix" Dalipe.

The city's population had reached to 774,407 people since 2007. Under the Republic Act 9269, Zamboanga City is qualified to have its third district in the House of Representatives. However, in 2008, the formation of Zamboanga City's Third District was then opposed by the local majority block of the city council.

Legislative

The building where the Zamboanga City Council (Sangguniang Panglungsod ng Zamboanga) holds its sessions.

The first legislative body of Zamboanga City was established in 1914 composed of councilors who represented the different districts of barrios of then-municipality of Zamboanga.

When the City Charter of Zamboanga was signed on October 12, 1936, the municipal council was replaced by the City Council presided by the mayor and consisted of five councilors, the city treasurer and the city engineer. All members are appointed by the President of the Philippine Commonwealth.

With the passage of Republic Act No. 1210 on April 29, 1955, the position of mayor became elective and the post of vice mayor was created. The council also became elective and its membership was increased to eight presided by the vice mayor.

During the Marcos regime, the city council was renamed to Sangguniang Panglungsod and its membership shuffled.[citation needed] The mayor became the presiding-officer while the vice mayor became a regular member. Other representatives such as the agriculture, business and labor sectoral representatives; chairman of the Kabataan Barangay Federation and the president of the Association of Barangay Captains was added to the council. All members of the council except for the mayor and the vice mayor are all appointed by the President.

After Marcos was deposed, a new Local Government Code was enacted in 1991 and the mayor was restored to the executive branch.[citation needed] The city council organization existed since.

The current local Sangguniang Panglungsod is composed of 19 members:

Judiciary

Zamboanga City Hall of Justice Building

House Bill 1455 entitled "An Act Amending Sections 14 (J) and 29 of Batas Pambansa Blg. 129, Otherwise Known as The Judiciary Reorganization Act of 1980", calls for the creation of four additional Regional Trial Court branches in the Province of Zamboanga del Sur, and the Cities of Pagadian and Zamboanga City with an overall total of nineteen branches.

Out of the 19 branches, ten seats shall be for Zamboanga City, and the remaining seats for Pagadian City, Molave, San Miguel, Ipil, and Aurora.

Armed forces and law enforcement

Zamboanga City hosts one a large number of military, police and coast guard bases in the country. The Edwin Andrews Air Base hosts the Air Force unit in the city is located at the Zamboanga International Airport complex. The Camp General Basilio Navarro in Upper Calarian, is the main operating base of the Western Mindanao Command (WestMinCom). WesMinCom is one of the unifying commands of the Armed Forces of the Philippines that serves the Western Mindanao. The Coast Guard District South Western Mindanao is located near the Camp General Basilio Navarro while a coast guard station is located inside the Port of Zamboanga.

Air

The Zamboanga International Airport has a 2,610-metre primary runway and can serve international flights and bigger planes such as the C-17 Globemaster III, Antonov An-124, Airbus A330 and Boeing 747. The government has already earmarked more than 240 million pesos to complete the rehabilitation of the existing facilities of the airport, which was ranked the tenth-busiest in the Philippines in 2008.

Land

The primary modes of transportation within the city are serviced by taxis, jeepneys, and tricycles. Regular and air-conditioned buses of the Yanson Group of Bus Companies serve the long-haul routes from Zamboanga City to other areas in Mindanao and in the Visayas. Other smaller bus companies ply the routes to neighboring municipalities in the Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga Sibugay areas. Since last June 25, 2018, taxi units was launched with initial 13 units, until additional into 50 units. This 2019, there are 100 taxi units plying around Zamboanga City to any points in Region 9, and the operators says, it will surely adding until reaching maximum of more than 200 taxi units.

Sea

Zamboanga City has nineteen seaports and wharves, twelve of them are privately owned and the rest are owned by the government. This includes some ports of Basilan which are registered as a part of Zamboanga City port management. The biggest and most modern seaport is the government-operated main port in Zamboanga City, which can accommodate 20 ships at any given time. There are 25 shipping companies whose vessels regularly dock at the port of Zamboanga. The city also has fastcraft services to Sandakan, Malaysia, and one shipping cargo company from Vietnam is also serving the routes from and to Zamboanga City to deliver goods from Vietnam.

In 2002, the Port of Zamboanga City, including the area ports of Basilan, registered 5.57 million passenger movement, surpassing Batangas by 1.3 million passengers, and Manila by over 1.59 million passengers.

On May 28, 2009, the PHP700 million port expansion project, funded by the national government was inaugurated by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo.

Telecommunication

The telecommunication towers as can be seen over the downtown.

Major telecommunications firm, Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, maintains operations in the city. Mabuhay Satellite Corporation has set up a facility in Zamboanga City in order to improve existing communications infrastructure.

Power

Murga Station of the Zamboanga City Electric Cooperative (ZAMCELCO).
See also: ZAMCELCO

The Zamboanga City Electric Cooperative is the franchise holder of electric power distribution covering the entire city.

Conrado Alcantara and Sons Holdings (Conal) constructed a coal-fired power plant with an initial capacity of 105 megawatt on a 60-hectare land inside the Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority. The plant was originally to open in 2014, with the constructors expecting to meet the demand of the city's electricity by that year. However, the project was delayed and had begun construction by the end of 2017. The plant is expected to be fully operational by 2020.

Water

Zamboanga City relies heavily on surface water from the Tumaga River for its water supply. The Zamboanga City Water District (ZCWD) is serving only 48% of the total population of the total water production, 38% is accounted water. Given the projected population and the fact that the city is a highly urbanising one, it is likely that future water requirements will not be satisfied unless other sources such as rivers and springs be tapped to augment water supply sources.

ZCWD has 24 production wells. These are located in the following strategic areas within the city that are producing 1,304 m³ daily.

Health

Zamboanga Peninsula Medical Center located at Putik, Zamboanga City

There are several medical centres and hospitals in Zamboanga. The Zamboanga Peninsula Medical Center is the city's newest hospital which was opened in 2015. It is regarded as one of the largest and most modern in the region likened to the St. Luke's Medical Center. The government-operated Zamboanga City Medical Center was founded in 1918 as the Zamboanga City General Hospital. The Brent Hospital and Colleges, Inc. was founded on February 2, 1914, by Charles Henry Brent, the first Protestant Episcopal missionary bishop in the Philippines. Today it operates a school within its compound, offering nursing and allied health courses.

The Zamboanga City Red Cross chapter was established on June 17, 1946, known originally as Zamboanga City Chapter. The original Zamboanga City Chapter comprised the city of Zamboanga and the 3 provinces of Basilan, Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur.

West Metro Medical Center is a secondary-level private hospital in Zamboanga City, Philippines. As of 2015, the hospital has a capacity of 110 beds. Ongoing construction of an annex is to increase bed capacity to 190, making it the largest private hospital in the Zamboanga Peninsula and Archipelago.

In 2006, the Military Sealift Command (MSC) hospital ship, USNS Mercy (T-AH-19), anchored off of the coast of Zamboanga City, to provide medical, dental and veterinary care for the people of the city.

Sports and recreation facilities

Convention centers that host several events and congregations include the Garden Orchid Hotel's Convention Center, Palacio Del Sur, Centro Latino, Astoria Regency, and Patio Palmeras. KCC Mall de Zamboanga also has its convention halls that is located at the East Wing.

Sport venues in Zamboanga City include the Joaquin F. Enriquez Memorial Sports Complex, the Universidad de Zamboanga Summit Centre, Southern City Colleges Citadel Sports Arena, and the Mayor Vitaliano D. Agan Coliseum.

Ateneo de Zamboanga University facade

The formal education in Zamboanga City is patterned after the American system, with English as the medium of instruction. There is a Jesuit university in the city named Ateneo de Zamboanga. There are also a number of foreign schools with study programmes. Universities and major colleges aside from Ateneo de Zamboanga University include: Universidad de Zamboanga, Western Mindanao State University, Southern City Colleges, Pilar College, AMA Computer College, Zamboanga Peninsula Polytechnic State University, and Zamboanga State College of Marine Sciences and Technology.

Zamboanga City has 26 radio stations (9 AM & 17 FM). There are also 17 regular TV stations and three cable TV stations. Several local publications operate in the various parts of the city and nearby provinces and regions, such as The Daily Zamboanga Times, The Mindanao Examiner Regional Newspaper, Voz de Mindanao, Zamboanga Peninsula Journal, Zamboanga Star, Zamboanga Today, The Zamboanga Post and Zamboanga Forum.

Hidilyn Diaz at her homecoming to Zamboanga City, days after her victory in the 2016 Summer Olympics

Zamboanga City is twinned with the following cities:

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Sources

This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document: "Zamboanga City".

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Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Zamboanga (city).

Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City Language Watch Edit For other uses see Zamboanga disambiguation Zamboanga City officially the City of Zamboanga Chavacano and Spanish Ciudad de Zamboanga Tausug Sambuangan Tagalog Lungsod ng Zamboanga is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the Zamboanga Peninsula region of the Philippines According to the 2020 census it has a population of 977 234 people 6 It is the fifth most populous and third largest city by land area in the Philippines 7 8 It is the commercial and industrial center of the Zamboanga Peninsula Region 9 Zamboanga CityHighly urbanized cityCity of ZamboangaClockwise from top Zamboanga City Hall Great Santa Cruz Island Zamboanga City view Santa Barbara MosqueFlagSealNickname s City of Flowers 1 Asia s Latin City 1 Sardines Capital of The Philippines 1 Motto s Build Back Better ZamboangaAnthem Zamboanga Hermosa Beautiful Zamboanga Map of Zamboanga Peninsula with Zamboanga City highlightedOpenStreetMapZamboanga CityLocation within the PhilippinesCoordinates 6 55 N 122 05 E 6 92 N 122 08 E 6 92 122 08 Coordinates 6 55 N 122 05 E 6 92 N 122 08 E 6 92 122 08CountryPhilippinesRegionZamboanga PeninsulaProvinceZamboanga del Sur statistically only District1st West Coast and 2nd East Coast districts of Zamboanga CityFoundedJune 23 1635CharteredOctober 12 1936CityhoodFebruary 26 1937Highly Urbanized CityNovember 22 1983Barangays98 see Barangays Government 2 TypeSangguniang Panlungsod MayorMaria Isabelle Climaco Salazar LP Vice MayorRommel S Agan UNA RepresentativesCesar L Jimenez Jr District I Costa Oeste Manuel Jose M Dalipe District II Costa Este City CouncilMembers 1st DistrictJosephine E ParejaElbert C Atilano Sr Khymer Adan T OlasoJoselito A MacrohonRogelio L Valesco Jr Cesar M JimenezCrisanto B dela CruzEl King K Omaga2nd DistrictJohn M DalipeBenjamin B Guingona IVJuan Climaco P Elago IILilibeth N BellosoMiguel C Alavar IIIAl Jihan R EddingJimmy B VillafloresVincent Paul A Elago Electorate467 535 voters 2019 Area 3 Total1 414 7 km2 546 2 sq mi Area rank3rd city Elevation96 m 315 ft Highest elevation1 358 m 4 455 ft Lowest elevation0 m 0 ft Population 2020 census 4 Total977 234 Rank5th Density690 km2 1 800 sq mi Households185 621Demonym s Zamboangueno Major Ethnicity Economy Income class1st city income class Poverty incidence17 26 2015 5 Revenue 4 120 731 000 00 2020 Assets 19 775 074 000 00 2020 Expenditure 3 116 112 000 00 2020 Service provider ElectricityZamboanga City Electric Cooperative ZAMCELCO Time zoneUTC 8 PST ZIP code7000PSGC097332000IDD area code 63 0 62Native languagesZamboangueno Lingua Franca Other Languages TausugCebuanoSamaYakanHiligaynonSubanenSpanishEnglish Websitewww wbr zamboanga wbr gov wbr ph On October 12 1936 Zamboanga became a chartered city under Commonwealth Act No 39 10 11 It was inaugurated on February 26 1937 12 Zamboanga City is an independent chartered city and was designated highly urbanized on November 22 1983 13 Although geographically separated and an independent and chartered city Zamboanga City is grouped with the province of Zamboanga del Sur for statistical purposes yet governed independently from it 14 15 Contents 1 History 1 1 Spanish rule 1 2 Establishing its own Republic 1 3 American occupation 1 4 Commonwealth era and city charter 1 5 World War II 1 6 Contemporary history 1 6 1 After World War II 1 6 2 Martial law years 1 6 3 Climaco s return 1980 1984 1 6 4 21st century 1 6 5 Zamboanga City crisis 2 Geography 2 1 Geology 2 2 Topography 2 3 Climate 2 4 Barangays 3 Demographics 3 1 Religion 3 1 1 Roman Catholicism 3 1 2 Islam 3 1 3 Other Christian denominations 3 2 Ethnicities 3 3 Language 4 Economy 4 1 Sardine industry 4 2 Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone 4 3 Shopping malls 4 4 Seaweed industry 4 5 International trade 5 Tourism 6 Governance 6 1 Executive 6 2 Representation in Congress 6 3 Legislative 6 4 Judiciary 6 5 Armed forces and law enforcement 7 Transportation 7 1 Air 7 2 Land 7 3 Sea 8 Infrastructure 8 1 Telecommunication 8 2 Power 8 3 Water 8 4 Health 8 5 Sports and recreation facilities 9 Education 10 Media 11 Notable people 12 Sister cities 13 See also 14 References 14 1 Sources 15 External linksHistory EditA polity that is similar sounding to Zamboanga and is a neighbor of the Rajahnate of Butuan have been mentioned in 10th Century Chinese texts as Sanmanlan 16 Zamboanga City was founded in the late 12th or early 13th century as a settlement by the Subanen people Zamboanga peninsula was also the homelands of the ancestors of the Yakan the Balanguingui and other closely related Sama Bajau peoples 17 18 The area was inhabited by the Subanen people and was the site of trade among the Chinese Malays and different native ethnic groups around the area During the 13th century the Tausug people began migrating to Zamboanga and the Sulu archipelago from their homelands in northeastern Mindanao They became the dominant ethnic group after they were Islamized in the 14th century and established the Sultanate of Sulu in the 15th century A majority of the Yakan the Balanguingui and the Sama Bajau were also Islamized though most of the Subanen remained animist with the exception of the Kolibugan subgroup in southwestern Zamboanga 17 19 20 The city used to be known as Samboangan in historical records 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Samboangan is a Sinama term for mooring place also spelled sambuangan and in Subanen sembwangan from the root word samboang mooring pole 28 The name was later Hispanicized as Zamboanga This is commonly contested by folk etymologies which instead attribute the name to the Indonesian word jambangan claimed to mean place of flowers but actually means pot or bowl usually with claims that all ethnic groups in Zamboanga were Malays However this name has never been attested in any historical records prior to the 1960s 29 The city s nickname City of Flowers is derived from such folk etymologies 30 31 Spanish rule Edit Illustration of Zamboanga and Fort Pilar detail from the Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas 1734 Spanish explorers led by Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippine archipelago in 1521 32 Zamboanga was chosen in 1569 as the site of the Spanish settlement and garrison on La Caldera now part of Barangay Recodo 33 Zamboanga City was one of the main strongholds in Mindanao supporting colonizing efforts in the south of the island and making way for Christian settlements It also served as a military outpost protecting the island against foreign invaders and Moro pirates In 1599 the Zamboanga fort was closed and transferred to Cebu due to great concerns about attack by the English on that island which did not occur After having abandoned the city the Spaniards as well as some Latin American mercenaries from Peru 34 and Mexico joined forces with troops from Pampanga and Visayan soldiers from Bohol Cebu and Iloilo and reached the shore of Zamboanga to bring peace to the island against Moro pirates 35 In 1635 Spanish officers and soldiers along with Visayan laborers settled in the area and construction began on Fort San Jose what is now known as Fort Pilar to protect the inhabitants of the area from piracy by the Moro Zamboanga became the main headquarters of the Spaniards on June 23 1635 upon approval of King Philip IV of Spain and the Spanish officially founded the city 36 Thousands of Spanish troops headed by a governor general from Spain took the approval to build the first Zamboanga fortress now called Fort Pilar in Zamboanga to forestall enemies in Mindanao like Moro pirates and other foreign invaders 37 There were also a hundred Spanish troops sent to fortify the nearby Presidio of Iligan 38 The Zamboanga fortress became the main focus of a number of battles between Moros and Spaniards during Spanish rule in the region from the 16th century to the 18th Spain was forced to abandon Zamboanga temporarily and withdraw its soldiers to Manila in 1662 after the Chinese under Koxinga threatened to invade the Spanish Philippines The Spanish returned to Zamboanga in 1718 and rebuilding of the fort began the following year The fort would serve as defence for the Christian settlement against Moro pirates and foreign invaders for the coming years There was deportation of mostly Latin American and Spanish vagrants from Manila to Zamboanga which helped advance a colonizing program against the Muslim south further illustrating how the resistance to Spanish sovereignty in Mindanao and Borneo determined imperial policies on the islands 39 While the region was already dominated by Catholicism Muslims kept up a protracted struggle into the 18th century against the ruling Spaniards 40 41 A British naval squadron conducted a raid on Zamboanga in January 1798 but was driven off by the city s defensive fortifications During 1821 the Uruguayan Juan Fermin de San Martin brother of the leader of the Argentinian Revolution Jose de San Martin was commander of the fortress city of Zamboanga for a year 42 At 1823 inspired by the Latin American Wars of Independence the Latin Americans who had been sent to Zamboanga and Philippines as soldiers joined in the revolt of Andres Novales and he fought for sovereignty and became the short lived Emperor of the Philippines In 1831 the custom house in Zamboanga was established as a port and it became the main port for direct communication trading some goods and other services to most of Europe Southeast Asia and Latin America 43 The Americans arrived in the Philippines headed by General Weyler with thousands of troops to defeat the Spaniards who ruled it more than three centuries The Spanish government sent more than 80 000 Spanish troops to the Philippines The Spanish government completely and peacefully surrendered the islands to the United States in the 1890s 44 Establishing its own Republic Edit See also Republic of Zamboanga Inauguration of the Municipality of Zamboanga with Datu Kalun 1901 The Republic of Zamboanga was established directly on 28 May 1899 after the Zamboangueno revolutionary forces defeated the last Spanish government in Zamboanga Fort Pilar was turned over to General Vicente Alvarez who between May and November 1899 was the first president of the Republica de Zamboanga This republic continued to exist until 1903 with Isidoro Midel as its second President under a puppet government of the United States he was succeeded by Mariano Arquiza 45 American occupation Edit Upon the firm establishment of American colonization and dissolution of the Republic in 1903 Zamboanga as a municipality was designated as the capital of the Moro Province a semi military government consisting of five districts Zamboanga Cotabato Davao Lanao and Sulu it established itself the center of commerce trade and government of Mindanao Island 46 During this period Zamboanga hosted a number of American regional governors including General John J Pershing who was military commander governor of the Moro Province from 1909 to 1914 In 1920 Zamboanga City ceased to be capital of the Moro Province 47 when the department was divided into provinces in which the city became under the large province of Zamboanga This encompasses the present day Zamboanga Peninsula with the inclusion of the whole province of Basilan Commonwealth era and city charter Edit President Manuel L Quezon signing the City Charter of Zamboanga in a ceremony held at the Malacanang Palace in 1936 When the Commonwealth government was established in 1935 calls to convert the municipality of Zamboanga into a city increased On September 23 1936 through Assemblyman Juan Alano the National Assembly of the Philippines passed Commonwealth Act No 39 making Zamboanga a chartered city consisting of the present territorial jurisdiction of the municipality of Zamboanga the municipality of Bolong the municipal district of Taluksangay the whole island of Basilan and the adjacent islands i e the municipality of Isabela the municipal district of Lamitan and the municipal district of Maluso 10 11 It was later signed by President Manuel Quezon on October 12 1936 The charter made Zamboanga City as the largest city in the world in terms of land area During these times Zamboanga was the leading commercial and industrial city of Mindanao Before World War II Pettit Barracks a part of the U S Army s 43d Infantry Regiment PS was stationed there World War II Edit When the Japanese invaded the Philippines they were headed by Vice Admiral Rokuzo Sugiyama accompanied by Rear Admiral Naosaburo Irifune The Japanese landed at Zamboanga City on March 2 1942 48 The Japanese government in the city was overthrown by American and Filipino forces following a fierce battle on March 10 12 1945 45 The rebuilt general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary was stationed in Zamboanga City from March 13 1945 to June 30 1946 during the military operations in Mindanao and Sulu against the Japanese citation needed Contemporary history Edit After World War II Edit After the war citizens on the island of Basilan found it difficult to appear in courts pay their taxes or seek help from the mayor and other officials Going from Basilan to the mainland required three or more hours of ferry travel To fix the problem Representative Juan Alano filed a bill in Congress to separate Basilan from Zamboanga City The island of Basilan was proclaimed a separate city through Republic Act No 288 on July 16 1948 49 On April 7 1953 by virtue of Republic Act No 840 the city was classified as first class city according to its revenue 50 51 On April 29 1955 a special law changed the landscape of the city government when Republic Act No 1210 52 amended the City Charter that made elective the position of city mayor and the creation of an elective vice mayor and eight elective city councilors The vice mayor is the presiding officer of the City Council In November 1955 Liberal Party candidate Cesar Climaco with his running mate Tomas Ferrer won the first local elections They were inducted into office on January 1 1956 as determined by the Revised Election Code 53 Martial law years Edit On September 21 1972 President Ferdinand Marcos signed Proclamation No 1081 placing the Philippines under martial law Zamboanga City s local government came under presidential control for the first time since 1955 Marcos extended Enriquez s term when his tenure was about to end in 1975 causing public outrage in the city President Marcos reorganized the local government on November 14 1975 and the city council was replaced by a Sangguniang Panlungsod with the mayor as its new presiding officer and its members included the vice mayor the chairman of the Katipunan ng mga Kabataang Barangay the president of the Association of Barangay Captains and sectoral representatives of agriculture business and labor 54 When Mayor Enriquez resigned and bid for the newly created Interim Batasang Pambansa in 1978 Vice Mayor Jose Vicente Atilano II was appointed by President Marcos to replace him Throughout the martial law years more than a thousand Zamboanga citizens were either killed tortured raped harassed castrated or electrocuted at the genitalia Climaco s return 1980 1984 Edit In 1980 Cesar Climaco staged his political comeback when he was elected again to the mayoral post under his new party the Concerned Citizen s Aggregation He had gone into exile to the United States in protest against Marcos declaration of martial law 55 In the 1984 Philippine parliamentary election Climaco was elected a member of the Regular Batasang Pambansa However he declined to assume his seat until he had completed his six year term as mayor in his consistent protest against Marcos Climaco s protest against the dictator earned Zamboanga City the distinction of the beacon of democracy in Mindanao 21st century Edit On November 19 2001 the Cabatangan Government Complex in Barangay Cabatangan the seat of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao was raided by former MNLF fighters in protest of Misuari s ouster as Governor of the autonomous region in which they took residents hostage The complex also houses the different regional government offices such as the Commission on Audit Population Commission Civil Service Commission Area Vocational Rehabilitation Center DECS Training Center and the Zamboanga Arturo Eustaquio College Department of Criminology An air strike by the military began on November 27 in which the hostages were later released after the government agreed to escort the rebels to a safe zone in Panubigan where they were allowed to go free 56 In 2013 Maria Isabelle Climaco Salazar niece of former Mayor Cesar Climaco was elected the second woman mayor of the city 57 Zamboanga City crisis Edit See also 2013 Zamboanga City crisis On September 9 2013 a faction of the Moro National Liberation Front MNLF under the leadership of Nur Misuari seized hostages in Zamboanga City and attempted to raise the flag of the self proclaimed Bangsamoro Republik a state which declared its independence earlier in August in Talipao Sulu This armed incursion has been met by the Armed Forces of the Philippines which seeks to free the hostages and expel the MNLF from Zamboanga City The standoff degenerated into urban warfare and brought parts of the city under standstill for days 58 Mayor Climaco Salazar and her administration are relocating the internal displaced persons IDPs affected by the crisis to transitory sites and later permanent housings in various places around Zamboanga City 59 Her rehabilitation plan Zamboanga City Roadmap to Recovery and Rehabilitation Z3R envisions building back a better Zamboanga City and rehabilitating the areas affected by the crisis 60 Geography EditGeology Edit See also List of Islands in Zamboanga City The southwest and eastern sides of Zamboanga City are bounded by irregular coastlines with generally rocky terrain and occasional stretches of sandy or gravelly beaches The coastal profile usually descends abruptly towards the sea Where rivers enter the sea bays have formed and the surrounding area has filled up with alluvial soils producing small to large coastal plains citation needed Topography Edit The overall topography of the city could be described as rolling to very steep There are some flat lands mostly narrow strips along the east coast The urban center is mostly flat with a gentle slope to the interior ranging from 0 to 3 A portion about 38 000 hectares has slopes ranging from 18 to 30 Another 26 000 hectares has slopes of less than 3 while about 37 of the area 52 000 hectares has slopes ranging from 30 to more than 50 The highest registered elevation is 1 200 metres 61 The territorial jurisdiction of the city includes the islands of big and small Santa Cruz Tictabon Sacol Manalipa Tumalutap Vitali as well as other numerous islands The total land area of the city is recorded to be 142 099 99 hectares or 1 420 99 square kilometers This does not include the area of about 25 other islands within the territorial jurisdiction of the city which have an aggregate area of 6 248 5 hectares as verified by the Office of the City Engineer Putting these all together the city s new total land area would come to 148 338 49 hectares Climate Edit vteClimate data for Zamboanga City 1981 2010 extremes 1903 2012 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 35 5 95 9 35 5 95 9 36 0 96 8 36 9 98 4 36 1 97 0 36 0 96 8 35 2 95 4 35 7 96 3 35 8 96 4 36 0 96 8 35 5 95 9 35 2 95 4 36 9 98 4 Average high C F 32 3 90 1 32 6 90 7 33 0 91 4 33 1 91 6 32 8 91 0 32 1 89 8 31 8 89 2 32 1 89 8 32 3 90 1 32 2 90 0 32 5 90 5 32 5 90 5 32 4 90 3 Daily mean C F 27 9 82 2 28 1 82 6 28 5 83 3 28 8 83 8 28 8 83 8 28 2 82 8 28 0 82 4 28 2 82 8 28 3 82 9 28 1 82 6 28 2 82 8 28 1 82 6 28 3 82 9 Average low C F 23 5 74 3 23 6 74 5 24 0 75 2 24 4 75 9 24 7 76 5 24 4 75 9 24 2 75 6 24 3 75 7 24 2 75 6 24 0 75 2 23 9 75 0 23 7 74 7 24 1 75 4 Record low C F 15 8 60 4 15 6 60 1 17 5 63 5 16 7 62 1 20 7 69 3 20 4 68 7 20 0 68 0 19 0 66 2 19 9 67 8 18 4 65 1 18 5 65 3 16 7 62 1 15 6 60 1 Average rainfall mm inches 49 7 1 96 43 7 1 72 56 3 2 22 69 0 2 72 90 0 3 54 149 1 5 87 152 6 6 01 144 9 5 70 144 9 5 70 178 9 7 04 120 6 4 75 66 8 2 63 1 266 5 49 86 Average rainy days 0 1 mm 7 6 7 8 12 16 14 13 13 14 13 10 133Average relative humidity 80 79 78 79 81 82 83 82 82 83 82 82 81Mean monthly sunshine hours 220 5 213 0 225 2 222 4 219 4 164 2 187 2 213 1 187 4 172 9 217 6 226 6 2 469 5Source 1 PAGASA 62 63 Source 2 Deutscher Wetterdienst sun 1961 1990 64 65 Zamboanga City features a tropical wet and dry climate under the Koppen climate classification Aw Barangays Edit Main article List of barangays in Zamboanga City The city of Zamboanga is politically subdivided into 98 barangays These are grouped into two congressional districts with 38 barangays in the West Coast and 60 barangays in the East Coast Demographics EditPopulation census of Zamboanga CityYearPop p a 190320 692 191842 007 4 83 193943 894 0 21 1948103 317 9 98 1960131 489 2 03 1970199 901 4 27 1975265 023 5 82 1980343 722 5 34 1990442 345 2 56 1995511 139 2 75 2000601 794 3 56 2007774 407 3 54 2010807 129 1 52 2015861 799 1 26 2020977 234 2 50 Source Philippine Statistics Authority 4 7 66 67 68 Zamboanga City is the 6th most populous in the Philippines and the 2nd most populous in Mindanao after Davao City The city s population had an increase of 54 670 over the five years since 2010 It had an annual population growth rate at 1 26 lower than from in the year 2000 to 2010 which was 2 98 7 The city s population is expected to reach 1 million between 2020 and 2025 69 Among the city s 98 barangays Talon Talon is the most populous with 4 1 share of this city s population followed by Mampang 4 0 Tumaga 3 6 Tetuan 3 5 Calarian 3 4 San Roque and Pasonanca both with 3 2 70 Religion Edit According to statistics compiled by the Philippine government 71 the most dominant religion in Zamboanga City is Roman Catholicism followed by Islam and Evangelical Protestantism Other religious practices and denominations in the city were Buddhism paganism animism and Sikhism 72 73 Roman Catholicism Edit See also Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zamboanga With 60 of the city s population Roman Catholicism remains the predominant religion in the city 71 74 Zamboanga City was the first to establish its own Catholic diocese in Mindanao now the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zamboanga The Metropolitan Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception serves as the seat of the Archdiocese of Zamboanga It was designed by Domingo Abarro III The first church was located at the front of Plaza Pershing where the present Universidad de Zamboanga stands The church was designated a cathedral in 1910 when the diocese of Zamboanga City was created 75 In 1943 the cathedral was one of the edifices bombarded by Japanese soldiers during World War II 75 In 1956 the cathedral was relocated beside Ateneo de Zamboanga University formerly known as the Jardin de Chino The titular patroness is Nuestra Senora La Virgen del Pilar de Zaragoza and its secondary patron is Pope Pius X Islam Edit Muslims have also been an integral part of Zamboanga comprising 35 76 of the city s population 77 78 Some barangays like in Campo Islam today are now populated by 100 Muslims due to migration from people of Sulu who are mostly Tausug citation needed The Yakan a minority group of Muslim people from Basilan also migrated to the city and had their own villages 79 80 These barangays with Muslim majority population do not celebrate Fiestas but instead they do celebrate Hari Raya the eid celebration Other Christian denominations Edit With the inception of the American era Protestant sects were introduced Christian and Missionary Alliance Philippine Independent Church Seventh day Adventist The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints and United Church of Christ in the Philippines are included Most Protestants are migrants who are mostly of Cebuano or Ilocano ethnicity citation needed Several members of Iglesia ni Cristo live in Zamboanga City and have created several locales citation needed Ethnicities Edit Further information Zamboangueno people The Zamboangueno people or Zamboangueno nation Chavacano Spanish Pueblo Nacion Zamboangueno are a creole ethnolinguistic nation of the Philippines originating in Zamboanga City The ancestors of the present inhabitants of the city are said to also have migrated to other areas in the Southwestern Mindanao Due to migration a number of other ethnicities have a visible presence in the city such as the Samal Yakan Tausug and Badjao peoples 81 82 83 84 As a result of Spanish colonization according to a genetic study written by Maxmilian Larena published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States the Philippine ethnic groups with the highest amount of Spanish European descent are the Zamboanguenos with 4 out of 10 Zamboanguenos being of Spanish descent this is followed by Bicolanos with 2 out of 10 Bicolanos being of Spanish descent Meanwhile there is only some Spanish descent among the people of the lowland Christianized Filipino ethnic groups 85 The Spanish descent is due to Zamboanga city being a historical Spanish fortress reinforced by soldiers from Mexico and Peru 34 Language Edit Zamboangueno is one of six Spanish based creole language varieties of the Philippines identified by linguists Zamboangueno known locally as Chavacano with Spanish as its lexifier and grammar influenced by other Philippine languages is the native language of inhabitants living around the city and the nearby island of Basilan Aside from Chavacano English are also understood Tausug is the second most spoken language in the city after Chavacano due to significant Tausug migration from the Sulu Archipelago The Subanen Yakan Sama Cebuano and Hiligaynon languages can also be heard being spoken within the city Economy EditPoverty Incidence of Zamboanga CitySource Philippine Statistics Authority 86 87 88 89 90 91 See also List of companies in Zamboanga City Sardine industry Edit Zamboanga made Sardines in supermarket shelves Zamboanga City is also dubbed as the Sardines Capital of the Philippines for 11 out of 12 sardines companies in the country are produced here 92 The canning factories are converged in the west coast of Zamboanga Sardine fishing and processing account for about 70 percent of the city s economy 93 94 Situated at the western tip of the Mindanao mainland Zamboanga City is a natural docking point for vessels traversing the rich fishing grounds of the Zamboanga Peninsula and the Sulu Archipelago The production of canned sardines in this city have upgraded their production to conform to international food safety and quality standards Companies that produce these goods are looking to enter new markets in Russia and other European countries 95 Most sardine fishing fleets and canning factories have located in Zamboanga City due to its proximity to the rich fishing grounds of the Sulu Sea To date 26 registered commercial fishing companies operating 87 sardine purse seine fleets and 569 boats of different classifications that are fishing in the Zamboanga and Sulu waters are based in Zamboanga City BFAR IX 2015 The 11 canned sardine corporations operating 12 manufacturing plants four tin can manufacturers and 4 ship construction and ship repair companies The city supplies approximately 85 90 of the country s canned sardine requirements and the canned sardines sector contributes at least US 16 million in annual export earnings to the City 96 Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Edit The administrative building of the Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority Main article Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone The Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority and Freeport ZamboEcoZone also known as Zamboanga Freeport Authority ZFA was created by virtue of the Republic Acts of the Philippines 7903 of the Philippines Constitution in the year 1995 97 It was authored by then Congresswoman Maria Clara L Lobregat 98 The Special Economic Zone was enacted into law on February 23 1995 and made operational a year later with the appointment of a chairman and administrator and the members of the Board by former President Fidel V Ramos It is located about 23 km from the city proper It is one of the three current Economic Freeport Zones outside Luzon Shopping malls Edit See also List of shopping malls in the Philippines Zamboanga Peninsula Alta Mall was the city s first shopping mall to operate in the city However it closed in 1996 and the 3 hectare mall complex was deserted 99 100 101 On December 10 2015 KCC Malls opened their fourth branch in Zamboanga as KCC Mall de Zamboanga and is currently the second largest mall in Mindanao in terms of Gross Floor Area 102 103 The country s largest shopping retailer SM Supermalls bought Mindpro Citimall in 2016 and the mall shall be converted with an SM brand 104 It was reportedly as one of their future malls in 2020 105 Seaweed industry Edit Seaweed production plants in Zamboanga City along with Cebu and Southern Luzon produce most of the world s supply of carrageenan Seventy five percent of the country s eucheuma and kappaphycus seaweed is produced mostly in the Zamboanga Peninsula and the Sulu Archipelago 106 International trade Edit Zamboanga City is a member of East ASEAN Growth Area BIMP EAGA a regional economic cooperation initiative between the several countries in Southeast Asia As a result of its membership air and sea routes have been opened between Zamboanga City and Sandakan in Malaysia The two cities have existing trade relations and have had historical cultural interactions 107 Tourism Edit Pulverized Red Organ Pipe Corals gives that pinkish tint on Santa Cruz s Beach The Department of Tourism has selected Zamboanga City as a flagship tourism destination in Zamboanga Peninsula 108 Domestic and foreign tourist arrivals increased 8 percent to 439 160 in 2005 according to data from the regional tourism office The same report notes that Filipinos accounted for 80 percent of the tourist arrivals Moreover 50 percent of those tourists visited the city before 109 Zamboanga City s famous Pink Sand Beach of Santa Cruz was recognized by the National Geographic as one of the World s 21 Best Beaches in 2018 110 A surge in tourist arrivals was recorded in 2018 that hit almost 100 000 A day trip to the island includes a hop to Little Santa Cruz s long white sand bar and a tour of the island s lagoon known for its rich ecosystem Another rising tourist hub is the newly opened 11 Islands commonly called Once Islas a group of islands with white sand beaches and sand bars located in the city s east coast Despite the warnings and seasonal advisories growth in terms of arrivals tells otherwise The negative impressions shows no effect on the Tourist s perception of the place in general The whole Zamboanga Peninsula Region recorded 723 455 tourist arrivals in 2018 of which 11 190 are foreigners 10 523 Overseas Filipino Workers OFWs and 701 742 were domestic tourists according to the Department of Tourism 111 Governance EditMain article Government of Zamboanga City Executive Edit Old flag of Zamboanga Plaza Rizal and the Zamboanga City Hall since 1907 Zamboanga City is the third oldest city in the Philippines with a mayor council form of government 112 The city government of Zamboanga was in a commission form shortly between 1912 and 1914 with an appointed mayor citation needed It then was replaced by a municipal form of government headed by a municipal mayor assisted by a municipal vice president When the City Charter of Zamboanga was signed on October 12 1936 citation needed the municipal government was converted into a city one headed by a mayor appointed by the President of the Philippine Commonwealth With the passage of Republic Act No 1210 on April 29 1955 the position of mayor became elective and the post of vice mayor was created Representation in Congress Edit Zamboanga City received its own representation for the Philippine Congress in 1984 when the Regular Batasang Pambansa was convened Previously the city was part of the representation of the Zamboanga Province from 1935 to 1953 of Zamboanga del Sur from 1953 to 1972 and in Zamboanga Peninsula from 1978 to 1984 The former lone congressional district was further divided into two separate districts the West Coast comprises from the City Proper to Barangay Limpapa is represented by Congressman Celso Lobregat while in the East Coast comprises from Barangay Tetuan to Barangay Licomo is represented by Congressman Manuel Jose Mannix Dalipe The city s population had reached to 774 407 people since 2007 113 Under the Republic Act 9269 Zamboanga City is qualified to have its third district in the House of Representatives 114 However in 2008 the formation of Zamboanga City s Third District was then opposed by the local majority block of the city council 115 Legislative Edit Main article Zamboanga City Council The building where the Zamboanga City Council Sangguniang Panglungsod ng Zamboanga holds its sessions The first legislative body of Zamboanga City was established in 1914 composed of councilors who represented the different districts of barrios of then municipality of Zamboanga When the City Charter of Zamboanga was signed on October 12 1936 the municipal council was replaced by the City Council presided by the mayor and consisted of five councilors the city treasurer and the city engineer All members are appointed by the President of the Philippine Commonwealth With the passage of Republic Act No 1210 on April 29 1955 the position of mayor became elective and the post of vice mayor was created The council also became elective and its membership was increased to eight presided by the vice mayor During the Marcos regime the city council was renamed to Sangguniang Panglungsod and its membership shuffled citation needed The mayor became the presiding officer while the vice mayor became a regular member Other representatives such as the agriculture business and labor sectoral representatives chairman of the Kabataan Barangay Federation and the president of the Association of Barangay Captains was added to the council All members of the council except for the mayor and the vice mayor are all appointed by the President After Marcos was deposed a new Local Government Code was enacted in 1991 and the mayor was restored to the executive branch citation needed The city council organization existed since The current local Sangguniang Panglungsod is composed of 19 members the Vice Mayor as its presiding officer elected citywide 8 councilors elected from the two legislative districts Chairman of the Liga ng mga Barangay of the city as ex officio member President of the Federasyon ng Federasyon ng Sangguniang Kabataan of the city as ex officio member and Mandatory Representative of the Indigenous Peoples in Zamboanga City as ex officio member Judiciary Edit Zamboanga City Hall of Justice Building House Bill 1455 entitled An Act Amending Sections 14 J and 29 of Batas Pambansa Blg 129 Otherwise Known as The Judiciary Reorganization Act of 1980 calls for the creation of four additional Regional Trial Court branches in the Province of Zamboanga del Sur and the Cities of Pagadian and Zamboanga City with an overall total of nineteen branches 116 Out of the 19 branches ten seats shall be for Zamboanga City and the remaining seats for Pagadian City Molave San Miguel Ipil and Aurora Armed forces and law enforcement Edit See also AFP Western Mindanao Command Zamboanga City hosts one a large number of military police and coast guard bases in the country The Edwin Andrews Air Base hosts the Air Force unit in the city is located at the Zamboanga International Airport complex 117 118 The Camp General Basilio Navarro in Upper Calarian is the main operating base of the Western Mindanao Command WestMinCom 119 120 121 WesMinCom is one of the unifying commands of the Armed Forces of the Philippines that serves the Western Mindanao The Coast Guard District South Western Mindanao is located near the Camp General Basilio Navarro while a coast guard station is located inside the Port of Zamboanga 122 123 Transportation EditAir Edit Zamboanga International Airport See also Zamboanga International Airport The Zamboanga International Airport has a 2 610 metre primary runway and can serve international flights and bigger planes such as the C 17 Globemaster III Antonov An 124 Airbus A330 and Boeing 747 124 125 The government has already earmarked more than 240 million pesos to complete the rehabilitation of the existing facilities of the airport 126 which was ranked the tenth busiest in the Philippines in 2008 127 Land Edit The primary modes of transportation within the city are serviced by taxis jeepneys and tricycles 128 Regular and air conditioned buses of the Yanson Group of Bus Companies serve the long haul routes from Zamboanga City to other areas in Mindanao and in the Visayas Other smaller bus companies ply the routes to neighboring municipalities in the Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga Sibugay areas Since last June 25 2018 taxi units was launched with initial 13 units until additional into 50 units This 2019 there are 100 taxi units plying around Zamboanga City to any points in Region 9 and the operators says it will surely adding until reaching maximum of more than 200 taxi units Sea Edit See also Port of Zamboanga Zamboanga City has nineteen seaports and wharves twelve of them are privately owned and the rest are owned by the government This includes some ports of Basilan which are registered as a part of Zamboanga City port management The biggest and most modern seaport is the government operated main port in Zamboanga City which can accommodate 20 ships at any given time There are 25 shipping companies whose vessels regularly dock at the port of Zamboanga The city also has fastcraft services to Sandakan Malaysia and one shipping cargo company from Vietnam is also serving the routes from and to Zamboanga City to deliver goods from Vietnam 129 In 2002 the Port of Zamboanga City including the area ports of Basilan registered 5 57 million passenger movement surpassing Batangas by 1 3 million passengers and Manila by over 1 59 million passengers 130 On May 28 2009 the PHP700 million port expansion project funded by the national government was inaugurated by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo 131 Infrastructure EditTelecommunication Edit The telecommunication towers as can be seen over the downtown Major telecommunications firm Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company maintains operations in the city Mabuhay Satellite Corporation has set up a facility in Zamboanga City in order to improve existing communications infrastructure 132 Power Edit Murga Station of the Zamboanga City Electric Cooperative ZAMCELCO See also ZAMCELCO The Zamboanga City Electric Cooperative is the franchise holder of electric power distribution covering the entire city Conrado Alcantara and Sons Holdings Conal constructed a coal fired power plant with an initial capacity of 105 megawatt on a 60 hectare land inside the Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority The plant was originally to open in 2014 with the constructors expecting to meet the demand of the city s electricity by that year 133 134 However the project was delayed and had begun construction by the end of 2017 The plant is expected to be fully operational by 2020 134 135 Water Edit Zamboanga City relies heavily on surface water from the Tumaga River for its water supply The Zamboanga City Water District ZCWD is serving only 48 of the total population of the total water production 38 is accounted water Given the projected population and the fact that the city is a highly urbanising one it is likely that future water requirements will not be satisfied unless other sources such as rivers and springs be tapped to augment water supply sources 136 ZCWD has 24 production wells These are located in the following strategic areas within the city that are producing 1 304 m daily 137 Health Edit Zamboanga Peninsula Medical Center located at Putik Zamboanga City See also List of hospitals in Zamboanga City There are several medical centres and hospitals in Zamboanga The Zamboanga Peninsula Medical Center is the city s newest hospital which was opened in 2015 It is regarded as one of the largest and most modern in the region likened to the St Luke s Medical Center The government operated Zamboanga City Medical Center was founded in 1918 as the Zamboanga City General Hospital The Brent Hospital and Colleges Inc was founded on February 2 1914 by Charles Henry Brent the first Protestant Episcopal missionary bishop in the Philippines Today it operates a school within its compound offering nursing and allied health courses The Zamboanga City Red Cross chapter was established on June 17 1946 known originally as Zamboanga City Chapter The original Zamboanga City Chapter comprised the city of Zamboanga and the 3 provinces of Basilan Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur 138 West Metro Medical Center is a secondary level private hospital in Zamboanga City Philippines As of 2015 the hospital has a capacity of 110 beds Ongoing construction of an annex is to increase bed capacity to 190 making it the largest private hospital in the Zamboanga Peninsula and Archipelago In 2006 the Military Sealift Command MSC hospital ship USNS Mercy T AH 19 anchored off of the coast of Zamboanga City to provide medical dental and veterinary care for the people of the city 139 Sports and recreation facilities Edit Convention centers that host several events and congregations include the Garden Orchid Hotel s Convention Center Palacio Del Sur Centro Latino Astoria Regency and Patio Palmeras 140 KCC Mall de Zamboanga also has its convention halls that is located at the East Wing Sport venues in Zamboanga City include the Joaquin F Enriquez Memorial Sports Complex the Universidad de Zamboanga Summit Centre Southern City Colleges Citadel Sports Arena and the Mayor Vitaliano D Agan Coliseum Education Edit Ateneo de Zamboanga University facade See also List of universities and colleges in Zamboanga City The formal education in Zamboanga City is patterned after the American system with English as the medium of instruction There is a Jesuit university in the city named Ateneo de Zamboanga There are also a number of foreign schools with study programmes 141 142 Universities and major colleges aside from Ateneo de Zamboanga University include Universidad de Zamboanga Western Mindanao State University Southern City Colleges Pilar College AMA Computer College Zamboanga Peninsula Polytechnic State University and Zamboanga State College of Marine Sciences and Technology Media EditMain article Media in Zamboanga City Zamboanga City has 26 radio stations 9 AM amp 17 FM There are also 17 regular TV stations and three cable TV stations Several local publications operate in the various parts of the city and nearby provinces and regions such as The Daily Zamboanga Times The Mindanao Examiner Regional Newspaper Voz de Mindanao Zamboanga Peninsula Journal Zamboanga Star Zamboanga Today The Zamboanga Post and Zamboanga Forum Notable people Edit Hidilyn Diaz at her homecoming to Zamboanga City days after her victory in the 2016 Summer Olympics See also Category People from Zamboanga City Mike Tolomia basketball player Roseller T Lim the first Zamboangeno who became a Philippine Senator from December 30 1955 December 30 1963 Lim was known as the Great Filibuster after he filibustered for more than 18 hours in an attempt to prevent the election of Ferdinand Marcos as President of the Senate 143 144 Alyssa Alano a Filipina Australian film and TV actress She was a former member of the popular Viva Hotbabes franchise Hidilyn Diaz a Filipina weightlifter and airwoman She won the silver medal in the 2016 Summer Olympics women s 53 kg weight division 145 In Tokyo on July 26 2021 Diaz won the Philippines first Olympic gold medal at the 2020 Summer Olympics for women s weightlifting and set the Olympic record for the 55 kg category by lifting a total of 224 kg Buddy Zabala a Filipino musician and producer He was the bassist of Filipino punk rock band Hilera and also currently of Cambio He was also a member of Eraserheads and bassist for The Dawn Anton Mari H Lim a Filipino veterinarian businessman public figure and humanitarian 146 Andy Mark C Barroca a Filipino professional basketball player for the Magnolia Hotshots in the Philippine Basketball Association PBA 147 Ryan Roose B RR Garcia a Filipino professional basketball player for the TNT KaTropa in the PBA 148 Rudy Briones Lingganay Jr another Filipino professional basketball player for the TNT KaTropa in the PBA 149 Chico Lanete a Filipino professional basketball player for the Phoenix Fuel Masters in the PBA 150 Jainal Antel Sali Jr Filipino islamic terrorist and leader of Abu Sayyaf a dangerous Jihadist terrorist group of Asian origin and affiliated with Al Qaeda Sister cities EditZamboanga City is twinned with the following cities LocalDavao City Davao del Sur 151 Baguio Benguet 152 Makati Metro Manila San Mateo RizalInternational Pekanbaru Indonesia Sandakan Malaysia 153 Zaragoza Spain Zhoushan ChinaSee also EditCagayan de Oro Davao City General Santos Cotabato CityReferences Edit a b c Jacinto Al 25 September 2006 Philippines Southern Gateway Wants to Be Known as Asia s Latin City Arab News Retrieved 1 November 2021 City of Zamboanga DILG 2015 Census of Population Report No 3 Population Land Area and Population Density PDF Philippine Statistics Authority Quezon City Philippines August 2016 ISSN 0117 1453 Archived PDF from the original on May 25 2021 Retrieved July 16 2021 a b 2020 Census of Population and Housing 2020 CPH Population and Annual Growth Rates by Province City and Municipality By Region Metro Manila Philippines Philippine Statistics Authority 7 July 2021 Retrieved 8 July 2021 https psa gov ph sites default files City 20and 20Municipal level 20Small 20Area 20Poverty 20Estimates 202009 2C 202012 20and 202015 0 xlsx publication date 10 July 2019 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority Census of Population 2020 Region IX Zamboanga Peninsula Total Population by Province City Municipality and Barangay PSA Retrieved 8 July 2021 a b c Census of Population 2015 Region IX Zamboanga Peninsula Total Population by Province City Municipality and Barangay PSA Retrieved 20 June 2016 Largest City in the Philippines 2010 Retrieved April 16 2010 Executive Order No 429 October 12 1990 Supreme Court E Library Retrieved 15 March 2016 a b Commonwealth Act Number 39 htm Archived November 27 2014 at the Wayback Machine a b Philippine Laws Statutes And Codes Chan Robles Virtual Law Library Chanrobles com Retrieved 2015 12 23 History zamboangacity gov ph Retrieved 2018 05 13 New Page 4 www dipolognon com Retrieved 2018 05 05 Zamboanga City Zamboanga Del Sur Philippine Statistics Authority psa gov ph Retrieved 2018 05 05 Zamboanga del Sur Just another WordPress weblog Zamboanga del Sur Retrieved 2018 05 05 Wang Zhenping 31 March 2008 Reading Song Ming Records on the Pre colonial History of the Philippines PDF Kansai University Institutional Repository a b Alfred Kemp Pallasen 1985 Culture Contact and Language Convergence PDF LSP Special Monogaph Issue 24 Linguistic Society of the Philippines Archived from the original PDF on 2015 05 11 Tom Gunnar Hoogervorst 2012 Ethnicity and aquatic lifestyles exploring Southeast Asia s past and present seascapes PDF Water History 4 3 245 265 doi 10 1007 s12685 012 0060 0 S2CID 53668253 early history 1400s 2010 Retrieved April 18 2010 Rodney C Jubilado 2010 On cultural fluidity The Sama Bajau of the Sulu Sulawesi Seas Kunapipi 32 1 89 101 Francisco Combes 1667 Historia de las islas de Mindanao Iolo y sus Adyacentes Progresos de la Religion y Armas Catolicas Pablo del Val Challenger Expedition 1872 1876 1895 Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H M S Challenger During the Years 1873 76 Under the Command of Captain George S Nares and the Late Captain Frank Tourle Thomson R N H M Stationery Office p 823 828 George Newenham Wright 1837 A New and Comprehensive Gazetteer Volume 4 T Kelly p 459 Antoine Francois Prevost 1757 Histoire generale des voyages ou Nouvelle collection de toutes les relations de voyages par mer et par terre qui ont ete publiees jusqu a present dans les differentes langues de toutes les nations connues De Hondt p 37 Pierre Joseph Andre Roubaud 1770 Histoire generale de l Asie de l Afrique et de l Amerique Des Ventes de la Doue p 499 500 Samboangan John Meares 1791 Des Kapitians John Meares und des Kapitains William Douglas Reisen nach der Nordwest Kuste von Amerika in den Jahren 1786 bis 1789 Voss p 240 Charles Pickering 1848 The Races of Man and their Geographical Distribution PDF United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 Under the Command of Charles Wilkes USN Volume IX C Sherman p 125 Rodney C Jubilado Hanafi Hussin amp Maria Khristina Manueli 2011 The Sama Bajaus of Sulu Sulawesi Seas perspectives from linguistics and culture PDF JATI Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 15 1 83 95 Archived from the original PDF on 2014 12 19 Retrieved 2014 12 19 Enriquez A R Jambangan the Garden of Flowers never was Antoniofermin s Name Retrieved 13 September 2016 Arnaldo Maria Stella 13 November 2017 DOT allots P2M to Zamboanga City for reblooming project BusinessMirror Retrieved 1 November 2021 Zamboanga derives its name from Jambangan a Malay word that means City of Flowers Wee Darwin Wally 3 October 2017 DOT to launch beautification drive in Zambo Philippine News Agency Retrieved 1 November 2021 early history 1500s 2010 Retrieved April 18 2010 early history 1500s 2010 Retrieved April 18 2010 a b SECOND BOOK OF THE SECOND PART OF THE CONQUESTS OF THE FILIPINAS ISLANDS AND CHRONICLE OF THE RELIGIOUS OF OUR FATHER ST AUGUSTINE Zamboanga City History He Governor Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera brought a great reenforcements of soldiers many of them from Peru as he made his voyage to Acapulco from that kingdom Blair Emma Helen Robertson James Alexander 1905 The Philippine Islands 1493 1898 25 Cleveland Ohio Arthur H Clark Company pp 150 177 early history 1500s 2010 Retrieved April 18 2010 early history 1600s 2010 Retrieved April 18 2010 San Agustin Conquistas lib 2 cap 37 545 CSIC riel 311 leg 1 1758 early history 1600s 2010 Retrieved April 18 2010 early history 1700s 2010 Retrieved April 18 2010 In Spanish El hermano desconocido de San Martin que lucho y murio en Filipinas early history 1800s 2010 Retrieved April 18 2010 early history 1800s 2010 Retrieved April 18 2010 a b early history 1900s 2010 Archived from the original on August 2 2010 Retrieved April 18 2010 early history 1900s 2010 Retrieved April 18 2010 Provincial Capitol Zamboanga del Sur LEGENDHARRY harrybalais com 2013 10 19 Archived from the original on 2017 10 19 Retrieved 2018 05 04 CS1 maint unfit URL link early history 1900s 2010 Retrieved April 18 2010 Republic Act No 288 June 16 1948 Supreme Court E Library Retrieved 15 March 2016 Republic Act No 840 April 07 1953 Supreme Court E Library Retrieved 15 March 2016 Firm Ronald Echalas Diaz Chan Robles amp Associates Law PHILIPPINE LAWS STATUTES AND CODES CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY www chanrobles com Retrieved 2018 05 08 Republic Act No 1210 April 29 1955 Supreme Court E Library Retrieved 15 March 2016 Republic Act No 180 June 21 1947 Supreme Court E Library Retrieved 15 March 2016 Presidential Decree No 826 November 14 1975 Supreme Court E Library Retrieved 15 March 2016 Welcome to the City of Zamboanga City Profile zamboanga net Retrieved 2018 05 08 Diesto Jovian January 18 2006 City has no plans yet for Cabatangan ZamboTimes Retrieved 20 September 2013 Valente Jordan August 15 2014 Women s representation in local politics Evidence from The Philippines PDF SSRN doi 10 2139 ssrn 2014425 S2CID 67768156 MNLF wants flag hoisted in Zamboanga city hall ABS CBN News Retrieved 2013 09 09 Zamboanga City relocates siege evacuees from cramped camp The Philippine Star 2014 05 14 Retrieved 2015 03 09 Updated Z3R plan presented Zamboanga Times 2014 01 27 Archived from the original on 2015 04 02 Retrieved 2015 03 09 Topography Slope and Elevation Retrieved March 8 2011 Zamboanga del Sur Climatological Normal Values Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration Archived from the original on 8 October 2018 Retrieved 8 October 2018 Zamboanga del Sur Climatological Extremes Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration Archived from the original on 8 October 2018 Retrieved 8 October 2018 Station 98836 Zamboanga Global station data 1961 1990 Sunshine Duration Deutscher Wetterdienst Retrieved 8 October 2018 Station ID for Zamboanga is 98836 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration Census of Population and Housing 2010 Region IX Zamboanga Peninsula Total Population by Province City Municipality and Barangay NSO Retrieved 29 June 2016 Censuses of Population 1903 2007 Region IX Zamboanga Peninsula Table 1 Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province Highly Urbanized City 1903 to 2007 NSO Province of Zamboanga del Sur Municipality Population Data Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division Retrieved 17 December 2016 Mercurio Richmond S Philippine cities with over 1M population to nearly triple by 2025 The Philippine Star Population of Region IX Zamboanga Peninsula Based on the 2015 Census of Population and Housing Philippine Statistics Authority psa gov ph Retrieved 2018 05 12 a b webteam Region 9 Regional Profile DTIWEB3 Retrieved 2018 07 25 Roman Catholicism is the major religion practiced in the region The other major religions are Islam and Born Again Christianity Welcome to the City of Zamboanga City of Flowers of the World www zamboanga net Retrieved 2018 05 12 Subanen Tribe Subanen Tribe Retrieved 2018 05 12 How Growing Up in Zamboanga Prepared Me to Travel the World When In Manila www wheninmanila com 2017 10 09 Retrieved 2018 05 12 a b Metropolitan Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception Vigattin Tourism Pilipinas Retrieved 2018 10 31 Muslim Population in Mindanao based on POPCEN 2015 Retrieved 2019 05 04 Administrator History of the City www zamboangacity gov ph Retrieved 2018 05 13 Badjaos and Samals of Philippine Islands Retrieved 2018 05 13 Textile Tribes of the Philippines the Yakan Weaving Weddings and Wears Travel Authentic Philippines Travel Authentic Philippines 2016 03 22 Retrieved 2018 05 13 Meeting the Yakan people in Zamboanga City Rappler Retrieved 2018 05 13 THE BADJAO SEA PEOPLE OF ZAMBOANGA The Coral Triangle Retrieved 2018 05 04 The Badjao of Zamboanga Victims of war and relocation Rappler Retrieved 2018 05 04 Mawallil Amir OPINION A perspective on Tausug bravery ABS CBN News Retrieved 2018 05 04 Meeting the Yakan people in Zamboanga City Rappler Retrieved 2018 05 04 Maximilian Larena et al 2021 01 21 Supplementary Information for Multiple migrations to the Philippines during the last 50 000 years PDF Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America p 35 Retrieved 2021 03 23 Poverty incidence PI Philippine Statistics Authority Retrieved 28 December 2020 https psa gov ph sites default files NSCB LocalPovertyPhilippines 0 pdf publication date 29 November 2005 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority https psa gov ph sites default files 2003 20SAE 20of 20poverty 20 28Full 20Report 29 1 pdf publication date 23 March 2009 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority https psa gov ph sites default files 2006 20and 202009 20City 20and 20Municipal 20Level 20Poverty 20Estimates 0 1 pdf publication date 3 August 2012 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority https psa gov ph sites default files 2012 20Municipal 20and 20City 20Level 20Poverty 20Estima7tes 20Publication 20 281 29 pdf publication date 31 May 2016 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority https psa gov ph sites default files City 20and 20Municipal level 20Small 20Area 20Poverty 20Estimates 202009 2C 202012 20and 202015 0 xlsx publication date 10 July 2019 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority Canneries in Zampen 2012 Retrieved June 26 2012 FFTC Assessment of the Industry level Impacts of the Closed Fishing Season Policy for Sardines in Zamboanga Peninsula Philippines ap fftc agnet org Retrieved 2018 05 26 CULTURAL POTPOURRI PERMEX Zamboanga s leading Tuna and sardines processing plant Mindanao Times mindanaotimes net Retrieved 2018 05 26 Mega Fishing Corporation success story Sardines innovation for the benefit of all www pcaarrd dost gov ph Retrieved 2018 05 26 web url https www econstor eu bitstream 10419 173565 1 pidsdps1644 pdf PHILIPPINE LAWS STATUTES AND CODES CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY www chanrobles com ZamboEcozone and Freeport www zfa gov ph Google Maps Google Maps Retrieved 2018 05 25 G R No 149429 sc judiciary gov ph Retrieved 2018 05 25 Day 13 Zamboanga explosion kills volunteer Rappler Retrieved 2018 05 25 kcc mall open zambo city 445364 2015 12 05 KCC mall to open in Zambo City SunStar Retrieved 2018 05 25 Mindanao Economic Boom KCC Mall Expansion Mindanao Economic Boom Archived from the original on 2017 08 26 Roy Mindpro Citimall now SM property zamboangatimes ph Retrieved 2018 05 25 SM eyes 5 new malls in Mindanao in 2020 Mindanao Times mindanaotimes net Retrieved 2018 05 25 Canneries in Zampen Philippine Daily Inquirer 2009 Archived from the original on November 14 2011 Retrieved March 27 2009 Sister Cities of Zamboanga 2009 Archived from the original on April 14 2012 Retrieved March 13 2009 Zamboanga picked as peninsula s tourism flagship BusinessWorld September 22 2006 Zamboanga Peninsula shaping up as a tourist draw BusinessWorld October 6 2006 Zamboanga s pink beach one of the world s 21 best National Geographic says Philippine Daily Inquirer 2018 04 09 Retrieved 4 May 2019 Zambo region records 723K tourist arrivals in 2018 Philippine News Agency Retrieved 4 May 2019 Chartered city of Zamboanga 2009 Retrieved June 3 2009 Population of Zamboanga City PDF 2008 Archived from the original PDF on July 11 2009 Retrieved June 3 2009 Proposed third District of Zamboanga City 2008 Retrieved June 3 2009 Administrator Web Valesco explains stand on proposed 3rd district www zamboangatimes ph Retrieved 2018 05 22 Beng seeks creation of 4 RTCs in Region 9 2011 Retrieved January 5 2011 Arrival at Edwin Andrews Air Base EAAB PBS RTVM rtvm gov ph Retrieved 2018 05 08 Farolan Ramon We serve the nation not individuals Philippine Daily Inquirer Retrieved 2018 05 08 Philippine Air Force Official Website www paf mil ph Retrieved 2018 05 08 Zamboanga By Liezel Lacastesantos ABS CBN News US special forces leaving Philippines ABS CBN News Retrieved 2018 05 08 Situation Briefing in Zamboanga PBS RTVM rtvm gov ph Retrieved 2018 05 08 Armed Forces builds new base in Zamboanga City The Manila Times Retrieved 2018 05 08 Philippine Coast Guard Official Website www coastguard gov ph Retrieved 2018 05 08 C17 landed in ZIA GMA News Retrieved 30 June 2020 Antonov An 124 100 approaching at the Zamboanga City International Airport MyAviation net Archived from the original on 22 April 2014 Retrieved 30 June 2020 365 completion of rehabilitition of the existing facilies of the airport Daily Zamboanga Times Retrieved 30 June 2020 Airport of Zamboanga 2010 Archived from the original on 22 April 2009 Retrieved 20 April 2009 Taxi cooperative to operate in Zamboanga City SunStar 30 January 2018 Zamboanga Seaport 2010 Retrieved 20 April 2009 Philippine Ports Authority 2010 Archived from the original on 31 January 2009 Retrieved 20 April 2009 700Million Php port expansion project SunStar sunstar zamboanga Archived from the original on 15 January 2010 Retrieved 30 June 2020 PLDT forms satellite firm The Manila Standard November 4 1994 Conal to build 9 000 million coal fired power plant in Philippines Retrieved July 10 2010 a b Alcantara Group to build 105 MW plant in Zambo City Manila Bulletin Retrieved 2018 05 27 Resane Andrea Mei B 2017 08 30 Alcantara Group s 105 MW power plant to supply Zamboanga City exclusively BusinessWorld Retrieved 2018 05 27 Water Supply of Zamboanga City Retrieved July 10 2010 Production Wells Archived from the original on January 5 2011 Retrieved December 30 2010 Philippines 2007 Archived from the original on October 23 2007 Retrieved April 29 2009 USNS Mercy Bringing Hope to Asia Pacific Nations 2006 Archived from the original on January 5 2011 Retrieved September 23 2010 Garcia Bong 2017 11 30 All set for the Mindanao Week of Peace celebration SunStar Retrieved 2018 05 27 General information Government of the Philippines Archived from the original on October 22 2007 Retrieved October 1 2007 Official Website Government of the Philippines Archived from the original on September 30 2007 Retrieved October 1 2007 Philippine Daily Inquirer Google News Archive Search news google com Retrieved 2017 08 27 Mayor leads Dia de Roseller T Lim www zamboanga gov ph Retrieved 2017 08 27 Hidilyn Diaz nabs silver first PH Olympic medal in 20 years Rappler Retrieved 2017 08 27 Welcome to Tzu Chi Foundation www tzuchizam org Retrieved 2017 08 27 Mark Barroca Career Stats HumbleBola stats humblebola com Retrieved 2018 01 15 RR Garcia Career Stats HumbleBola stats humblebola com Retrieved 2017 08 27 Lingganay layup lifts Powerade Philippine Daily Inquirer Retrieved 2017 08 27 Chico Lanete Basketball Player Profile Phoenix Fuel Masters News PBA stats Career Games Logs Best Awards eurobasket www eurobasket com Retrieved 2017 08 27 Carmelito Q Francisco 22 July 2019 Davao City eyes sisterhood with Zamboanga Cotabato for tourism agriculture BusinessWorld Archived from the original on 21 August 2019 Retrieved 17 September 2020 Pearl A Dacuag 6 September 2009 20 sister cities pledge to fortify ties with Baguio Baguio Midland Courier Archived from the original on 18 July 2020 Retrieved 17 September 2020 Raymond Tan Shu Kiah 19 June 2000 The Seminar On Twin City Sandakan and Zamboanga Virtual Office of Datuk Raymond Tan Shu Kiah Archived from the original on 14 April 2012 Retrieved 27 March 2014 Sources Edit This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document Zamboanga City External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Zamboanga City Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Zamboanga city Official website Philippine Standard Geographic Code Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zamboanga City amp oldid 1052991896, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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