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Siku (instrument)

For other uses, see Siku.
For the mountain in Bolivia, see Siku (Bolivia).

Siku (Quechua: antara, Aymara: siku, also "sicu," "sicus," "zampolla" or Spanish zampoña) is a traditional Andean panpipe. This instrument is the main instrument used in a musical genre known as sikuri. It is traditionally found all across the Andes but is more typically associated with music from the Kollasuyo, or Aymara speaking regions around Lake Titicaca. Historically because of the complicated mountain geography of the region, and due to other factors, in some regions each community would develop its own type of siku, with its own special tuning, shape and size. Additionally each community developed its own style of playing. Today the siku has been standardized to fit in with modern western forms of music and has been transported from its traditional roots.

Peruvian playing a zampoña
A sikuri, played in hocket, with multiple insturments sharing the melody. Computer-generated file.

Contents

The siku (panpipe) is originally from the Aymaras of Perú and Bolivia, where a woman would play her siku as she came down from the mountains. Since the largest siku has every note (A-G), and was too big for the woman, they often got two sikus (usually smaller ones) that would be played together with someone else, so they could play them continuously after each other and thus the scales could fully be played. Once the women partnered, they then became musically bonded with each other, as part of their religion, and neither could play the pipes with any other for the rest of their life.[citation needed]

Women would also assemble into groups as they came down the mountains, each group would play different tunes, and as they got together, they would blend all the melodies together to create one complete melody. The woman also played the siku to attract wild goat that they would then harvest.[clarification needed]

Sikus are typically made from bamboo shoots, but have also been made from condor feathers, bone, and many other materials. Additionally, different types of bamboo are employed to change the quality of the sound. Songo, or shallow-walled bamboo, gives a louder, more resonant sound than regular deep-walled bamboo, but is less common due to its fragility.

The antara are traditionally made from a type of cane known as chuki or chajlla (Arundo donax) that grows in the ceja de la selva, literally "the eyebrow of the forest". The pipes are held together by one or two strips of cane (ties) to form a trapezoidal plane (like a raft). Antaras are of different sizes and they produce diverse sounds.

Siku is split across two rows of pipes. One must alternate rows with every note in order to play a complete scale. Traditionally, two musicians were required to play the siku, each one taking one row of the instrument. One part of the instrument is called ira, another arka. It is considered that spiritually ira corresponds to male principle and arka to female. When many musicians divide in two parts, first playing ira and second playing arka, this gives Andean music a distinctive stereophonic sound. Hear example.

Now it is more common to see one musician playing both rows of the instrument together, but rustic ensembles retain traditional playing.

The most widespread variety of siku, siku ch'alla, contains 13 pipes (6 in ira and 7 in arka), but less common varieties may have more and fewer pipes. Some of them employ extra open-ended reeds attached to the front of the instrument to change the sound quality. The tabla siku has all of the pipes cut to the same length, so the instrument is rectangular in shape but has stoppers inside the tubes to adjust the actual resonant length of the chambers.

The siku uses a diatonic scale. Siku ch'alla is tuned in E minor / G major, arca: D-F#-A-C-E-G-B and ira:E-G-B-D-F#-A.

There are a contemporary varieties of siku with chromatic scale having 3 rows, with pitch distribution similar to chromatic button accordion.

  1. Kolasinski, Andrew (2015-05-09). "Siku Panflutes Bring Home The Sound Of The Andes". South American Vacations. Retrieved2019-07-05.
  2. "Panpipes of the Americas". Native Flutes Walking. Retrieved2019-07-05.

Siku (instrument)
Siku instrument Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Zampona For other uses see Siku For the mountain in Bolivia see Siku Bolivia Siku Quechua antara Aymara siku also sicu sicus zampolla or Spanish zampona is a traditional Andean panpipe 1 This instrument is the main instrument used in a musical genre known as sikuri It is traditionally found all across the Andes but is more typically associated with music from the Kollasuyo or Aymara speaking regions around Lake Titicaca 2 Historically because of the complicated mountain geography of the region and due to other factors in some regions each community would develop its own type of siku with its own special tuning shape and size Additionally each community developed its own style of playing Today the siku has been standardized to fit in with modern western forms of music and has been transported from its traditional roots Peruvian playing a zampona source source source A sikuri played in hocket with multiple insturments sharing the melody Computer generated file Contents 1 History of the siku 2 Design 3 Varieties 4 Scale and tuning 5 See also 6 SourcesHistory of the siku EditThe siku panpipe is originally from the Aymaras of Peru and Bolivia where a woman would play her siku as she came down from the mountains Since the largest siku has every note A G and was too big for the woman they often got two sikus usually smaller ones that would be played together with someone else so they could play them continuously after each other and thus the scales could fully be played Once the women partnered they then became musically bonded with each other as part of their religion and neither could play the pipes with any other for the rest of their life citation needed Women would also assemble into groups as they came down the mountains each group would play different tunes and as they got together they would blend all the melodies together to create one complete melody The woman also played the siku to attract wild goat that they would then harvest clarification needed Design EditSikus are typically made from bamboo shoots but have also been made from condor feathers bone and many other materials Additionally different types of bamboo are employed to change the quality of the sound Songo or shallow walled bamboo gives a louder more resonant sound than regular deep walled bamboo but is less common due to its fragility The antara are traditionally made from a type of cane known as chuki or chajlla Arundo donax that grows in the ceja de la selva literally the eyebrow of the forest The pipes are held together by one or two strips of cane ties to form a trapezoidal plane like a raft Antaras are of different sizes and they produce diverse sounds Siku is split across two rows of pipes One must alternate rows with every note in order to play a complete scale Traditionally two musicians were required to play the siku each one taking one row of the instrument One part of the instrument is called ira another arka It is considered that spiritually ira corresponds to male principle and arka to female When many musicians divide in two parts first playing ira and second playing arka this gives Andean music a distinctive stereophonic sound Hear example Now it is more common to see one musician playing both rows of the instrument together but rustic ensembles retain traditional playing Varieties EditThe most widespread variety of siku siku ch alla contains 13 pipes 6 in ira and 7 in arka but less common varieties may have more and fewer pipes Some of them employ extra open ended reeds attached to the front of the instrument to change the sound quality The tabla siku has all of the pipes cut to the same length so the instrument is rectangular in shape but has stoppers inside the tubes to adjust the actual resonant length of the chambers Scale and tuning Edit The siku uses a diatonic scale Siku ch alla is tuned in E minor G major arca D F A C E G B and ira E G B D F A There are a contemporary varieties of siku with chromatic scale having 3 rows with pitch distribution similar to chromatic button accordion See also EditAndean music Sicus disambiguation Sources Edit Kolasinski Andrew 2015 05 09 Siku Panflutes Bring Home The Sound Of The Andes South American Vacations Retrieved 2019 07 05 Panpipes of the Americas Native Flutes Walking Retrieved 2019 07 05 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Siku instrument amp oldid 1044747298, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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