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Zaparoan languages

Zaparoan (also Sáparoan, Záparo, Zaparoano, Zaparoana) is an endangered language family of Peru and Ecuador with fewer than 100 speakers. Zaparoan speakers seem to have been very numerous before the arrival of the Europeans. However, their groups have been decimated by imported diseases and warfare, and only a handful of them have survived.

Zaparoan
Saparoan
Geographic
distribution
western Amazon
Linguistic classificationSaparo–Yawan ?
  • Zaparoan
Glottologzapa1251

Contents

There were 39 Zaparoan-speaking tribes at the beginning of the 20th century, every one of them presumably using its own distinctive language or dialect. Most of them have become extinct before being recorded, however, and we have information only about nine of them.

Aushiri and Omurano are included by Stark (1985). Aushiri is generally accepted as Zaparoan, but Omurano remains unclassified in other descriptions.

Mason (1950)

Internal classification of the Zaparoan languages by Mason (1950):

Coronado group
  • Coronado (Ipapiza, Hichachapa, Kilinina)
    • Tarokeo
    • Chudavina (?)
    • Miscuara (?)
  • Oa (Oaki, Deguaca, Santa Rosina)
Andoa group
  • Andoa
    • Guallpayo
    • Guasaga
    • Murato
  • Gae (Siaviri)
  • Semigae
    • Aracohor
    • Mocosiohor
    • Usicohor
    • Ichocomohor
    • Itoromohor
    • Maithiore
    • Comacor (?)
  • Iquito (Amacacora, Kiturran, Puca-Uma)
    • Iquito
    • Maracana (Cawarano ?)
    • Auve
  • Asaruntoa (?)
Záparo group
  • Muegano
  • Curaray
  • Matagen
  • Yasuni
  • Manta
  • Nushino
  • Rotuno
  • Supinu

The relationship of zaparoan languages with other language families of the area is uncertain. It is generally considered isolated. Links with other languages or families have been proposed but none has been widely accepted so far.

  • Payne (1984) and Kaufman (1994) suggest a relationship with the Yaguan family in a Sáparo–Yáwan stock, contrary to Greenberg's (1987) classification.
  • Swadesh (1954) also groups Zaparoan with Yaguan within his Zaparo–Peba phylum.
  • Greenberg (1987) places Zaparoan together with the Cahuapanan family into a Kahuapana–Zaparo grouping within his larger Andean phylum, but this is generally rejected by historical linguists.
  • Kaufman (1994) notes that Tovar (1984) includes the unclassified Taushiro under Zaparoan following the tentative opinion of SSILA.
  • Stark (1985) includes the extinct Omurano under Zaparoan. Gordon (2005) follows Stark.
  • Mason (1950: 236–238) groups Bora–Witoto, Tupian, and Zaparoan together as part of a proposed Macro-Tupí-Guaranían family.

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Omurano, Arawakan, Quechuan, and Peba-Yagua language families due to contact.

Pronouns

Zaparoan languages distinguishes between inclusive and exclusive we and consider the first person singular as the default person. A rare feature is the existence of two sets of personal pronouns with different syntactic values according to the nature of the sentence. Active pronouns are subject in independent clauses and object in dependent ones, while passive pronouns are subject in independent clauses and passive in dependent ones :

Thus

(Arabela) Cuno maaji cua masuu-nuju-quiaa na mashaca cua ratu-nu-ra. (this woman is always inviting me to drink masato where cua is object in the main clause and subject in the subordinate one.
(Záparo)/tʃa na itʌkwaha/ (you will fall) cp/tajkwa ko pani tʃa tʃata ikwano/ (I don't want to go with you)
Personal pronouns in Zaparoan languages
1S 2S 3S 1Pin 1Pex 2P 3AP
Zaparo ko / kwi / k- tʃa / tʃ- / k-/ ki naw / no / n-ˑ pa /p- kana /kaʔno kina / kiʔno na
Arabela janiya / -nijia / cua
cuo- / cu- / qui
quiajaniya / quiaa / quia / quio-
-quia / cero
nojuaja / na / ne- / no-
-Vri / -quinio
pajaniya / paa / pa / po-
pue- / -pue
canaa niajaniya / niaa / nia / nio- nojori / na / no-
Iquito cu / quí / quíija quia / quiáaja anúu / anúuja p'++ja cana / canáaja naá / nahuaáca
Conambo kwiɣia / ku kyaχa

Numerals

Gloss Zaparoan languages
Zaparo Andoa Arabela Iquito
1 nuquaqui nikínjo niquiriyatu núquiica
2 namisciniqui ishki caapiqui cuúmi
3 haimuckumarachi kímsa jiuujianaraca s++saramaj+táami
4 ckaramaitacka

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items for Zaparoan language varieties.

gloss Záparo Conambo Andoa Simigae Chiripuno Iquito Cahuarano
one nokoáki nukaki nikíño nóki núki
two namesániki tarkaningu ishki koːmi kómu
head ku-anák ku-anaka pan-aka p-anák p-anák pá-nak
eye nu-námits ku-iyamixa pa-namix henizy namixía puí-nami poí-nami
woman itumu maxi maxi mãxi muesaxí itémo
fire unámisok umáni ománi omani inámi inámi
sun yánuk yañakwa apánamu poánámu pananú núnami nianamí
star narika narexa arixya arishya narexa narexa
maize sáuk tasáuku dzáuku sakoó shakárok shekárok
house itü ité ki-t'a dahápu íta íta
white ushíksh ushikya ishi-sinwa makúshini mosotín musiténa
Proto-Zaparoan
Proto-Záparoan
Reconstruction ofZaparoan languages

Proto-Záparoan reconstructions by de Carvalho (2013):

gloss Proto-Záparoan
‘bee, wasp’ *ahapaka
‘stick’ *amaka
‘to kill’ *amo
‘woman's sibling’ *ana-
‘cloud, smoke’ *anahaka
‘head’ *anaka
‘pain’ *anaw
‘to come’ *ani-
‘to cut down’ *anu-
‘to talk’ *ati-
‘to eat’ *atsa-
‘tooth’ *ika-
‘to go’ *ikwa-
‘foot’ *ino-
‘benefactive’ *-iɾa
‘fat, large (for fruits)’ *iɾisi
‘house’ *ita
‘urine’ *isa-
‘negative nominalization’ *-jaw
‘number suffix’ *-ka
‘hair; feather’ *kaha-
‘1st person, excl. plural’ *kana
‘to cut (hair)’ *kə-
‘raw’ *maha
‘to cook’ *mahi
‘to sleep’ *makə-
‘guts’ *mara
‘to tie’ *maraw-
‘to escape, to flee’ *masi-
‘to do’ *mi-
‘rotten’ *moka
‘3rd person plural’ *na-
‘hill’ *naku-
‘blood’ *nana-ka
‘3rd person singular’ *naw-
‘masculine, singular’ *-nu
‘infinitive’ *-nu
‘to want/like; love’ *pani-
‘fish; stingray?’ *sapi
‘to taste (food)’ *sani-
‘lice’ *sukana
‘bad’ *səsa
‘to lick’ *tamə-
‘foreigner, stranger; to hate?’ *tawə-
‘to listen’ *tawhi-
‘feminine, singular’ *-tu
‘causative suffix’ *-tə
‘where’ *tə-
‘to rest; to be new’ *tsami-
‘rain’ *umaru
  • Adelaar, Willem F. H.; & Muysken, Pieter C. (2004). The languages of the Andes. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. (1987). Language in the Americas. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.
  • Payne, Doris. (1984). Evidence for a Yaguan-Zaparoan connection. In D. Derbyshire (Ed.), SIL working papers: University of North Dakota session (Vol. 28; pp. 131–156).
  • Stark, Louisa R. (1985). Indigenous languages of lowland Ecuador: History and current status. In H. E. M. Klein & L. R. Stark (Eds.), South American Indian languages: Retrospect and prospect (pp. 157–193). Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Suárez, Jorge. (1974). South American Indian languages. In Encyclopædia Britannica (15th ed., Vol. 17, pp. 105–112).
  • Swadesh, Morris. (1959). Mapas de clasificación lingüística de México y las Américas. México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Tovar, Antonio; & Larrucea de Tovar, Consuelo. (1984). Catálogo de las lenguas de América de Sur (nueva edición). Madrid: Gredos.
  1. La famille linguistique Zaparo, H. Beuchat and P. Rivet – Journal de la société des américanistes – Année 1908 lien Volume 5 pp. 235–249
  2. Mason, John Alden (1950). "The languages of South America". In Steward, Julian (ed.). Handbook of South American Indians. 6. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143. pp. 157–317.
  3. Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2016). Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas (Ph.D. dissertation) (2 ed.). Brasília: University of Brasília.
  4. Rolland G. Rich (1999). Dicconario Arabella—Castellano. Instituto Lingüistico de Verano, Perú.
  5. M. Catherine Peeke (1991). "Bosquejo Gramatical del Zaparo". Cuadernos Etnolingüisticos. No. 14. Instituto Lingüistico de Verano, Quito.
  6. Loukotka, Čestmír (1968).Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  7. de Carvalho, F. O. (2013). On Záparoan as a valid genetic unity: Preliminary correspondences and the status of Omurano. In Revista Brasileira de Linguística Antropológica. Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 91-116. Accessed from DiACL, 9 February 2020.
Wiktionary has a list of reconstructed forms at Appendix:Proto-Zaparoan reconstructions

Zaparoan languages
Zaparoan languages Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Zaparo languages Zaparoan also Saparoan Zaparo Zaparoano Zaparoana is an endangered language family of Peru and Ecuador with fewer than 100 speakers Zaparoan speakers seem to have been very numerous before the arrival of the Europeans However their groups have been decimated by imported diseases and warfare and only a handful of them have survived ZaparoanSaparoanGeographic distributionwestern AmazonLinguistic classificationSaparo Yawan ZaparoanGlottologzapa1251 Contents 1 Languages 1 1 Mason 1950 2 Genetic relations 3 Language contact 4 Family features 4 1 Pronouns 4 2 Numerals 5 Vocabulary 6 Proto language 7 Bibliography 8 Notes 9 External linksLanguages EditThere were 39 Zaparoan speaking tribes at the beginning of the 20th century 1 every one of them presumably using its own distinctive language or dialect Most of them have become extinct before being recorded however and we have information only about nine of them Zaparo group Zaparo Conambo Zaparo a few speakers left Conambo Arabela Andoa Arabela 50 speakers Andoa Iquito Cahuarano Iquito 35 speakers Cahuarano Unclassified Aushiri Omurano Aushiri and Omurano are included by Stark 1985 Aushiri is generally accepted as Zaparoan but Omurano remains unclassified in other descriptions Mason 1950 Edit Internal classification of the Zaparoan languages by Mason 1950 2 Coronado groupCoronado Ipapiza Hichachapa Kilinina Tarokeo Chudavina Miscuara Oa Oaki Deguaca Santa Rosina Andoa groupAndoa Guallpayo Guasaga Murato Gae Siaviri Semigae Aracohor Mocosiohor Usicohor Ichocomohor Itoromohor Maithiore Comacor Iquito Amacacora Kiturran Puca Uma Iquito Maracana Cawarano Auve Asaruntoa Zaparo groupMuegano Curaray Matagen Yasuni Manta Nushino Rotuno SupinuGenetic relations EditThe relationship of zaparoan languages with other language families of the area is uncertain It is generally considered isolated Links with other languages or families have been proposed but none has been widely accepted so far Payne 1984 and Kaufman 1994 suggest a relationship with the Yaguan family in a Saparo Yawan stock contrary to Greenberg s 1987 classification Swadesh 1954 also groups Zaparoan with Yaguan within his Zaparo Peba phylum Greenberg 1987 places Zaparoan together with the Cahuapanan family into a Kahuapana Zaparo grouping within his larger Andean phylum but this is generally rejected by historical linguists Kaufman 1994 notes that Tovar 1984 includes the unclassified Taushiro under Zaparoan following the tentative opinion of SSILA Stark 1985 includes the extinct Omurano under Zaparoan Gordon 2005 follows Stark Mason 1950 236 238 groups Bora Witoto Tupian and Zaparoan together as part of a proposed Macro Tupi Guaranian family 2 Language contact EditJolkesky 2016 notes that there are lexical similarities with the Omurano Arawakan Quechuan and Peba Yagua language families due to contact 3 Family features EditPronouns Edit Zaparoan languages distinguishes between inclusive and exclusive we and consider the first person singular as the default person A rare feature is the existence of two sets of personal pronouns with different syntactic values according to the nature of the sentence Active pronouns are subject in independent clauses and object in dependent ones while passive pronouns are subject in independent clauses and passive in dependent ones Thus Arabela Cuno maaji cua masuu nuju quiaa na mashaca cua ratu nu ra this woman is always inviting me to drink masato 4 where cua is object in the main clause and subject in the subordinate one Zaparo tʃa na itʌkwaha you will fall cp tajkwa ko pani tʃa tʃata ikwano I don t want to go with you 5 dd Personal pronouns in Zaparoan languages1S 2S 3S 1Pin 1Pex 2P 3APZaparo ko kwi k tʃa tʃ k ki naw no n ˑ pa p kana kaʔno kina kiʔno naArabela janiya nijia cua cuo cu qui quiajaniya quiaa quia quio quia cero nojuaja na ne no Vri quinio pajaniya paa pa po pue pue canaa niajaniya niaa nia nio nojori na no Iquito cu qui quiija quia quiaaja anuu anuuja p ja cana canaaja naa nahuaacaConambo kwiɣia ku kyaxaNumerals Edit Gloss Zaparoan languagesZaparo Andoa Arabela Iquito1 nuquaqui nikinjo niquiriyatu nuquiica2 namisciniqui ishki caapiqui cuumi3 haimuckumarachi kimsa jiuujianaraca s saramaj taami4 ckaramaitackaVocabulary EditLoukotka 1968 lists the following basic vocabulary items for Zaparoan language varieties 6 gloss Zaparo Conambo Andoa Simigae Chiripuno Iquito Cahuaranoone nokoaki nukaki nikino noki nukitwo namesaniki tarkaningu ishki koːmi komuhead ku anak ku anaka pan aka p anak p anak pa nakeye nu namits ku iyamixa pa namix henizy namixia pui nami poi namiwoman itumu maxi maxi maxi muesaxi itemofire unamisok umani omani omani inami inamisun yanuk yanakwa apanamu poanamu pananu nunami nianamistar narika narexa arixya arishya narexa narexamaize sauk tasauku dzauku sakoo shakarok shekarokhouse itu ite ki t a dahapu ita itawhite ushiksh ushikya ishi sinwa makushini mosotin musitenaProto language EditProto ZaparoanProto ZaparoanReconstruction ofZaparoan languages Proto Zaparoan reconstructions by de Carvalho 2013 7 gloss Proto Zaparoan bee wasp ahapaka stick amaka to kill amo woman s sibling ana cloud smoke anahaka head anaka pain anaw to come ani to cut down anu to talk ati to eat atsa tooth ika to go ikwa foot ino benefactive iɾa fat large for fruits iɾisi house ita urine isa negative nominalization jaw number suffix ka hair feather kaha 1st person excl plural kana to cut hair ke raw maha to cook mahi to sleep make guts mara to tie maraw to escape to flee masi to do mi rotten moka 3rd person plural na hill naku blood nana ka 3rd person singular naw masculine singular nu infinitive nu to want like love pani fish stingray sapi to taste food sani lice sukana bad sesa to lick tame foreigner stranger to hate tawe to listen tawhi feminine singular tu causative suffix te where te to rest to be new tsami rain umaruBibliography EditAdelaar Willem F H amp Muysken Pieter C 2004 The languages of the Andes Cambridge language surveys Cambridge University Press Campbell Lyle 1997 American Indian languages The historical linguistics of Native America New York Oxford University Press ISBN 0 19 509427 1 Greenberg Joseph H 1987 Language in the Americas Stanford Stanford University Press Kaufman Terrence 1990 Language history in South America What we know and how to know more In D L Payne Ed Amazonian linguistics Studies in lowland South American languages pp 13 67 Austin University of Texas Press ISBN 0 292 70414 3 Kaufman Terrence 1994 The native languages of South America In C Mosley amp R E Asher Eds Atlas of the world s languages pp 46 76 London Routledge Payne Doris 1984 Evidence for a Yaguan Zaparoan connection In D Derbyshire Ed SIL working papers University of North Dakota session Vol 28 pp 131 156 Stark Louisa R 1985 Indigenous languages of lowland Ecuador History and current status In H E M Klein amp L R Stark Eds South American Indian languages Retrospect and prospect pp 157 193 Austin University of Texas Press Suarez Jorge 1974 South American Indian languages In Encyclopaedia Britannica 15th ed Vol 17 pp 105 112 Swadesh Morris 1959 Mapas de clasificacion linguistica de Mexico y las Americas Mexico Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Tovar Antonio amp Larrucea de Tovar Consuelo 1984 Catalogo de las lenguas de America de Sur nueva edicion Madrid Gredos Notes Edit La famille linguistique Zaparo H Beuchat and P Rivet Journal de la societe des americanistes Annee 1908 lien Volume 5 pp 235 249 a b Mason John Alden 1950 The languages of South America In Steward Julian ed Handbook of South American Indians 6 Washington D C Government Printing Office Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143 pp 157 317 Jolkesky Marcelo Pinho de Valhery 2016 Estudo arqueo ecolinguistico das terras tropicais sul americanas Ph D dissertation 2 ed Brasilia University of Brasilia Rolland G Rich 1999 Dicconario Arabella Castellano Instituto Linguistico de Verano Peru M Catherine Peeke 1991 Bosquejo Gramatical del Zaparo Cuadernos Etnolinguisticos No 14 Instituto Linguistico de Verano Quito Loukotka Cestmir 1968 Classification of South American Indian languages Los Angeles UCLA Latin American Center de Carvalho F O 2013 On Zaparoan as a valid genetic unity Preliminary correspondences and the status of Omurano In Revista Brasileira de Linguistica Antropologica Vol 5 No 1 pp 91 116 Accessed from DiACL 9 February 2020 External links EditWiktionary has a list of reconstructed forms at Appendix Proto Zaparoan reconstructionsProel Familia Zaparoana Zaparo s lost secrets Museum and Virtual Library Museums of Central Bank of Ecuador English Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zaparoan languages amp oldid 1048704247, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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