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Zeta

For other uses, see Zeta (disambiguation).
This article includes a list of general references, but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.(December 2011) ()

Zeta (UK: ,US: ; uppercase Ζ, lowercase ζ; Ancient Greek:ζῆτα, Demotic Greek:ζήτα, classical or zē̂ta; Modern Greek: zíta) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 7. It was derived from the Phoenician letter zayin . Letters that arose from zeta include the Roman Z and Cyrillic З.

Contents

Unlike the other Greek letters, this letter did not take its name from the Phoenician letter from which it was derived; it was given a new name on the pattern of beta, eta and theta.

The word zeta is the ancestor of zed, the name of the Latin letter Z in Commonwealth English. Swedish and many Romanic languages (such as Italian and Spanish) do not distinguish between the Greek and Roman forms of the letter; "zeta" is used to refer to the Roman letter Z as well as the Greek letter.

The Greek alphabet on a black figure vessel, with the Phoenician I shape of the zeta

Letter

The letter ζ represents the voiced alveolar fricative/z/ in Modern Greek.

The sound represented by zeta in Greek before 400 BCE is disputed. See Ancient Greek phonology and Pronunciation of Ancient Greek in teaching.

Most handbooks[who?] agree on attributing to it the pronunciation/zd/ (like Mazda), but some scholars believe that it was an affricate/dz/ (like adze). The modern pronunciation was, in all likelihood, established in the Hellenistic age and may have already been a common practice in Classical Attic; for example, it could count as one or two consonants metrically in Attic drama.[where?]

Arguments for[zd]

  1. PIE *zd becomes ζ in Greek (e.g. *sísdō >ἵζω). Contra: these words are rare and it is therefore more probable that *zd was absorbed by *dz (< *dj, *gj, *j); further, a change from the cluster /zd/ to the affricate /dz/ is typologically more likely[citation needed] than the other way around (which would violate the sonority hierarchy).
  2. Without[sd] there would be an empty space between[sb] and[sɡ] in the Greek sound system (πρέσβυς, σβέννυμι, φάσγανον), and a voiced affricate[dz] would not have a voiceless correspondent. Contra: a) words with[sb] and[sɡ] are rare, and exceptions in phonological and (even more so) phonotactic patterns are in no way uncommon; b) there was[sd] inὅσδε, εἰσδέχται etc.; and c) there was in fact a voiceless correspondent in Archaic Greek ([ts] > Attic, Boeotianττ, Ionic, Doricσσ).
  3. Persian names with zd and z are transcribed with ζ and σ respectively in Classical Greek (e.g. Artavazda =Ἀρτάβαζος/Ἀρτάοζος ~ Zara(n)ka- =Σαράγγαι. Similarly, the Philistine city Ashdod was transcribed asἌζωτος.
  4. Some inscriptions have -ζ- written for a combination -ς + δ- resulting from separate words, e.g. θεοζοτος for θεος δοτος "god-given".
  5. Some Attic inscriptions have -σζ- for -σδ- or -ζ-, which is thought to parallel -σστ- for -στ- and therefore to imply a[zd] pronunciation.
  6. ν disappears before ζ like before σ(σ), στ: e.g. *πλάνζω >πλᾰ́ζω, *σύνζυγος >σύζυγος, *συνστέλλω >σῠστέλλω. Contra: ν may have disappeared before /dz/ if one accepts that it had the allophone[z] in that position like /ts/ had the allophone[s]: cf. Cretanἴαττα ~ἀποδίδονσα (Hinge).
  7. Verbs beginning with ζ haveἐ- in the perfect reduplication like the verbs beginning with στ (e.g.ἔζηκα =ἔσταλται). Contra: a) The most prominent example of a verb beginning with στ has in factἑ- < *se- in the perfect reduplication (ἕστηκα); b) the words with /ts/ > σ(σ) also haveἐ-: Homerἔσσυμαι, -ται, Ion.ἐσσημένῳ.
  8. Alcman, Sappho, Alcaeus and Theocritus have σδ for Attic-Ionic ζ. Contra: The tradition would not have invented this special digraph for these poets if[zd] was the normal pronunciation in all Greek. Furthermore, this convention is not found in contemporary inscriptions, and the orthography of the manuscripts and papyri is Alexandrine rather than historical. Thus,σδ indicates only a different pronunciation from Hellenistic Greek[z(ː)], i.e. either[zd] or[dz].
  9. The grammarians Dionysius Thrax and Dionysius of Halicarnassus class ζ with the "double" (διπλᾶ) letters ψ, ξ and analyse it as σ + δ. Contra: The Roman grammarian Verrius Flaccus believed in the opposite sequence, δ + σ (in Velius Longus, De orthogr. 51), and Aristotle says that it was a matter of dispute (Metaph. 993a) (though Aristotle might as well be referring to a[zː] pronunciation). It is even possible that the letter sometimes and for some speakers varied in pronunciation depending upon word position, i.e., like the letter X in English, which is (usually) pronounced [z] initially but [gz] or [ks] elsewhere (cf. Xerxes).
  10. Some Attic transcriptions of Asia Minor toponyms (βυζζαντειον, αζζειον, etc.) show a -ζζ- for ζ; assuming that Attic value was[zd], it may be an attempt to transcribe a dialectal[dz] pronunciation; the reverse cannot be ruled completely, but a -σδ- transcription would have been more likely in this case. This suggests that different dialects had different pronunciations. (For a similar example in the Slavic languages, cf. Serbo-Croatian (iz)među, Russian между, Polish między, and Czech mezi, "between".)

Arguments for [dz]

  1. The Greek inscriptions almost never write ζ in words likeὅσδε, τούσδε orεἰσδέχται, so there must have been a difference between this sound and the sound ofἵζω, Ἀθήναζε. Contra: a few inscriptions do seem to suggest that ζ was pronounced like σδ; furthermore, all words with written σδ are morphologically transparent, and written σδ may simply be echoing the morphology. (Note, for example, that we write "ads" where the morphology is transparent, and "adze" where it is not, even though the pronunciation is the same.)
  2. It seems improbable that Greek would invent a special symbol for the bisegmental combination[zd], which could be represented by σδ without any problems./ds/, on the other hand, would have the same sequence of plosive and sibilant as the double letters of the Ionic alphabet ψ/ps/ and ξ/ks/, thereby avoiding a written plosive at the end of a syllable. Contra: the use of a special symbol for[zd] is no more or no less improbable than the use of ψ for[ps] and ξ for[ks], or, for that matter, the later invention ϛ (stigma) for[st], which happens to be the voiceless counterpart of[zd]. Furthermore, it is not clear that ζ was pronounced[zd] when it was originally invented. Mycenean Greek had a special symbol to denote some sort of affricate or palatal consonant; ζ may have been invented for this sound, which later developed into[zd]. (For a parallel development, note that original palatal Proto-Slavic/tʲ/ developed into/ʃt/ in Old Church Slavonic, with similar developments having led to combinations such as зд and жд being quite common in Russian.)
  3. Boeotian, Elean, Laconian and Cretan δδ are more easily explained as a direct development from *dz than through an intermediary *zd. Contra: a) the sound development dz > dd is improbable (Mendez Dosuna); b) ν has disappeared before ζ > δδ in Laconianπλαδδιῆν (Aristoph., Lys. 171, 990) and Boeotianσαλπίδδω (Sch. Lond. in Dion. Thrax 493), which suggests that these dialects have had a phase of metathesis (Teodorsson).
  4. Greek in South Italy has preserved[dz] until modern times. Contra: a) this may be a later development from[zd] or[z] under the influence of Italian; b) even if it is derived from an ancient[dz], it may be a dialectal pronunciation.
  5. Vulgar Latin inscriptions use the Greek letter Z for indigenous affricates (e.g. zeta = diaeta), and the Greek ζ is continued by a Romance affricate in the ending-ίζω > Italian. -eggiare, French -oyer. Italian, similarly, has consistently used Z for[dz] and[ts] (Lat. prandium > It. pranzo, "lunch"). Contra: whether the pronunciation ofζ was[dz],[zd] or[zː], di would probably still have been the closest native Latin sound; furthermore, the inscriptions are centuries later than the time for which[zd] is assumed.

Summary

  • σδ is attested only in the lyric poetry of the Greek isle of Lesbos and the city-state of Sparta during the Archaic Age and in Bucolic poetry from the Hellenistic Age. Most scholars would take this as an indication that the[zd]-pronunciation existed in the dialects of these authors.
  • The transcriptions from Persian by Xenophon and testimony by grammarians support the pronunciation[zd] in Classical Attic.
  • [z(ː)] is attested from c. 350 BC in Attic inscriptions, and was the probable value in Koine.
  • [dʒ] or[dz] may have existed in some other dialects in parallel.

Numeral

Zeta has the numerical value 7 rather than 6 because the letter digamma (also called 'stigma' as a Greek numeral) was originally in the sixth position in the alphabet.

Mathematics and science

The uppercase zeta is not used, because it is normally identical to Latin Z. The lower case letter can be used to represent:

Greek Zeta / Coptic Zata

Character information
Preview Ζ ζ
Unicode name GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ZETA GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER ZATA COPTIC SMALL LETTER ZATA
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 918 U+0396 950 U+03B6 11402 U+2C8A 11403 U+2C8B
UTF-8 206 150 CE 96 206 182 CE B6 226 178 138 E2 B2 8A 226 178 139 E2 B2 8B
Numeric character reference &#918; &#x396; &#950; &#x3B6; &#11402; &#x2C8A; &#11403; &#x2C8B;
Named character reference &Zeta; &zeta;
DOS Greek 133 85 157 9D
DOS Greek-2 169 A9 223 DF
Windows 1253 198 C6 230 E6
TeX \zeta

Mathematical Zeta

Character information
Preview 𝚭 𝛇 𝛧 𝜁 𝜡 𝜻
Unicode name MATHEMATICAL BOLD
CAPITAL ZETA
MATHEMATICAL BOLD
SMALL ZETA
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
CAPITAL ZETA
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
SMALL ZETA
MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
CAPITAL ZETA
MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
SMALL ZETA
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 120493 U+1D6AD 120519 U+1D6C7 120551 U+1D6E7 120577 U+1D701 120609 U+1D721 120635 U+1D73B
UTF-8 240 157 154 173 F0 9D 9A AD 240 157 155 135 F0 9D 9B 87 240 157 155 167 F0 9D 9B A7 240 157 156 129 F0 9D 9C 81 240 157 156 161 F0 9D 9C A1 240 157 156 187 F0 9D 9C BB
UTF-16 55349 57005 D835 DEAD 55349 57031 D835 DEC7 55349 57063 D835 DEE7 55349 57089 D835 DF01 55349 57121 D835 DF21 55349 57147 D835 DF3B
Numeric character reference &#120493; &#x1D6AD; &#120519; &#x1D6C7; &#120551; &#x1D6E7; &#120577; &#x1D701; &#120609; &#x1D721; &#120635; &#x1D73B;


Character information
Preview 𝝛 𝝵 𝞕 𝞯
Unicode name MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD CAPITAL ZETA
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD SMALL ZETA
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL ZETA
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD ITALIC SMALL ZETA
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 120667 U+1D75B 120693 U+1D775 120725 U+1D795 120751 U+1D7AF
UTF-8 240 157 157 155 F0 9D 9D 9B 240 157 157 181 F0 9D 9D B5 240 157 158 149 F0 9D 9E 95 240 157 158 175 F0 9D 9E AF
UTF-16 55349 57179 D835 DF5B 55349 57205 D835 DF75 55349 57237 D835 DF95 55349 57263 D835 DFAF
Numeric character reference &#120667; &#x1D75B; &#120693; &#x1D775; &#120725; &#x1D795; &#120751; &#x1D7AF;

These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style.

Look up zeta or ζ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  1. "zeta". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press.(Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. Ἔτι δὲ τῶν συμφώνων διπλᾶ μέν ἐστι τρία· ζ ξ ψ. διπλᾶ δὲ εἴρηται, ὅτι ἓν ἕκαστον αὐτῶν ἐκ δύο συμφώνων σύγκειται, τὸ μὲν ζ ἐκ τοῦ σ καὶ δ, τὸ δὲ ξ ἐκ τοῦ κ καὶ σ, τὸ δὲ ψ ἐκ τοῦ π καὶ σ.

    Of the consonants, three are double: ζ ξ ψ. They are called double because each one of them is composed of two consonants, ζ of σ and δ; ξ of κ and σ, ψ of π and σ.

    Dionysius Thrax, Περὶ στοιχείου, Τέχνη Γραμματική (~100 BCE).
    .

General references

  • Allen, W. Sidney (1987). Vox Graeca: The Pronunciation of Classical Greek. Cambridge University Press. pp. 56–59. ISBN 978-0-521-33555-3.
  • Hinge, George. “Die Aussprache des griechischen Zeta”, in Die Sprache Alkmans: Textgeschichte und Sprachgeschichte. PhD dissertation. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 2001, pp. 212–234 = [1]
  • Méndez Dosuna, Julián. “On <Ζ> for <Δ> in Greek dialectal inscriptions”, Die Sprache 35 (1993): 82–114.
  • Rohlfs, Gerhard. 1962. “Die Aussprache des z (ζ) im Altgriechischen”, Das Altertum 8 (1962): 3–8.
  • Teodorsson, Sven-Tage. “On the pronunciation of ancient greek zeta”, Lingua 47, no. 4 (April 1979): 323–32.
  • Teodorsson, Sven-Tage. “The pronunciation of zeta in different Greek dialects”, in Dialectologia Graeca: Actas del II Coloquio internacional de dialectología griega, eds. E. Crespo et al. Madrid: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 1993, pp. 305–321.

Zeta
Zeta Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Zeta letter For other uses see Zeta disambiguation This article includes a list of general references but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations December 2011 Learn how and when to remove this template message Zeta UK ˈ z iː t e 1 US ˈ z eɪ t e uppercase Z lowercase z Ancient Greek zῆta Demotic Greek zhta classical d zɛ ta or zdɛ ta ze ta Modern Greek ˈzita zita is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 7 It was derived from the Phoenician letter zayin Letters that arose from zeta include the Roman Z and Cyrillic Z Contents 1 Name 2 Uses 2 1 Letter 2 1 1 Arguments for zd 2 1 2 Arguments for dz 2 1 3 Summary 2 2 Numeral 2 3 Mathematics and science 3 Character encodings 3 1 Greek Zeta Coptic Zata 3 2 Mathematical Zeta 4 See also 5 References 5 1 General referencesName EditUnlike the other Greek letters this letter did not take its name from the Phoenician letter from which it was derived it was given a new name on the pattern of beta eta and theta The word zeta is the ancestor of zed the name of the Latin letter Z in Commonwealth English Swedish and many Romanic languages such as Italian and Spanish do not distinguish between the Greek and Roman forms of the letter zeta is used to refer to the Roman letter Z as well as the Greek letter Uses Edit The Greek alphabet on a black figure vessel with the Phoenician I shape of the zeta Letter Edit The letter z represents the voiced alveolar fricative z in Modern Greek The sound represented by zeta in Greek before 400 BCE is disputed See Ancient Greek phonology and Pronunciation of Ancient Greek in teaching Most handbooks who agree on attributing to it the pronunciation zd like Mazda but some scholars believe that it was an affricate dz like adze The modern pronunciation was in all likelihood established in the Hellenistic age and may have already been a common practice in Classical Attic for example it could count as one or two consonants metrically in Attic drama where Arguments for zd Edit PIE zd becomes z in Greek e g sisdō gt ἵzw Contra these words are rare and it is therefore more probable that zd was absorbed by dz lt dj gj j further a change from the cluster zd to the affricate dz is typologically more likely citation needed than the other way around which would violate the sonority hierarchy Without sd there would be an empty space between sb and sɡ in the Greek sound system presbys sbennymi fasganon and a voiced affricate dz would not have a voiceless correspondent Contra a words with sb and sɡ are rare and exceptions in phonological and even more so phonotactic patterns are in no way uncommon b there was sd in ὅsde eἰsdextai etc and c there was in fact a voiceless correspondent in Archaic Greek ts gt Attic Boeotian tt Ionic Doric ss Persian names with zd and z are transcribed with z and s respectively in Classical Greek e g Artavazda Ἀrtabazos Ἀrtaozos Zara n ka Saraggai Similarly the Philistine city Ashdod was transcribed as Ἄzwtos Some inscriptions have z written for a combination s d resulting from separate words e g 8eozotos for 8eos dotos god given Some Attic inscriptions have sz for sd or z which is thought to parallel sst for st and therefore to imply a zd pronunciation n disappears before z like before s s st e g planzw gt plᾰ zw synzygos gt syzygos synstellw gt sῠstellw Contra n may have disappeared before dz if one accepts that it had the allophone z in that position like ts had the allophone s cf Cretan ἴatta ἀpodidonsa Hinge Verbs beginning with z have ἐ in the perfect reduplication like the verbs beginning with st e g ἔzhka ἔstaltai Contra a The most prominent example of a verb beginning with st has in fact ἑ lt se in the perfect reduplication ἕsthka b the words with ts gt s s also have ἐ Homer ἔssymai tai Ion ἐsshmenῳ Alcman Sappho Alcaeus and Theocritus have sd for Attic Ionic z Contra The tradition would not have invented this special digraph for these poets if zd was the normal pronunciation in all Greek Furthermore this convention is not found in contemporary inscriptions and the orthography of the manuscripts and papyri is Alexandrine rather than historical Thus sd indicates only a different pronunciation from Hellenistic Greek z ː i e either zd or dz The grammarians Dionysius Thrax 2 and Dionysius of Halicarnassus class z with the double diplᾶ letters ps 3 and analyse it as s d Contra The Roman grammarian Verrius Flaccus believed in the opposite sequence d s in Velius Longus De orthogr 51 and Aristotle says that it was a matter of dispute Metaph 993a though Aristotle might as well be referring to a zː pronunciation It is even possible that the letter sometimes and for some speakers varied in pronunciation depending upon word position i e like the letter X in English which is usually pronounced z initially but gz or ks elsewhere cf Xerxes Some Attic transcriptions of Asia Minor toponyms byzzanteion azzeion etc show a zz for z assuming that Attic value was zd it may be an attempt to transcribe a dialectal dz pronunciation the reverse cannot be ruled completely but a sd transcription would have been more likely in this case This suggests that different dialects had different pronunciations For a similar example in the Slavic languages cf Serbo Croatian iz među Russian mezhdu Polish miedzy and Czech mezi between Arguments for dz Edit The Greek inscriptions almost never write z in words like ὅsde toysde or eἰsdextai so there must have been a difference between this sound and the sound of ἵzw Ἀ8hnaze Contra a few inscriptions do seem to suggest that z was pronounced like sd furthermore all words with written sd are morphologically transparent and written sd may simply be echoing the morphology Note for example that we write ads where the morphology is transparent and adze where it is not even though the pronunciation is the same It seems improbable that Greek would invent a special symbol for the bisegmental combination zd which could be represented by sd without any problems ds on the other hand would have the same sequence of plosive and sibilant as the double letters of the Ionic alphabet ps ps and 3 ks thereby avoiding a written plosive at the end of a syllable Contra the use of a special symbol for zd is no more or no less improbable than the use of ps for ps and 3 for ks or for that matter the later invention ϛ stigma for st which happens to be the voiceless counterpart of zd Furthermore it is not clear that z was pronounced zd when it was originally invented Mycenean Greek had a special symbol to denote some sort of affricate or palatal consonant z may have been invented for this sound which later developed into zd For a parallel development note that original palatal Proto Slavic tʲ developed into ʃt in Old Church Slavonic with similar developments having led to combinations such as zd and zhd being quite common in Russian Boeotian Elean Laconian and Cretan dd are more easily explained as a direct development from dz than through an intermediary zd Contra a the sound development dz gt dd is improbable Mendez Dosuna b n has disappeared before z gt dd in Laconian pladdiῆn Aristoph Lys 171 990 and Boeotian salpiddw Sch Lond in Dion Thrax 493 which suggests that these dialects have had a phase of metathesis Teodorsson Greek in South Italy has preserved dz until modern times Contra a this may be a later development from zd or z under the influence of Italian b even if it is derived from an ancient dz it may be a dialectal pronunciation Vulgar Latin inscriptions use the Greek letter Z for indigenous affricates e g zeta diaeta and the Greek z is continued by a Romance affricate in the ending izw gt Italian eggiare French oyer Italian similarly has consistently used Z for dz and ts Lat prandium gt It pranzo lunch Contra whether the pronunciation of z was dz zd or zː di would probably still have been the closest native Latin sound furthermore the inscriptions are centuries later than the time for which zd is assumed Summary Edit sd is attested only in the lyric poetry of the Greek isle of Lesbos and the city state of Sparta during the Archaic Age and in Bucolic poetry from the Hellenistic Age Most scholars would take this as an indication that the zd pronunciation existed in the dialects of these authors The transcriptions from Persian by Xenophon and testimony by grammarians support the pronunciation zd in Classical Attic z ː is attested from c 350 BC in Attic inscriptions and was the probable value in Koine dʒ or dz may have existed in some other dialects in parallel Numeral Edit Zeta has the numerical value 7 rather than 6 because the letter digamma also called stigma as a Greek numeral was originally in the sixth position in the alphabet Mathematics and science Edit The uppercase zeta is not used because it is normally identical to Latin Z The lower case letter can be used to represent The Riemann zeta function in mathematics The damping ratio of an oscillating system in engineering and physics The rotational quantity of angular jerk in physics The effective nuclear charge on an electron in quantum chemistry The electrokinetic potential in colloidal systems The lag angle in helicopter blade dynamics Relative vorticity in the atmosphere and ocean A number whose discrete values eigenvalues are the positive roots of transcendental equations used in the series solutions for transient one dimensional conduction equations The heat flux across or through a plane industrial materials technology The Weierstrass zeta function In physical chemistry equilibrium computations using lower case Zeta z the extent of reaction The height of the surface of a fluid layerCharacter encodings EditGreek Zeta Coptic Zata Edit Character information Preview Z z Ⲋ ⲋUnicode name GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ZETA GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER ZATA COPTIC SMALL LETTER ZATAEncodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hexUnicode 918 U 0396 950 U 03B6 11402 U 2C8A 11403 U 2C8BUTF 8 206 150 CE 96 206 182 CE B6 226 178 138 E2 B2 8A 226 178 139 E2 B2 8BNumeric character reference amp 918 wbr amp x396 wbr amp 950 wbr amp x3B6 wbr amp 11402 wbr amp x2C8A wbr amp 11403 wbr amp x2C8B wbr Named character reference amp Zeta amp zeta DOS Greek 133 85 157 9DDOS Greek 2 169 A9 223 DFWindows 1253 198 C6 230 E6TeX zetaMathematical Zeta Edit Character information Preview 𝚭 𝛇 𝛧 𝜁 𝜡 𝜻Unicode name MATHEMATICAL BOLD CAPITAL ZETA MATHEMATICAL BOLD SMALL ZETA MATHEMATICAL ITALIC CAPITAL ZETA MATHEMATICAL ITALIC SMALL ZETA MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL ZETA MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC SMALL ZETAEncodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hexUnicode 120493 U 1D6AD 120519 U 1D6C7 120551 U 1D6E7 120577 U 1D701 120609 U 1D721 120635 U 1D73BUTF 8 240 157 154 173 F0 9D 9A AD 240 157 155 135 F0 9D 9B 87 240 157 155 167 F0 9D 9B A7 240 157 156 129 F0 9D 9C 81 240 157 156 161 F0 9D 9C A1 240 157 156 187 F0 9D 9C BBUTF 16 55349 57005 D835 DEAD 55349 57031 D835 DEC7 55349 57063 D835 DEE7 55349 57089 D835 DF01 55349 57121 D835 DF21 55349 57147 D835 DF3BNumeric character reference amp 120493 wbr amp x1D6AD wbr amp 120519 wbr amp x1D6C7 wbr amp 120551 wbr amp x1D6E7 wbr amp 120577 wbr amp x1D701 wbr amp 120609 wbr amp x1D721 wbr amp 120635 wbr amp x1D73B wbr Character information Preview 𝝛 𝝵 𝞕 𝞯Unicode name MATHEMATICAL SANS SERIF BOLD CAPITAL ZETA MATHEMATICAL SANS SERIF BOLD SMALL ZETA MATHEMATICAL SANS SERIF BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL ZETA MATHEMATICAL SANS SERIF BOLD ITALIC SMALL ZETAEncodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hexUnicode 120667 U 1D75B 120693 U 1D775 120725 U 1D795 120751 U 1D7AFUTF 8 240 157 157 155 F0 9D 9D 9B 240 157 157 181 F0 9D 9D B5 240 157 158 149 F0 9D 9E 95 240 157 158 175 F0 9D 9E AFUTF 16 55349 57179 D835 DF5B 55349 57205 D835 DF75 55349 57237 D835 DF95 55349 57263 D835 DFAFNumeric character reference amp 120667 wbr amp x1D75B wbr amp 120693 wbr amp x1D775 wbr amp 120725 wbr amp x1D795 wbr amp 120751 wbr amp x1D7AF wbr These characters are used only as mathematical symbols Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters with markup and formatting to indicate text style See also EditLook up zeta or z in Wiktionary the free dictionary Z z Latin Z z Ze Cyrillic References Edit zeta Oxford English Dictionary Online ed Oxford University Press Subscription or participating institution membership required Ἔti dὲ tῶn symfwnwn diplᾶ men ἐsti tria z 3 ps diplᾶ dὲ eἴrhtai ὅti ἓn ἕkaston aὐtῶn ἐk dyo symfwnwn sygkeitai tὸ mὲn z ἐk toῦ s kaὶ d tὸ dὲ 3 ἐk toῦ k kaὶ s tὸ dὲ ps ἐk toῦ p kaὶ s Of the consonants three are double z 3 ps They are called double because each one of them is composed of two consonants z of s and d 3 of k and s ps of p and s Dionysius Thrax Perὶ stoixeioy Texnh Grammatikh 100 BCE General references Edit Allen W Sidney 1987 Vox Graeca The Pronunciation of Classical Greek Cambridge University Press pp 56 59 ISBN 978 0 521 33555 3 Hinge George Die Aussprache des griechischen Zeta in Die Sprache Alkmans Textgeschichte und Sprachgeschichte PhD dissertation Aarhus Aarhus University Press 2001 pp 212 234 1 Mendez Dosuna Julian On lt Z gt for lt D gt in Greek dialectal inscriptions Die Sprache 35 1993 82 114 Rohlfs Gerhard 1962 Die Aussprache des z z im Altgriechischen Das Altertum 8 1962 3 8 Teodorsson Sven Tage On the pronunciation of ancient greek zeta Lingua 47 no 4 April 1979 323 32 Teodorsson Sven Tage The pronunciation of zeta in different Greek dialects in Dialectologia Graeca Actas del II Coloquio internacional de dialectologia griega eds E Crespo et al Madrid Universidad Autonoma de Madrid 1993 pp 305 321 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zeta amp oldid 1054382213, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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