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Xuanwu (god)

Xuanwu (玄武) or Xuandi (Chinese:玄帝; pinyin: Xuándì), also known as Zhenwu (真武 "True Warrior" or "Truly Valiant") or Zhenwudadi (真武大帝 "True Martial Great Emperor" or "Truly Valiant Great Emperor"), is a powerful deity in Chinese religion, one of the higher-ranking deities in Taoism. He is revered as a powerful god, able to control the elements and capable of great magic. He is identified as the god of the north Heidi (黑帝 "Black Emperor") and is particularly revered by martial artists. He is the patron god of Hebei, Henan, Manchuria and Mongolia. As some Han Chinese (now the modern-day Cantonese and Fujianese peoples) migrated into the south from Hebei and Henan during the Tang-Song era, Xuanwu is also widely revered in the Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian provinces, as well as among the overseas diaspora.

Xuantian Shangdi
Statue of Zhenwu or Xuantian
by Zheng Yongtai (Penghu)
Chinese name
Chinese
Literal meaningDark (or Mysterious) Heavenly Highest Deity
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinXuán tiān shàng dì
Bopomofoㄒㄩㄢ´ ㄊㄧㄢ ㄕㄤ` ㄉㄧ`
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationYùhn tīn seuhng dai
JyutpingJyun4 tin1 soeng6 dai3
Southern Min
Hokkien POJHiân-thian siōng-tè
Tâi-lôHiân-thian siōng-tè
Teochew Peng'imHiang5 tiêng1 siang6 di3
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese
Literal meaningDark (or Mysterious) Warrior
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinXuán wǔ
Bopomofoㄒㄩㄢˊ ㄨˇ
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationYùhn móuh
JyutpingJyun4 mou5
Southern Min
Hokkien POJHiân-bú
Tâi-lôHiân-bú
Teochew Peng'imHiang5 bhu2
Xuandi
Chinese
Literal meaningMysterious Emperor
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinXuán dì
Bopomofoㄒㄩㄢˊ ㄉㄧ`
Wade–GilesHsüan2 ti4
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationYùhn dai
JyutpingJyun4 Dai3
Southern Min
Hokkien POJHiân-tè
Tâi-lôHiân-tè
Teochew Peng'imHiang5 di3
Zhenwu
Chinese
Literal meaningTrue Warrior / Truly Valiant
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhēn wǔ
Bopomofoㄓㄣ ㄨˇ
Wade–GilesChên wu3
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationJān móuh
JyutpingZan1 mou5
Southern Min
Hokkien POJChin-bú
Tâi-lôTsin-bú
Teochew Peng'imZing1 bhu2
Zhenwudadi
Chinese
Literal meaningTrue Martial Great Emperor / Truly Valiant Great Emperor
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyinzhēnwǔ dàdì
Bopomofoㄓㄣ ㄨˇ ㄉㄚ` ㄉㄧ`
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationJān móuh daaih dai
JyutpingZan1 mou5 daai6 dai3
Southern Min
Hokkien POJChin-bú tāi-tè
Tâi-lôTsin-bú tāi-tè
Teochew Peng'imZing1 bhu2 dai6 di3
Tua Lao Aie
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Literal meaningBig Deity
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinDà lǎo yé
Bopomofoㄉㄚ` ㄌㄠˇ ㄧㄝˊ
Wade–Gilesta4 lao3 yeh2
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationDaaih lóuh yèh/yé
JyutpingDaai6 lou5 je4
Southern Min
Hokkien POJTōa lāu-iâ
Tâi-lôTuā láu-iâ
Teochew Peng'imDua7 lao6/2 ia5
Vietnamese name
VietnameseTrấn Vũ
Chữ Nôm
Thai name
Thaiเจ้าพ่อเสือ
RTGSChao Pho Suea
Korean name
Hangul현천상제
Hanja
Transcriptions
Revised RomanizationHyeon-jeon Sang-je
McCune–ReischauerHyŏn-jǒn Sang-je
Indonesian name
IndonesianXuan Tian Shang Di
A Ming painting of Xuanwu in his position as Xuantian Shangdi (Supreme Emperor of the Dark Heaven), seated on a rock throne in the clouds surrounded by attendants and divine marshals

Since the usurping Yongle Emperor of the Ming dynasty claimed to receive the divine assistance of Xuanwu during his successful Jingnan Campaign against his nephew, he had a number of Taoist monasteries constructed in the Wudang Mountains of Hubei, where Xuanwu allegedly attained immortality.

Contents

Main article: Black Tortoise

Xuanwu is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations, representing the north and the winter season. It is usually depicted as a turtle entwined together with a snake.

A painting of Xuanwu, Ming dynasty, housed in the Freer Gallery of Art

The original story

One story says that Xuanwu was originally a prince of Jing Le State in northern Hebei during the time of the Yellow Emperor. As he grew up, he felt the sorrow and pain of the life of ordinary people and wanted to retire to a remote mountain for cultivation of the Tao.[citation needed]

Qing Dynasty version

Another says that Xuanwu was originally a butcher who had killed many animals unremorsefully. As days passed, he felt remorse for his sins and repented immediately by giving up butchery and retiring to a remote mountain for cultivation of the Tao.

One day he was assisting a woman in labor, while cleaning the woman's blood stained clothes along a river, the words "Dark (or Mysterious) Heavenly Highest Deity" (玄天上帝 Xuántiān Shàngdì) appeared before him. The woman in labor turned out to be a manifestation of the goddess Guanyin. To redeem his sins, he dug out his own stomach and intestines and washed them in the river. The river then became dark and murky. After a while, the river flowed clear and pure once again.

Unfortunately, Xuanwu lost his stomach and intestines while he was washing them in the river. The Jade Emperor was moved by his sincerity and determination to clear his sins, and made him an immortal with the title of Xuántiān Shàngdì.

After he became an immortal, his stomach and intestines absorbed the essence of the earth. His viscera transformed into a demonic turtle and a demonic snake, who started to hurt people. No one could subdue the demonic animals. Eventually, Xuanwu returned to earth to subdue them. After defeating them, he later used them as his subordinates.

Generals Wan Gong and Wan Ma

Zhenwu (Xuanwu) with the two generals, and the Snake and Tortoise figures at his feet, at the Wudang Temple of Yangzhou.

Xuanwu is sometimes portrayed with two generals standing besides him, General Wan Gong (萬公) and General Wan Ma (萬媽). The two generals are deities that handle many local issues from children's birth, medication, family matters as well as fengshui consultation.

Temple of the Dark Deity (玄帝殿) at the Wudang Mountains.

Depiction

Xuanwu is portrayed as a warrior in dark-coloured imperial robes, his left hand holding the "three mountain seal", somewhat similar to Guan Yu's hand seal, while his right hand is holding a sword, which is said to have belonged to Lü Dongbin, one of the Eight Immortals.

Another legend says that he borrowed the sword from Lü Dongbin to subdue a strong demon, and after being successful, he refused to bring it back after witnessing the sword's power. The sword itself would magically return to its owner if Xuanwu released it, so it is said that he always holds his sword tightly and is unable to release it. However, not only does he outrank Lü in terms of divinity, Xuanwu also dates back longer in history than Lü Dongbin, putting this claim in suspect.

He is usually seated on a throne with the right foot stepping on the snake and left leg extended stepping on the turtle. His face is usually red with bulging eyes. His birthday is celebrated on the third day of the third lunar month.

Worship in Indonesia

In Indonesia, almost every Taoist temple provides an altar for Xuantian Shangdi. The story states that the first temple that worshiped him was a temple at Welahan Town, Jepara, Central Java. And the temples that were built in honor of him are the temples at Gerajen and Bugangan, Semarang City, Central Java. His festival is celebrated annually every the 25th day, 2nd month, of Chinese calendar. The worshipers of Chen Fu Zhen Ren, especially at Tik Liong Tian Temple, Rogojampi, Banyuwangi Regency, East Java, believe that Xuantian Shangdi is their patron deity. That's why they put his altar at the right side of Chen Fu Zhen Ren's altar, in the middle room of the temple which is always reserved for the main deity.

Worship in Thailand

Xuanwu is known among the Thai people as Chao Pho Suea (Tiger God) or Tua Lao Yah (大老爷 "Big Deity") according by Teochew dialect. There are many shrines that worship him in the country and the most famous shrine is Bangkok's San Chao Pho Suea near Giant Swing and Sam Phraeng neighbourhood. This shrine has been highly worshipped with both Thais and Chinese, especially in Chinese New Year's Day.

  • In the classic novel Journey to the West, Xuanwu was a king of the north who had two generals serving under him, a "Tortoise General" and a "Snake General". This king had a temple at Wudang Mountains in Hubei, thus there is a Tortoise Mountain and a Snake Mountain on the opposite sides of a river in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei.
  • In recent times, Xuanwu is a central character in the popular urban fantasy series by Kylie Chan: The Dark Heavens Trilogy, the Journey to Wudang Trilogy, and the Celestial Battle Trilogy.
  • Xuanwu lives in Kansas City and is served by monks and shadow-shifting ninjas in Shayne Silver's book Black Sheep which is part of the Feathers and Fire series.
  1. Dugu Qiubai (2011-06-20). ตั่วเหล่าเอี๊ย มีความเป็นมาอย่างไร [How is Xuanwu source]. Pantip.com (in Thai). Retrieved2019-01-15.

Xuanwu (god)
Xuanwu god Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Zhenwu Xuanwu 玄武 or Xuandi Chinese 玄帝 pinyin Xuandi also known as Zhenwu 真武 True Warrior or Truly Valiant or Zhenwudadi 真武大帝 True Martial Great Emperor or Truly Valiant Great Emperor is a powerful deity in Chinese religion one of the higher ranking deities in Taoism He is revered as a powerful god able to control the elements and capable of great magic He is identified as the god of the north Heidi 黑帝 Black Emperor and is particularly revered by martial artists He is the patron god of Hebei Henan Manchuria and Mongolia As some Han Chinese now the modern day Cantonese and Fujianese peoples migrated into the south from Hebei and Henan during the Tang Song era Xuanwu is also widely revered in the Guangdong Guangxi and Fujian provinces as well as among the overseas diaspora Xuantian ShangdiStatue of Zhenwu or Xuantian by Zheng Yongtai Penghu Chinese nameChinese玄天上帝Literal meaningDark or Mysterious Heavenly Highest DeityTranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinXuan tian shang diBopomofoㄒㄩㄢ ㄊㄧㄢ ㄕㄤ ㄉㄧ Yue CantoneseYale RomanizationYuhn tin seuhng daiJyutpingJyun4 tin1 soeng6 dai3Southern MinHokkien POJHian thian siōng teTai loHian thian siōng teTeochew Peng imHiang5 tieng1 siang6 di3Alternative Chinese nameChinese玄武Literal meaningDark or Mysterious WarriorTranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinXuan wǔBopomofoㄒㄩㄢˊ ㄨˇYue CantoneseYale RomanizationYuhn mouhJyutpingJyun4 mou5Southern MinHokkien POJHian buTai loHian buTeochew Peng imHiang5 bhu2XuandiChinese玄帝Literal meaningMysterious EmperorTranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinXuan diBopomofoㄒㄩㄢˊ ㄉㄧ Wade GilesHsuan2 ti4Yue CantoneseYale RomanizationYuhn daiJyutpingJyun4 Dai3Southern MinHokkien POJHian teTai loHian teTeochew Peng imHiang5 di3ZhenwuChinese真武Literal meaningTrue Warrior Truly ValiantTranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinZhen wǔBopomofoㄓㄣ ㄨˇWade GilesChen wu3Yue CantoneseYale RomanizationJan mouhJyutpingZan1 mou5Southern MinHokkien POJChin buTai loTsin buTeochew Peng imZing1 bhu2ZhenwudadiChinese真武大帝Literal meaningTrue Martial Great Emperor Truly Valiant Great EmperorTranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu Pinyinzhenwǔ dadiBopomofoㄓㄣ ㄨˇ ㄉㄚ ㄉㄧ Yue CantoneseYale RomanizationJan mouh daaih daiJyutpingZan1 mou5 daai6 dai3Southern MinHokkien POJChin bu tai teTai loTsin bu tai teTeochew Peng imZing1 bhu2 dai6 di3Tua Lao AieTraditional Chinese大老爺Simplified Chinese大老爷Literal meaningBig DeityTranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinDa lǎo yeBopomofoㄉㄚ ㄌㄠˇ ㄧㄝˊWade Gilesta4 lao3 yeh2Yue CantoneseYale RomanizationDaaih louh yeh yeJyutpingDaai6 lou5 je4Southern MinHokkien POJTōa lau iaTai loTua lau iaTeochew Peng imDua7 lao6 2 ia5Vietnamese nameVietnameseTrấn VũChữ Nom真武Thai nameThaiecaphxesuxRTGSChao Pho SueaKorean nameHangul현천상제Hanja玄天上帝TranscriptionsRevised RomanizationHyeon jeon Sang jeMcCune ReischauerHyŏn jǒn Sang jeIndonesian nameIndonesianXuan Tian Shang DiA Ming painting of Xuanwu in his position as Xuantian Shangdi Supreme Emperor of the Dark Heaven seated on a rock throne in the clouds surrounded by attendants and divine marshals Since the usurping Yongle Emperor of the Ming dynasty claimed to receive the divine assistance of Xuanwu during his successful Jingnan Campaign against his nephew he had a number of Taoist monasteries constructed in the Wudang Mountains of Hubei where Xuanwu allegedly attained immortality Contents 1 Black Tortoise 2 Stories 2 1 The original story 2 2 Qing Dynasty version 2 3 Generals Wan Gong and Wan Ma 3 Worship 3 1 Depiction 3 2 Worship in Indonesia 3 3 Worship in Thailand 4 Popular culture 5 ReferencesBlack Tortoise EditMain article Black Tortoise Xuanwu is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations representing the north and the winter season It is usually depicted as a turtle entwined together with a snake Stories Edit A painting of Xuanwu Ming dynasty housed in the Freer Gallery of Art The original story Edit One story says that Xuanwu was originally a prince of Jing Le State in northern Hebei during the time of the Yellow Emperor As he grew up he felt the sorrow and pain of the life of ordinary people and wanted to retire to a remote mountain for cultivation of the Tao citation needed Qing Dynasty version Edit Another says that Xuanwu was originally a butcher who had killed many animals unremorsefully As days passed he felt remorse for his sins and repented immediately by giving up butchery and retiring to a remote mountain for cultivation of the Tao One day he was assisting a woman in labor while cleaning the woman s blood stained clothes along a river the words Dark or Mysterious Heavenly Highest Deity 玄天上帝 Xuantian Shangdi appeared before him The woman in labor turned out to be a manifestation of the goddess Guanyin To redeem his sins he dug out his own stomach and intestines and washed them in the river The river then became dark and murky After a while the river flowed clear and pure once again Unfortunately Xuanwu lost his stomach and intestines while he was washing them in the river The Jade Emperor was moved by his sincerity and determination to clear his sins and made him an immortal with the title of Xuantian Shangdi After he became an immortal his stomach and intestines absorbed the essence of the earth His viscera transformed into a demonic turtle and a demonic snake who started to hurt people No one could subdue the demonic animals Eventually Xuanwu returned to earth to subdue them After defeating them he later used them as his subordinates Generals Wan Gong and Wan Ma Edit Zhenwu Xuanwu with the two generals and the Snake and Tortoise figures at his feet at the Wudang Temple of Yangzhou Xuanwu is sometimes portrayed with two generals standing besides him General Wan Gong 萬公 and General Wan Ma 萬媽 The two generals are deities that handle many local issues from children s birth medication family matters as well as fengshui consultation Worship Edit Temple of the Dark Deity 玄帝殿 at the Wudang Mountains Depiction Edit Xuanwu is portrayed as a warrior in dark coloured imperial robes his left hand holding the three mountain seal somewhat similar to Guan Yu s hand seal while his right hand is holding a sword which is said to have belonged to Lu Dongbin one of the Eight Immortals Another legend says that he borrowed the sword from Lu Dongbin to subdue a strong demon and after being successful he refused to bring it back after witnessing the sword s power The sword itself would magically return to its owner if Xuanwu released it so it is said that he always holds his sword tightly and is unable to release it However not only does he outrank Lu in terms of divinity Xuanwu also dates back longer in history than Lu Dongbin putting this claim in suspect He is usually seated on a throne with the right foot stepping on the snake and left leg extended stepping on the turtle His face is usually red with bulging eyes His birthday is celebrated on the third day of the third lunar month Worship in Indonesia Edit In Indonesia almost every Taoist temple provides an altar for Xuantian Shangdi The story states that the first temple that worshiped him was a temple at Welahan Town Jepara Central Java And the temples that were built in honor of him are the temples at Gerajen and Bugangan Semarang City Central Java His festival is celebrated annually every the 25th day 2nd month of Chinese calendar The worshipers of Chen Fu Zhen Ren especially at Tik Liong Tian Temple Rogojampi Banyuwangi Regency East Java believe that Xuantian Shangdi is their patron deity That s why they put his altar at the right side of Chen Fu Zhen Ren s altar in the middle room of the temple which is always reserved for the main deity Worship in Thailand Edit Xuanwu is known among the Thai people as Chao Pho Suea Tiger God or Tua Lao Yah 大老爷 Big Deity according by Teochew dialect There are many shrines that worship him in the country and the most famous shrine is Bangkok s San Chao Pho Suea near Giant Swing and Sam Phraeng neighbourhood 1 This shrine has been highly worshipped with both Thais and Chinese especially in Chinese New Year s Day Popular culture EditIn the classic novel Journey to the West Xuanwu was a king of the north who had two generals serving under him a Tortoise General and a Snake General This king had a temple at Wudang Mountains in Hubei thus there is a Tortoise Mountain and a Snake Mountain on the opposite sides of a river in Wuhan the capital of Hubei In recent times Xuanwu is a central character in the popular urban fantasy series by Kylie Chan The Dark Heavens Trilogy the Journey to Wudang Trilogy and the Celestial Battle Trilogy Xuanwu lives in Kansas City and is served by monks and shadow shifting ninjas in Shayne Silver s book Black Sheep which is part of the Feathers and Fire series References Edit Dugu Qiubai 2011 06 20 twehlaexiy mikhwamepnmaxyangir How is Xuanwu source Pantip com in Thai Retrieved 2019 01 15 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Xuanwu god amp oldid 1051474317, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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