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Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua

"Hua Hua" redirects here. For the Chinese singer, see Hua Chenyu.

Zhong Zhong (Chinese:中中; pinyin: Zhōng Zhōng, born 27 November 2017) and Hua Hua (Chinese:华华; pinyin: Huá Huá, born 5 December 2017) are a pair of identical crab-eating macaques (also referred to as cynomolgus monkeys) that were created through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the same cloning technique that produced Dolly the sheep in 1996.[citation needed] They are the first cloned primates produced by this technique. Unlike previous attempts to clone monkeys, the donated nuclei came from fetal cells, not embryonic cells. The primates were born from two independent surrogate pregnancies at the Institute of Neuroscience of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Shanghai.

Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua
中中 /华华
Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua at nearly 2 months of age
SpeciesMacaca fascicularis
SexFemale
BornZhong Zhong
(2017-11-27)27 November 2017
(age3 years)
Hua Hua

(2017-12-05)5 December 2017
(age3 years)
Shanghai, China
Nation fromChina
Known forFirst primates to be cloned using the somatic cell nuclear transfer method

Contents

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Since scientists produced the first cloned mammal Dolly the sheep in 1996 using the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique, 23 mammalian species have been successfully cloned, including cattle, cats, dogs, horses and rats. Using this technique for primates had never been successful and no pregnancy had lasted more than 80 days. The main difficulty was likely the proper programming of the transferred nuclei to support the growth of the embryo. Tetra (born October 1999), a female rhesus macaque, was created by a team led by Gerald Schatten of the Oregon National Primate Research Center using a different technique, called "embryo splitting". She is the first "cloned" primate by artificial twinning, which is a much less complex procedure than the DNA transfer used for the creation of Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua.

In January 2019, scientists in China reported the creation of five identical cloned gene-edited monkeys, using the same cloning technique that was used with Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua, and the same gene-editing CRISPR-Cas9 technique allegedly used by He Jiankui in creating the first ever gene-modified human babies Lulu and Nana. The monkey clones were made in order to study several medical diseases.

Further information: Somatic cell nuclear transfer

Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua were produced by scientists from the Institute of Neuroscience of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Shanghai, led by Qiang Sun and Muming Poo. They extracted nuclei from the fibroblasts of an aborted fetal monkey (a crab-eating macaque or Macaca fascicularis) and inserted them into egg cells (ova) that had had their own nuclei removed. The team used two enzymes to erase the epigenetic memory of the transferred nuclei of being somatic cells. This crucial reprogramming step allowed the researchers to overcome the main obstacle that had precluded the successful cloning of primates until now. They then placed 21 of these ova into surrogate mother monkeys, resulting in six pregnancies, two of which produced living animals. The monkeys were named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua, a reference to Zhonghua (Chinese:中华, a Chinese name for China). Although the success rate was still low, the methods could be improved to increase survival rate in the future. By comparison, the Scotland-based team that created Dolly the sheep in 1996 required 277 attempts and produced only one lamb.

The scientists also attempted to clone macaques using nuclei from adult donors, which is much more difficult. They implanted 42 surrogates, resulting in 22 pregnancies, but there were still only two infant macaques, and they died soon after birth.

According to Mu-ming Poo, the principal significance of this event is that it could be used to create genetically identical monkeys for use in animal experiments. Crab-eating macaques are already an established model organism for studies of atherosclerosis, though Poo chose to emphasize neuroscience, naming Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease when he appeared on the radio news program All Things Considered in January 2018.

The birth of the two cloned primates also raised concerns from bioethicists. Insoo Hyun of Case Western Reserve University questioned whether this meant that human cloning would be next. Poo told All Things Considered that "Technically speaking one can clone human[s] ... But we're not going to do it. There's absolutely no plan to do anything on humans."

  1. Liu, Zhen; Cai, Yijun; Wang, Yan; Nie, Yanhong; Zhang, Chenchen; Xu, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaotong; Lu, Yong; Wang, Zhanyang; Poo, Muming; Sun, Qiang (24 January 2018). "Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer". Cell. 172 (4): 881–887.e7. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.020. PMID 29395327. Retrieved24 January 2018.
  2. Scholarly sources:
  3. Maron, Dina Fine (24 January 2018). "First Primate Clones Produced Using the "Dolly" Method – The success with monkeys could ignite new ethical debates and medical research". Scientific American. Retrieved24 January 2018.
  4. Kolata, Gina (24 January 2018). "Yes, They've Cloned Monkeys in China. That Doesn't Mean You're Next". The New York Times. Retrieved25 January 2018.
  5. Popular sources:
  6. Staff (24 January 2018). "Meet Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua, the first monkey clones produced by method that made Dolly". Science Daily. Cell Press. Retrieved25 January 2018.
  7. White-house, David (14 January 2000). "Scientists 'clone' monkey". BBC News. Retrieved24 January 2018.
  8. Science China Press (23 January 2019). "Gene-edited disease monkeys cloned in China". EurekAlert!. Retrieved24 January 2019.
  9. Mandelbaum, Ryan F. (23 January 2019). "China's Latest Cloned-Monkey Experiment Is an Ethical Mess". Gizmodo. Retrieved24 January 2019.
  10. Genetic Science Learning Center. "The History of Cloning". University of Utah. Retrieved24 January 2018.
  11. Phillips, Kimberley A.; Bales, Karen L.; Capitanio, John P.; Conley, Alan; Czoty, Paul W.; ‘t Hart, Bert A.; Hopkins, William D.; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Miller, Lisa A.; Nader, Michael A.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Shively, Carol A.; Voytko, Mary Lou (10 April 2014). "Why Primate Models Matter". American Journal of Primatology. 76 (9): 801–27. doi:10.1002/ajp.22281. PMC4145602. PMID 24723482.
  12. *Rob Stein (24 January 2018). "Chinese Scientists Clone Monkeys Using Method That Created Dolly The Sheep". National Public Radio. Retrieved24 January 2018.
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Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua
Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua Language Watch Edit Hua Hua redirects here For the Chinese singer see Hua Chenyu Zhong Zhong Chinese 中中 pinyin Zhōng Zhōng born 27 November 2017 and Hua Hua Chinese 华华 pinyin Hua Hua born 5 December 2017 are a pair of identical crab eating macaques also referred to as cynomolgus monkeys that were created through somatic cell nuclear transfer SCNT the same cloning technique that produced Dolly the sheep in 1996 citation needed They are the first cloned primates produced by this technique Unlike previous attempts to clone monkeys the donated nuclei came from fetal cells not embryonic cells 1 2 3 4 5 The primates were born from two independent surrogate pregnancies at the Institute of Neuroscience of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Shanghai 6 Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua 中中 华华Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua at nearly 2 months of ageSpeciesMacaca fascicularisSexFemaleBornZhong Zhong 2017 11 27 27 November 2017 age 3 years Hua Hua 2017 12 05 5 December 2017 age 3 years Shanghai ChinaNation fromChinaKnown forFirst primates to be cloned using the somatic cell nuclear transfer method Contents 1 Background 2 Process 3 Implications 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBackground EditWikinews has related news Healthy cloned monkeys born in Shanghai Since scientists produced the first cloned mammal Dolly the sheep in 1996 using the somatic cell nuclear transfer SCNT technique 23 mammalian species have been successfully cloned including cattle cats dogs horses and rats 4 Using this technique for primates had never been successful and no pregnancy had lasted more than 80 days The main difficulty was likely the proper programming of the transferred nuclei to support the growth of the embryo 3 Tetra born October 1999 a female rhesus macaque was created by a team led by Gerald Schatten of the Oregon National Primate Research Center using a different technique called embryo splitting She is the first cloned primate by artificial twinning which is a much less complex procedure than the DNA transfer used for the creation of Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua 7 In January 2019 scientists in China reported the creation of five identical cloned gene edited monkeys using the same cloning technique that was used with Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua and the same gene editing CRISPR Cas9 technique allegedly used by He Jiankui in creating the first ever gene modified human babies Lulu and Nana The monkey clones were made in order to study several medical diseases 8 9 Process EditFurther information Somatic cell nuclear transfer Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua were produced by scientists from the Institute of Neuroscience of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Shanghai led by Qiang Sun and Muming Poo 1 They extracted nuclei from the fibroblasts of an aborted fetal monkey a crab eating macaque or Macaca fascicularis and inserted them into egg cells ova that had had their own nuclei removed 1 The team used two enzymes to erase the epigenetic memory of the transferred nuclei of being somatic cells This crucial reprogramming step allowed the researchers to overcome the main obstacle that had precluded the successful cloning of primates until now 3 They then placed 21 of these ova into surrogate mother monkeys resulting in six pregnancies two of which produced living animals 1 The monkeys were named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua a reference to Zhonghua Chinese 中华 a Chinese name for China Although the success rate was still low the methods could be improved to increase survival rate in the future 3 By comparison the Scotland based team that created Dolly the sheep in 1996 required 277 attempts and produced only one lamb 10 The scientists also attempted to clone macaques using nuclei from adult donors which is much more difficult They implanted 42 surrogates resulting in 22 pregnancies but there were still only two infant macaques and they died soon after birth 1 Implications EditSee also Human cloning and Ethics of cloning According to Mu ming Poo the principal significance of this event is that it could be used to create genetically identical monkeys for use in animal experiments Crab eating macaques are already an established model organism for studies of atherosclerosis 11 though Poo chose to emphasize neuroscience naming Parkinson s disease and Alzheimer s disease when he appeared on the radio news program All Things Considered in January 2018 12 The birth of the two cloned primates also raised concerns from bioethicists Insoo Hyun of Case Western Reserve University questioned whether this meant that human cloning would be next Poo told All Things Considered that Technically speaking one can clone human s But we re not going to do it There s absolutely no plan to do anything on humans 12 See also EditList of animals that have been clonedReferences Edit a b c d e Liu Zhen Cai Yijun Wang Yan Nie Yanhong Zhang Chenchen Xu Yuting Zhang Xiaotong Lu Yong Wang Zhanyang Poo Muming Sun Qiang 24 January 2018 Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Cell 172 4 881 887 e7 doi 10 1016 j cell 2018 01 020 PMID 29395327 Retrieved 24 January 2018 Scholarly sources Normile Dennis 24 January 2018 These monkey twins are the first primate clones made by the method that developed Dolly Science doi 10 1126 science aat1066 Retrieved 24 January 2018 Cyranoski David 24 January 2018 First monkeys cloned with technique that made Dolly the sheep Chinese scientists create cloned primates that could revolutionize studies of human disease Nature 553 7689 387 388 doi 10 1038 d41586 018 01027 z PMID 29368720 a b c d Maron Dina Fine 24 January 2018 First Primate Clones Produced Using the Dolly Method The success with monkeys could ignite new ethical debates and medical research Scientific American Retrieved 24 January 2018 a b Kolata Gina 24 January 2018 Yes They ve Cloned Monkeys in China That Doesn t Mean You re Next The New York Times Retrieved 25 January 2018 Popular sources Briggs Helen 24 January 2018 First monkey clones created in Chinese laboratory BBC News Retrieved 24 January 2018 Hotz Robert Lee 24 January 2018 China Breaks a Cloning Barrier Primates The development heralds the possibility of genetically engineered primates for drug testing gene editing and brain research The Wall Street Journal Retrieved 24 January 2018 Staff 24 January 2018 Meet Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua the first monkey clones produced by method that made Dolly Science Daily Cell Press Retrieved 25 January 2018 White house David 14 January 2000 Scientists clone monkey BBC News Retrieved 24 January 2018 Science China Press 23 January 2019 Gene edited disease monkeys cloned in China EurekAlert Retrieved 24 January 2019 Mandelbaum Ryan F 23 January 2019 China s Latest Cloned Monkey Experiment Is an Ethical Mess Gizmodo Retrieved 24 January 2019 Genetic Science Learning Center The History of Cloning University of Utah Retrieved 24 January 2018 Phillips Kimberley A Bales Karen L Capitanio John P Conley Alan Czoty Paul W t Hart Bert A Hopkins William D Hu Shiu Lok Miller Lisa A Nader Michael A Nathanielsz Peter W Rogers Jeffrey Shively Carol A Voytko Mary Lou 10 April 2014 Why Primate Models Matter American Journal of Primatology 76 9 801 27 doi 10 1002 ajp 22281 PMC 4145602 PMID 24723482 a b Rob Stein 24 January 2018 Chinese Scientists Clone Monkeys Using Method That Created Dolly The Sheep National Public Radio Retrieved 24 January 2018 External links EditWikinews has related news Healthy cloned monkeys born in Shanghai Gallery of cloned animals Archived from the original on 12 March 2016 Researchers clone monkey by splitting embryo Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua amp oldid 998707257, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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