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Zhou dynasty

For other dynasties with the same name, see Zhou.

The Zhou dynasty (Chinese:; pinyin: Zhōu; Old Chinese (B&S): *tiw) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history (790 years). The military control of China by the royal house, surnamed Ji, lasted initially from 1046 until 771 BC for a period known as the Western Zhou, and the political sphere of influence it created continued well into the Eastern Zhou period for another 500 years.

Zhou
c. 1046 BC – 256 BC
Population concentration and boundaries of the Western Zhou dynasty (1050–771 BC) in China
Capital
Common languagesOld Chinese
Religion
Chinese folk religion, Ancestor worship, Heaven worship
GovernmentMonarchy
King
• c. 1046–1043 BC
King Wu
• 781–771 BC
King You
• 770–720 BC
King Ping
• 314–256 BC
King Nan
Chancellor
History
c. 1046 BC
841–828 BC
• Relocation to Wangcheng
771 BC
• Deposition of King Nan by Qin
256 BC
• Fall of the last Zhou holdouts
249 BC
Population
• 273 BC
30,000,000
• 230 BC
38,000,000
CurrencyMostly spade coins and knife coins
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Today part ofChina

During the Zhou dynasty, centralized power decreased throughout the Spring and Autumn period until the Warring States period in the last two centuries of the dynasty. In the latter period, the Zhou court had little control over its constituent states that were at war with each other until the Qin state consolidated power and formed the Qin dynasty in 221 BC. The Zhou dynasty had formally collapsed only 35 years earlier, although the dynasty had only nominal power at that point.

This period of Chinese history produced what many consider the zenith of Chinese bronzeware making. The latter period of the Zhou dynasty is also famous for the beginnings of three major Chinese philosophies: Confucianism, Taoism and Legalism. The Zhou dynasty also spans the period in which the written script evolved from the oracle script and bronze script into the seal script, and then finally into an almost-modern form with the use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring States period.

Contents

Foundation

Traditional myth

According to Chinese mythology, the Zhou lineage began when Jiang Yuan, a consort of the legendary Emperor Ku, miraculously conceived a child, Qi "the Abandoned One", after stepping into the divine footprint of Shangdi. Qi was a culture hero credited with surviving three abandonments by his mother and with greatly improving Xia agriculture, to the point where he was granted lordship over Tai and the surname Ji by his own Xia king and a later posthumous name, Houji "Lord of Millet", by the Tang of Shang. He even received sacrifice as a harvest god. The term Hòujì was probably a hereditary title attached to a lineage.

Qi's son, or rather that of the Hòujì, Buzhu is said to have abandoned his position as Agrarian Master (Chinese:農師; pinyin: Nóngshī) in old age and either he or his son Ju abandoned their tradition, living in the manner of the Xirong and Rongdi (see Hua–Yi distinction). Ju's son Liu, however, led his people to prosperity by restoring agriculture and settling them at a place called Bin, which his descendants ruled for generations. Tai later led the clan from Bin to Zhou, an area in the Wei River valley of modern-day Qishan County.

The duke passed over his two elder sons Taibo and Zhongyong to favor the younger Jili, a warrior in his own right. As a vassal of the Shang kings Wu Yi and Wen Ding, Jili went to conquer several Xirong tribes before being treacherously killed by Shang forces. Taibo and Zhongyong had supposedly already fled to the Yangtze delta, where they established the state of Wu among the tribes there. Jili's son Wen bribed his way out of imprisonment and moved the Zhou capital to Feng (within present-day Xi'an). Around 1046 BC, Wen's son Wu and his ally Jiang Ziya led an army of 45,000 men and 300 chariots across the Yellow River and defeated King Zhou of Shang at the Battle of Muye, marking the beginning of the Zhou dynasty. The Zhou enfeoffed a member of the defeated Shang royal family as the Duke of Song, which was held by descendants of the Shang royal family until its end. This practice was referred to as Two Kings, Three Reverences.

Culture

According to Nicholas Bodman, the Zhou appear to have spoken a language not basically different in vocabulary and syntax from that of the Shang. A recent study by David McCraw, using lexical statistics, reached the same conclusion. The Zhou emulated extensively Shang cultural practices, perhaps to legitimize their own rule, and became the successors to Shang culture. At the same time, the Zhou may also have been connected to the Xirong, a broadly defined cultural group to the west of the Shang, which the Shang regarded as tributaries; According to the historian Li Feng, the term "Rong" during the Western Zhou period was likely used to designate political and military adversaries rather than cultural and ethnic "others".

Western Zhou

Main article: Western Zhou
States of the Western Zhou dynasty

King Wu maintained the old capital for ceremonial purposes but constructed a new one for his palace and administration nearby at Hao. Although Wu's early death left a young and inexperienced heir, the Duke of Zhou assisted his nephew King Cheng in consolidating royal power. Wary of the Duke of Zhou's increasing power, the "Three Guards", Zhou princes stationed on the eastern plain, rose in rebellion against his regency. Even though they garnered the support of independent-minded nobles, Shang partisans, and several Dongyi tribes, the Duke of Zhou quelled the rebellion, and further expanded the Zhou Kingdom into the east. To maintain Zhou authority over its greatly expanded territory and prevent other revolts, he set up the fengjian system. Furthermore, he countered Zhou's crisis of legitimacy by expounding the doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven while accommodating important Shang rituals at Wangcheng and Chengzhou.

Over time, this decentralized system became strained as the familial relationships between the Zhou kings and the regional dynasties thinned over the generations. Peripheral territories developed local power and prestige on par with that of the Zhou. When King You demoted and exiled his Jiang queen in favor of the beautiful commoner Bao Si, the disgraced queen's father the Marquis of Shen joined with Zeng and the Quanrong barbarians to sack Hao in 771 BC. Some modern scholars have surmised that the sack of Haojing might have been connected to a Scythian raid from the Altai before their westward expansion. With King You dead, a conclave of nobles met at Shen and declared the Marquis's grandson King Ping. The capital was moved eastward to Wangcheng, marking the end of the "Western Zhou" (西周, p Xī Zhōu) and the beginning of the "Eastern Zhou" dynasty (东周, p Dōng Zhōu).

Eastern Zhou

Main article: Eastern Zhou
Map showing major states of Eastern Zhou

The Eastern Zhou was characterized by an accelerating collapse of royal authority, although the king's ritual importance allowed over five more centuries of rule. The Confucian chronicle of the early years of this process led to its title of the "Spring and Autumn" period. The partition of Jin in the mid-5th century BC initiated a second phase, the "Warring States". In 403 BC, the Zhou court recognized Han, Zhao, and Wei as fully independent states. Duke Hui of Wei, in 344 BC, was the first to claim the royal title of king (Chinese: 王) for himself. Others followed, marking a turning point, as rulers did not even entertain the pretence of being vassals of the Zhou court, instead proclaiming themselves fully independent kingdoms. A series of states rose to prominence before each falling in turn, and Zhou was a minor player in most of these conflicts.

The last Zhou king is traditionally taken to be Nan, who was killed when Qin captured the capital Wangcheng in 256 BC. A "King Hui" was declared, but his splinter state was fully removed by 249 BC. Qin's unification of China concluded in 221 BC with Qin Shihuang's annexation of Qi.

The Eastern Zhou, however, is also remembered as the golden age of Chinese philosophy: the Hundred Schools of Thought which flourished as rival lords patronized itinerant shi scholars is led by the example of Qi's Jixia Academy. The Nine Schools of Thought which came to dominate the others were Confucianism (as interpreted by Mencius and others), Legalism, Taoism, Mohism, the utopian communalist Agriculturalism, two strains of Diplomatists, the sophistic Logicians, Sun-tzu's Militarists, and the Naturalists. Although only the first three of these went on to receive imperial patronage in later dynasties, doctrines from each influenced the others and Chinese society in sometimes unusual ways. The Mohists, for instance, found little interest in their praise of meritocracy but much acceptance for their mastery of defensive siege warfare; much later, however, their arguments against nepotism were used in favor of establishing the imperial examination system.

Silk painting depicting a man riding a dragon, painting on silk, dated to 5th–3rd century BC, from Zidanku Tomb no. 1 in Changsha, Hunan Province
A lacquerware painting from the Jingmen Tomb (Chinese: 荊門楚墓; Pinyin: Jīngmén chǔ mù) of the State of Chu (704–223 BC), depicting men wearing precursors to Hanfu (i.e. traditional silk dress) and riding in a two-horsed chariot

The Zhou heartland was the Wei River valley; this remained their primary base of power after conquering the Shang.

Mandate of Heaven and the justification of power

A Western Zhou bronze gui vessel,c. 1000 BC

Zhou rulers introduced what was to prove one of East Asia's most enduring political doctrines: the concept of the "Mandate of Heaven". They did this by asserting that their moral superiority justified taking over Shang wealth and territories, and that heaven had imposed a moral mandate on them to replace the Shang and return good governance to the people.

The Mandate of Heaven was presented as a religious compact between the Zhou people and their supreme god in heaven (literally the 'sky god'). The Zhou agreed that since worldly affairs were supposed to align with those of the heavens, the heavens conferred legitimate power on only one person, the Zhou ruler. In return, the ruler was duty-bound to uphold heaven's principles of harmony and honor. Any ruler who failed in this duty, who let instability creep into earthly affairs, or who let his people suffer, would lose the mandate. Under this system, it was the prerogative of spiritual authority to withdraw support from any wayward ruler and to find another, more worthy one. In this way, the Zhou sky god legitimized regime change.

In using this creed, the Zhou rulers had to acknowledge that any group of rulers, even they themselves, could be ousted if they lost the mandate of heaven because of improper practices. The book of odes written during the Zhou period clearly intoned this caution.

The early Zhou kings contended that heaven favored their triumph because the last Shang kings had been evil men whose policies brought pain to the people through waste and corruption. After the Zhou came to power, the mandate became a political tool.

One of the duties and privileges of the king was to create a royal calendar. This official document defined times for undertaking agricultural activities and celebrating rituals. But unexpected events such as solar eclipses or natural calamities threw the ruling house's mandate into question. Since rulers claimed that their authority came from heaven, the Zhou made great efforts to gain accurate knowledge of the stars and to perfect the astronomical system on which they based their calendar.

Zhou legitimacy also arose indirectly from Shang material culture through the use of bronze ritual vessels, statues, ornaments, and weapons. As the Zhou emulated the Shang's large scale production of ceremonial bronzes, they developed an extensive system of bronze metalworking that required a large force of tribute labor. Many of its members were Shang, who were sometimes forcibly transported to new Zhou to produce the bronze ritual objects which were then sold and distributed across the lands, symbolizing Zhou legitimacy.

Feudalism

A Western Zhou ceremonial bronze of cooking-vessel form inscribed to record that the King of Zhou gave a fiefdom to Shi You, ordering that he inherit the title as well as the land and people living there

Western writers often describe the Zhou period as "feudal" because the Zhou's fēngjiàn (封建) system invites comparison with medieval rule in Europe.

There were many similarities between the decentralized systems. When the dynasty was established, the conquered land was divided into hereditary fiefs (諸侯, zhūhóu) that eventually became powerful in their own right. In matters of inheritance, the Zhou dynasty recognized only patrilineal primogeniture as legal. According to Tao (1934: 17–31), "the Tsung-fa or descent line system has the following characteristics: patrilineal descent, patrilineal succession, patriarchate, sib-exogamy, and primogeniture"

The system, also called "extensive stratified patrilineage", was defined by the anthropologist Kwang-chih Chang as "characterized by the fact that the eldest son of each generation formed the main of line descent and political authority, whereas the younger brothers were moved out to establish new lineages of lesser authority. The farther removed, the lesser the political authority". Ebrey defines the descent-line system as follows: "A great line (ta-tsung) is the line of eldest sons continuing indefinitely from a founding ancestor. A lesser line is the line of younger sons going back no more than five generations. Great lines and lesser lines continually spin off new lesser lines, founded by younger sons".

K.E. Brashier writes in his book "Ancestral Memory in Early China" about the tsung-fa system of patrilineal primogeniture: "The greater lineage, if it has survived, is the direct succession from father to eldest son and is not defined via the collateral shifts of the lesser lineages. In discussions that demarcate between trunk and collateral lines, the former is called a zong and the latter a zu, whereas the whole lineage is dubbed the shi. [...] On one hand, every son who is not the eldest and hence not heir to the lineage territory has the potential of becoming a progenitor and fostering a new trunk lineage (Ideally he would strike out to cultivate new lineage territory). [...] According to the Zou commentary, the son of heaven divided land among his feudal lords, his feudal lords divided the land among their dependent families and so forth down the pecking order to the officers who had their dependent kin and the commoners who "each had his apportioned relations and all had their graded precedence""

This type of unilineal descent-group later became the model of the Korean family through the influence of Neo-Confucianism, as Zhu Xi and others advocated its re-establishment in China.

Fēngjiàn system and bureaucracy

There were five peerage ranks below the royal ranks, in descending order with common English translations: gōng 公 "duke", hóu 侯 "marquis", 伯 "count", 子 "viscount", and nán 男 "baron". At times, a vigorous duke would take power from his nobles and centralize the state. Centralization became more necessary as the states began to war among themselves and decentralization encouraged more war. If a duke took power from his nobles, the state would have to be administered bureaucratically by appointed officials.

Despite these similarities, there are a number of important differences from medieval Europe. One obvious difference is that the Zhou ruled from walled cities rather than castles. Another was China's distinct class system, which lacked an organized clergy but saw Shang-descent yeomen become masters of ritual and ceremony, as well as astronomy, state affairs and ancient canons, known as ru (儒). When a dukedom was centralized, these people would find employment as government officials or officers. These hereditary classes were similar to Western knights in status and breeding, but unlike the European equivalent, they were expected to be something of a scholar instead of a warrior. Being appointed, they could move from one state to another. Some would travel from state to state peddling schemes of administrative or military reform. Those who could not find employment would often end up teaching young men who aspired to official status. The most famous of these was Confucius, who taught a system of mutual duty between superiors and inferiors. In contrast, the Legalists had no time for Confucian virtue and advocated a system of strict laws and harsh punishments. The wars of the Warring States were finally ended by the most legalist state of all, Qin. When the Qin dynasty fell and was replaced by the Han dynasty, many Chinese were relieved to return to the more humane virtues of Confucius.[citation needed]

Agriculture

The Shi Qiang pan, inscribed with the accomplishments of the earliest Zhou kings, circa 10th century BC

Agriculture in the Zhou dynasty was very intensive and, in many cases, directed by the government. All farming lands were owned by nobles, who then gave their land to their serfs, a situation similar to European feudalism. For example, a piece of land was divided into nine squares in the well-field system, with the grain from the middle square taken by the government and that of surrounding squares kept by individual farmers. This way, the government was able to store surplus food and distribute it in times of famine or bad harvest. Some important manufacturing sectors during this period included bronze smelting, which was integral to making weapons and farming tools. Again, these industries were dominated by the nobility who directed the production of such materials.[citation needed]

China's first projects of hydraulic engineering were initiated during the Zhou dynasty, ultimately as a means to aid agricultural irrigation. The chancellor of Wei, Sunshu Ao, who served King Zhuang of Chu, dammed a river to create an enormous irrigation reservoir in modern-day northern Anhui province. For this, Sunshu is credited as China's first hydraulic engineer. The later Wei statesman Ximen Bao, who served Marquis Wen of Wei (445–396 BC), was the first hydraulic engineer of China to have created a large irrigation canal system. As the main focus of his grandiose project, his canal work eventually diverted the waters of the entire Zhang River to a spot further up the Yellow River.[citation needed]

Military

The early Western Zhou supported a strong army, split into two major units: "the Six Armies of the west" and "the Eight Armies of Chengzhou". The armies campaigned in the northern Loess Plateau, modern Ningxia and the Yellow River floodplain. The military prowess of Zhou peaked during the 19th year of King Zhao's reign, when the six armies were wiped out along with King Zhao on a campaign around the Han River. Early Zhou kings were true commanders-in-chief. They were in constant wars with barbarians on behalf of the fiefs called guo, which at that time meant "statelet" or "principality".

A bronze figure of a charioteer from the Warring States era of the Zhou Dynasty, dated 4th to 3rd century BC
An embroidered silk gauze ritual garment from an Eastern-Zhou-era tomb at Mashan, Hubei province, China, 4th century BC
An Eastern-Zhou bronze sword excavated from Changsa, Hunan Province
A drinking cup carved from crystal, unearthed at Banshan, Hangzhou, Warring States period, Hangzhou Museum.
The Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng, a set of bronze bianzhong percussion instruments from the tomb of the aforesaid marquis in Hubei province, China, dated 433 BC, Warring States period

King Zhao was famous for repeated campaigns in the Yangtze areas and died in his last action. Later kings' campaigns were less effective. King Li led 14 armies against barbarians in the south, but failed to achieve any victory. King Xuan fought the Quanrong nomads in vain. King You was killed by the Quanrong when Haojing was sacked. Although chariots had been introduced to China during the Shang dynasty from Central Asia, the Zhou period saw the first major use of chariots in battle. Recent archaeological finds demonstrate similarities between horse burials of the Shang and Zhou dynasties and Indo-European peoples in the west. Other possible cultural influences resulting from Indo-European contact in this period may include fighting styles, head-and-hooves burials, art motifs and myths.

Philosophy

During the Zhou dynasty, the origins of native Chinese philosophy developed, its initial stages of development beginning in the 6th century BC. The greatest Chinese philosophers, those who made the greatest impact on later generations of Chinese, were Confucius, founder of Confucianism, and Laozi, founder of Taoism. Other philosophers, theorists, and schools of thought in this era were Mozi, founder of Mohism; Mencius, a famous Confucian who expanded upon Confucius' legacy; Shang Yang and Han Fei, responsible for the development of ancient Chinese Legalism (the core philosophy of the Qin dynasty); and Xun Zi, who was arguably the center of ancient Chinese intellectual life during his time, even more so than iconic intellectual figures such as Mencius.

Li

Main article: Li (Confucian)

Established during the Western period, the Li (traditional Chinese:; simplified Chinese:; pinyin: ) ritual system encoded an understanding of manners as an expression of the social hierarchy, ethics, and regulation concerning material life; the corresponding social practices became idealized within Confucian ideology.

The system was canonized in the Book of Rites, Zhouli, and Yili compendiums of the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), thus becoming the heart of the Chinese imperial ideology. While the system was initially a respected body of concrete regulations, the fragmentation of the Western Zhou period led the ritual to drift towards moralization and formalization in regard to:

  • The five orders of Chinese nobility.
  • Ancestral temples (size, legitimate number of pavilions)
  • Ceremonial regulations (number of ritual vessels, musical instruments, people in the dancing troupe)

The rulers of the Zhou dynasty were titled Wáng (), which is normally translated into English as "king" and was also the Shang term for their rulers. In addition to these rulers, King Wu's immediate ancestors – Danfu, Jili, and Wen – are also referred to as "Kings of Zhou", despite having been nominal vassals of the Shang kings.

NB: Dates in Chinese history before the first year of the Gonghe Regency in 841 BC are contentious and vary by source. Those below are those published by Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project and Edward L. Shaughnessy's The Absolute Chronology of the Western Zhou Dynasty.

Personal name Posthumous name Reign period
Fa 周武王 King Wu of Zhou 1046–1043 BC
1045–1043 BC
Song 周成王 King Cheng of Zhou 1042–1021 BC
1042/1035–1006 BC
Zhao 周康王 King Kang of Zhou 1020–996 BC
1005/1003–978 BC
Xia 周昭王 King Zhao of Zhou 995–977 BC
977/975–957 BC
滿 Man 周穆王 King Mu of Zhou 976–922 BC
956–918 BC
繄扈 Yihu 周共王/周龔王 King Gong of Zhou 922–900 BC
917/915–900 BC
Jian 周懿王 King Yi of Zhou 899–892 BC
899/897–873 BC
辟方 Pifang 周孝王 King Xiao of Zhou 891–886 BC
872?–866 BC
Xie 周夷王 King Yi of Zhou 885–878 BC
865–858 BC
Hu 周厲王/周剌王 King Li of Zhou 877–841 BC
857/853–842/828 BC
共和 Gonghe Regency 841–828 BC
Jing 周宣王 King Xuan of Zhou 827–782 BC
宮湦 Gongsheng 周幽王 King You of Zhou 781–771 BC
End of Western Zhou / Beginning of Eastern Zhou
宜臼 Yijiu 周平王 King Ping of Zhou 770–720 BC
Lin 周桓王 King Huan of Zhou 719–697 BC
Tuo 周莊王 King Zhuang of Zhou 696–682 BC
胡齊 Huqi 周僖王 King Xi of Zhou 681–677 BC
Lang 周惠王 King Hui of Zhou 676–652 BC
Zheng 周襄王 King Xiang of Zhou 651–619 BC
壬臣 Renchen 周頃王 King Qing of Zhou 618–613 BC
Ban 周匡王 King Kuang of Zhou 612–607 BC
Yu 周定王 King Ding of Zhou 606–586 BC
Yi 周簡王 King Jian of Zhou 585–572 BC
洩心 Xiexin 周靈王 King Ling of Zhou 571–545 BC
Gui 周景王 King Jing of Zhou 544–521 BC
Meng 周悼王 King Dao of Zhou 520 BC
Gai 周敬王 King Jing of Zhou 519–476 BC
Ren 周元王 King Yuan of Zhou 475–469 BC
Jie 周貞定王 King Zhending of Zhou 468–442 BC
去疾 Quji 周哀王 King Ai of Zhou 441 BC
Shu 周思王 King Si of Zhou 441 BC
Wei 周考王 King Kao of Zhou 440–426 BC
Wu 周威烈王 King Weilie of Zhou 425–402 BC
Jiao 周安王 King An of Zhou 401–376 BC
Xi 周烈王 King Lie of Zhou 375–369 BC
Bian 周顯王 King Xian of Zhou 368–321 BC
Ding 周慎靚王 King Shenjing of Zhou 320–315 BC
Yan 周赧王 King Nan of Zhou 314–256 BC

Nobles of the Ji family proclaimed Duke Hui of Eastern Zhou as King Nan's successor after their capital, Chengzhou, fell to Qin forces in 256 BC. Ji Zhao, a son of King Nan, led a resistance against Qin for five years. The dukedom fell in 249 BC. The remaining Ji family ruled Yan and Wei until 209 BC.

Fittings in the form of tigers, Baoji, Shaanxi province, Middle Western Zhou dynasty, c. 900 BC, bronze

In traditional Chinese astrology, Zhou is represented by two stars, Eta Capricorni (週一; Zhōu yī; 'the First Star of Zhou') and 21 Capricorni (週二; Zhōu èr; 'the Second Star of Zhou'), in "Twelve States" asterism. Zhou is also represented by the star Beta Serpentis in asterism "Right Wall", Heavenly Market enclosure (see Chinese constellation).

  1. Fenghao is the modern name for the twin city formed by the Western Zhou capitals of Haojing and Fengjing.
  2. The exact location of Wangcheng and its relation to Chengzhou is disputed. According to Xu Zhaofeng, "Chengzhou" and "Wangcheng" were originally synonymous and used to name the same capital city from 771 to 510 BC. "The creation of a distinction between Wangcheng and Chengzhou probably occurred during the reign of King Jing", under whom a new capital "Chengzhou" was built to the east of the old city "Wangcheng". Nevertheless, the new Chengzhou was still sometimes called Wangcheng and vice versa, adding to the confusion.
  3. The exact location of Bin remains obscure, but it may have been close to Linfen on the Fen River in present-day Shanxi.
  4. Sima Qian was only able to establish historical dates after the time of the Gonghe Regency. Earlier dates, like that of 1046 BC for the Battle of Muye, are given in this article according to the official PRC Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, but they remain contentious. Various historians have offered dates for the battle ranging between 1122 and 1027 BC.
  5. Bodman (1980), p. 41: "Moreover, Shang dynasty Chinese at least in its syntax and lexicon seems not to differ basically from that of the Zhou dynasty whose language is amply attested in inscriptions on bronze vessels and which was transmitted in the early classical literature."

Citations

  1. "Considering Chengzhou ('Completion of Zhou') and Wangcheng ('City of the King')"(PDF). Xu Zhaofeng. Archived from the original(PDF) on July 22, 2015. Retrieved22 July 2015.
  2. "Encyclopædia Britannica: Tian". Retrieved17 August 2015.
  3. Schinz (1996), p. 80.
  4. "Baxter-Sagart Old Chinese reconstruction, version 1.1 (20 September 2014)"(PDF). p. 155
  5. Von Glahn, Richard (2016). The Economic History of China: From Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 11. ISBN 9781139343848. OCLC 944748318.
  6. Shijing, Ode 245.
  7. "Hou Ji". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  8. Sima Qian. Records of the Grand Historian, Annals of Zhou, §3.
  9. Wu (1982), p. 235.
  10. Shaughnessy (1999), p. 303.
  11. Wu (1982), p. 273.
  12. David McCraw (2010). "An ABC Exercise in Old Sinitic Lexical Statistics"(PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers (202).
  13. Jessica Rawson, 'Western Zhou Archaeology,' in Michael Loewe, Edward L. Shaughnessy (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C., Cambridge University Press 1999 pp.352-448 p.387.
  14. Li, Feng (2006), Landscape And Power In Early China, Cambridge University Press, p. 286.
  15. Chiang, Po-Yi (1 Jan 2008). "Han Cultural and Political Influences in the Transformation of the Shizhaishan Cultural Complex". Australian National University: 1–2.Cite journal requires |journal= ()
  16. Shaughnessy (1999), p. 310, 311.
  17. Chinn (2007), p. 43.
  18. Hucker (1978), p. 32.
  19. Hucker (1978), p. 33.
  20. Hucker (1978), p. 37.
  21. "The Steppe: Scythian successes". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved31 December 2014.
  22. .Carr, Brian & al. Companion Encyclopaedia of Asian Philosophy, p. 466. Taylor & Francis, 2012. ISBN 041503535X, 9780415035354.
  23. Li Feng (2006). Landscape and Power in Early China: The Crisis and Fall of the Western Zhou 1045–771 BC. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 1139456881.
  24. Tignor, Robert L. (24 October 2013). Worlds together, worlds apart. Adelman, Jeremy; Aron, Stephen; Brown, Peter; Elman, Benjamin A.; Liu, Xinru; Pittman, Holly (fourth (two volume) ed.). New York. ISBN 9780393922080. OCLC 870312289.
  25. Shaw, Robert Tignor, Jeremy Adelman, Peter Brown, Benjamin Elman, Xinru Liu, Holly Pittman, Brent (2014). Worlds together, worlds apart (Fourth ed.). p. 153. ISBN 978-0-393-92208-0.
  26. Brashier, K. E. (2011-01-01). Ancestral Memory in Early China. ISBN 9780674056077.
  27. The ramage system in China and Polynesia Li Hwei "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2013-09-21. Retrieved2013-05-13.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  28. Tao, Hsi-Sheng. Marriage and Family, Shanghai. 1934
  29. Ancestral Memory in Early China Written By K. E. Brashier https://books.google.com/books?id=aJAMLt5NYAQC&pg=PA71
  30. The Confucian Transformation of Korea: A Study of Society and Ideology Written By Martina Deuchler https://books.google.com/books?id=NQeeYOyUx64C&pg=PA129
  31. ChinaKnowledge.de encyclopedia, http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Zhou/zhou-admin.html.[permanent dead link] Alternatively, the sequence was translated as prince, lord, elder, master, chieftain: Brooks 1997:3 n.9.
  32. Li-Hsiang Lisa Rosenlee (2012). Confucianism and Women: A Philosophical Interpretation. SUNY Press. pp. 21–24. ISBN 0791481794.
  33. Ebrey, Walthall & Palais (2006), p. 14.
  34. Shaughnessy (1988).
  35. Krech & Steinicke 2011, p. 100
  36. Schirokauer & Brown (2006), pp. 25–47.
  37. Thorp, Robert L. (2005). China in the Early Bronze Age. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-8122-3910-2.
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Works cited

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zhou Dynasty.
  • Chinese Text Project, Rulers of the Zhou period – with links to their occurrences in pre-Qin and Han texts.
Preceded by
Dynasties in Chinese history
1046–256 BC
Succeeded by

Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty Language Watch Edit For other dynasties with the same name see Zhou The Zhou dynasty Chinese 周 pinyin Zhōu ʈʂo u Old Chinese B amp S tiw 4 was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history 790 years The military control of China by the royal house surnamed Ji lasted initially from 1046 until 771 BC for a period known as the Western Zhou and the political sphere of influence it created continued well into the Eastern Zhou period for another 500 years Zhou周c 1046 BC 256 BCPopulation concentration and boundaries of the Western Zhou dynasty 1050 771 BC in ChinaCapitalFenghao a 1046 771 BC Wangcheng b 771 510 BC 314 256 BC 1 Chengzhou 510 314 BC 1 Common languagesOld ChineseReligionChinese folk religion Ancestor worship Heaven worship 2 GovernmentMonarchyKing c 1046 1043 BCKing Wu 781 771 BCKing You 770 720 BCKing Ping 314 256 BCKing NanChancellor History Battle of Muyec 1046 BC Gonghe Regency841 828 BC Relocation to Wangcheng771 BC Deposition of King Nan by Qin 256 BC Fall of the last Zhou holdouts 3 249 BCPopulation 273 BC30 000 000 230 BC38 000 000CurrencyMostly spade coins and knife coinsPreceded by Succeeded byShang dynastyPredynastic Zhou Qin dynastyToday part ofChinaZhou Zhou in ancient bronze script top seal script middle and regular script bottom Chinese charactersChinese周Hanyu PinyinZhōuTranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinZhōuBopomofoㄓㄡGwoyeu RomatzyhJouWade GilesChou1Tongyong PinyinJhouYale RomanizationJōuIPA ʈʂo u WuRomanizationTseuYue CantoneseYale RomanizationJauJyutpingZau1IPA tsɐ u Southern MinHokkien POJChiuTai loTsiuOld ChineseBaxter 1992 tjiwBaxter Sagart 2014 tiw During the Zhou dynasty centralized power decreased throughout the Spring and Autumn period until the Warring States period in the last two centuries of the dynasty In the latter period the Zhou court had little control over its constituent states that were at war with each other until the Qin state consolidated power and formed the Qin dynasty in 221 BC The Zhou dynasty had formally collapsed only 35 years earlier although the dynasty had only nominal power at that point This period of Chinese history produced what many consider the zenith of Chinese bronzeware making 5 The latter period of the Zhou dynasty is also famous for the beginnings of three major Chinese philosophies Confucianism Taoism and Legalism The Zhou dynasty also spans the period in which the written script evolved from the oracle script and bronze script into the seal script and then finally into an almost modern form with the use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring States period Contents 1 History 1 1 Foundation 1 1 1 Traditional myth 1 1 2 Culture 1 2 Western Zhou 1 3 Eastern Zhou 2 Culture and society 2 1 Mandate of Heaven and the justification of power 2 2 Feudalism 2 2 1 Fengjian system and bureaucracy 2 3 Agriculture 2 4 Military 2 5 Philosophy 2 5 1 Li 3 Kings 4 Astrology 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 7 1 Citations 7 2 Works cited 8 Further reading 9 External linksHistory EditFoundation Edit See also Predynastic Zhou Traditional myth Edit According to Chinese mythology the Zhou lineage began when Jiang Yuan a consort of the legendary Emperor Ku miraculously conceived a child Qi the Abandoned One after stepping into the divine footprint of Shangdi 6 7 Qi was a culture hero credited with surviving three abandonments by his mother and with greatly improving Xia agriculture 6 to the point where he was granted lordship over Tai and the surname Ji by his own Xia king and a later posthumous name Houji Lord of Millet by the Tang of Shang He even received sacrifice as a harvest god The term Houji was probably a hereditary title attached to a lineage Qi s son or rather that of the Houji Buzhu is said to have abandoned his position as Agrarian Master Chinese 農師 pinyin Nongshi in old age and either he or his son Ju abandoned their tradition living in the manner of the Xirong and Rongdi see Hua Yi distinction 8 Ju s son Liu 9 however led his people to prosperity by restoring agriculture and settling them at a place called Bin c which his descendants ruled for generations Tai later led the clan from Bin to Zhou an area in the Wei River valley of modern day Qishan County The duke passed over his two elder sons Taibo and Zhongyong to favor the younger Jili a warrior in his own right As a vassal of the Shang kings Wu Yi and Wen Ding Jili went to conquer several Xirong tribes before being treacherously killed by Shang forces Taibo and Zhongyong had supposedly already fled to the Yangtze delta where they established the state of Wu among the tribes there Jili s son Wen bribed his way out of imprisonment and moved the Zhou capital to Feng within present day Xi an Around 1046 BC Wen s son Wu and his ally Jiang Ziya led an army of 45 000 men and 300 chariots across the Yellow River and defeated King Zhou of Shang at the Battle of Muye marking the beginning of the Zhou dynasty d The Zhou enfeoffed a member of the defeated Shang royal family as the Duke of Song which was held by descendants of the Shang royal family until its end This practice was referred to as Two Kings Three Reverences Culture Edit According to Nicholas Bodman the Zhou appear to have spoken a language not basically different in vocabulary and syntax from that of the Shang e A recent study by David McCraw using lexical statistics reached the same conclusion 12 The Zhou emulated extensively Shang cultural practices perhaps to legitimize their own rule 13 and became the successors to Shang culture 14 At the same time the Zhou may also have been connected to the Xirong a broadly defined cultural group to the west of the Shang which the Shang regarded as tributaries 15 According to the historian Li Feng the term Rong during the Western Zhou period was likely used to designate political and military adversaries rather than cultural and ethnic others 14 Western Zhou Edit Main article Western Zhou States of the Western Zhou dynasty King Wu maintained the old capital for ceremonial purposes but constructed a new one for his palace and administration nearby at Hao Although Wu s early death left a young and inexperienced heir the Duke of Zhou assisted his nephew King Cheng in consolidating royal power Wary of the Duke of Zhou s increasing power the Three Guards Zhou princes stationed on the eastern plain rose in rebellion against his regency Even though they garnered the support of independent minded nobles Shang partisans and several Dongyi tribes the Duke of Zhou quelled the rebellion and further expanded the Zhou Kingdom into the east 16 17 18 To maintain Zhou authority over its greatly expanded territory and prevent other revolts he set up the fengjian system 17 Furthermore he countered Zhou s crisis of legitimacy by expounding the doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven while accommodating important Shang rituals at Wangcheng and Chengzhou 19 Over time this decentralized system became strained as the familial relationships between the Zhou kings and the regional dynasties thinned over the generations Peripheral territories developed local power and prestige on par with that of the Zhou 20 When King You demoted and exiled his Jiang queen in favor of the beautiful commoner Bao Si the disgraced queen s father the Marquis of Shen joined with Zeng and the Quanrong barbarians to sack Hao in 771 BC Some modern scholars have surmised that the sack of Haojing might have been connected to a Scythian raid from the Altai before their westward expansion 21 With King You dead a conclave of nobles met at Shen and declared the Marquis s grandson King Ping The capital was moved eastward to Wangcheng 1 marking the end of the Western Zhou 西周 p Xi Zhōu and the beginning of the Eastern Zhou dynasty 东周 p Dōng Zhōu Eastern Zhou Edit Main article Eastern Zhou Map showing major states of Eastern Zhou The Eastern Zhou was characterized by an accelerating collapse of royal authority although the king s ritual importance allowed over five more centuries of rule The Confucian chronicle of the early years of this process led to its title of the Spring and Autumn period The partition of Jin in the mid 5th century BC initiated a second phase the Warring States 20 In 403 BC the Zhou court recognized Han Zhao and Wei as fully independent states Duke Hui of Wei in 344 BC was the first to claim the royal title of king Chinese 王 for himself Others followed marking a turning point as rulers did not even entertain the pretence of being vassals of the Zhou court instead proclaiming themselves fully independent kingdoms A series of states rose to prominence before each falling in turn and Zhou was a minor player in most of these conflicts The last Zhou king is traditionally taken to be Nan who was killed when Qin captured the capital Wangcheng 1 in 256 BC A King Hui was declared but his splinter state was fully removed by 249 BC Qin s unification of China concluded in 221 BC with Qin Shihuang s annexation of Qi The Eastern Zhou however is also remembered as the golden age of Chinese philosophy the Hundred Schools of Thought which flourished as rival lords patronized itinerant shi scholars is led by the example of Qi s Jixia Academy The Nine Schools of Thought which came to dominate the others were Confucianism as interpreted by Mencius and others Legalism Taoism Mohism the utopian communalist Agriculturalism two strains of Diplomatists the sophistic Logicians Sun tzu s Militarists and the Naturalists 22 Although only the first three of these went on to receive imperial patronage in later dynasties doctrines from each influenced the others and Chinese society in sometimes unusual ways The Mohists for instance found little interest in their praise of meritocracy but much acceptance for their mastery of defensive siege warfare much later however their arguments against nepotism were used in favor of establishing the imperial examination system Culture and society Edit Silk painting depicting a man riding a dragon painting on silk dated to 5th 3rd century BC from Zidanku Tomb no 1 in Changsha Hunan Province A lacquerware painting from the Jingmen Tomb Chinese 荊門楚墓 Pinyin Jingmen chǔ mu of the State of Chu 704 223 BC depicting men wearing precursors to Hanfu i e traditional silk dress and riding in a two horsed chariot The Zhou heartland was the Wei River valley this remained their primary base of power after conquering the Shang 23 Mandate of Heaven and the justification of power Edit A Western Zhou bronze gui vessel c 1000 BC Zhou rulers introduced what was to prove one of East Asia s most enduring political doctrines the concept of the Mandate of Heaven They did this by asserting that their moral superiority justified taking over Shang wealth and territories and that heaven had imposed a moral mandate on them to replace the Shang and return good governance to the people 24 The Mandate of Heaven was presented as a religious compact between the Zhou people and their supreme god in heaven literally the sky god The Zhou agreed that since worldly affairs were supposed to align with those of the heavens the heavens conferred legitimate power on only one person the Zhou ruler In return the ruler was duty bound to uphold heaven s principles of harmony and honor Any ruler who failed in this duty who let instability creep into earthly affairs or who let his people suffer would lose the mandate Under this system it was the prerogative of spiritual authority to withdraw support from any wayward ruler and to find another more worthy one 25 In this way the Zhou sky god legitimized regime change In using this creed the Zhou rulers had to acknowledge that any group of rulers even they themselves could be ousted if they lost the mandate of heaven because of improper practices The book of odes written during the Zhou period clearly intoned this caution 24 The early Zhou kings contended that heaven favored their triumph because the last Shang kings had been evil men whose policies brought pain to the people through waste and corruption After the Zhou came to power the mandate became a political tool One of the duties and privileges of the king was to create a royal calendar This official document defined times for undertaking agricultural activities and celebrating rituals But unexpected events such as solar eclipses or natural calamities threw the ruling house s mandate into question Since rulers claimed that their authority came from heaven the Zhou made great efforts to gain accurate knowledge of the stars and to perfect the astronomical system on which they based their calendar 25 Zhou legitimacy also arose indirectly from Shang material culture through the use of bronze ritual vessels statues ornaments and weapons 25 As the Zhou emulated the Shang s large scale production of ceremonial bronzes they developed an extensive system of bronze metalworking that required a large force of tribute labor Many of its members were Shang who were sometimes forcibly transported to new Zhou to produce the bronze ritual objects which were then sold and distributed across the lands symbolizing Zhou legitimacy 24 Feudalism Edit A Western Zhou ceremonial bronze of cooking vessel form inscribed to record that the King of Zhou gave a fiefdom to Shi You ordering that he inherit the title as well as the land and people living there Western writers often describe the Zhou period as feudal because the Zhou s fengjian 封建 system invites comparison with medieval rule in Europe There were many similarities between the decentralized systems When the dynasty was established the conquered land was divided into hereditary fiefs 諸侯 zhuhou that eventually became powerful in their own right In matters of inheritance the Zhou dynasty recognized only patrilineal primogeniture as legal 26 27 According to Tao 1934 17 31 the Tsung fa or descent line system has the following characteristics patrilineal descent patrilineal succession patriarchate sib exogamy and primogeniture 28 The system also called extensive stratified patrilineage was defined by the anthropologist Kwang chih Chang as characterized by the fact that the eldest son of each generation formed the main of line descent and political authority whereas the younger brothers were moved out to establish new lineages of lesser authority The farther removed the lesser the political authority Ebrey defines the descent line system as follows A great line ta tsung is the line of eldest sons continuing indefinitely from a founding ancestor A lesser line is the line of younger sons going back no more than five generations Great lines and lesser lines continually spin off new lesser lines founded by younger sons K E Brashier writes in his book Ancestral Memory in Early China about the tsung fa system of patrilineal primogeniture The greater lineage if it has survived is the direct succession from father to eldest son and is not defined via the collateral shifts of the lesser lineages In discussions that demarcate between trunk and collateral lines the former is called a zong and the latter a zu whereas the whole lineage is dubbed the shi On one hand every son who is not the eldest and hence not heir to the lineage territory has the potential of becoming a progenitor and fostering a new trunk lineage Ideally he would strike out to cultivate new lineage territory According to the Zou commentary the son of heaven divided land among his feudal lords his feudal lords divided the land among their dependent families and so forth down the pecking order to the officers who had their dependent kin and the commoners who each had his apportioned relations and all had their graded precedence 29 This type of unilineal descent group later became the model of the Korean family through the influence of Neo Confucianism as Zhu Xi and others advocated its re establishment in China 30 Fengjian system and bureaucracy Edit There were five peerage ranks below the royal ranks in descending order with common English translations gōng 公 duke hou 侯 marquis bo 伯 count zǐ 子 viscount and nan 男 baron 31 At times a vigorous duke would take power from his nobles and centralize the state Centralization became more necessary as the states began to war among themselves and decentralization encouraged more war If a duke took power from his nobles the state would have to be administered bureaucratically by appointed officials Despite these similarities there are a number of important differences from medieval Europe One obvious difference is that the Zhou ruled from walled cities rather than castles Another was China s distinct class system which lacked an organized clergy but saw Shang descent yeomen become masters of ritual and ceremony as well as astronomy state affairs and ancient canons known as ru 儒 32 When a dukedom was centralized these people would find employment as government officials or officers These hereditary classes were similar to Western knights in status and breeding but unlike the European equivalent they were expected to be something of a scholar instead of a warrior Being appointed they could move from one state to another Some would travel from state to state peddling schemes of administrative or military reform Those who could not find employment would often end up teaching young men who aspired to official status The most famous of these was Confucius who taught a system of mutual duty between superiors and inferiors In contrast the Legalists had no time for Confucian virtue and advocated a system of strict laws and harsh punishments The wars of the Warring States were finally ended by the most legalist state of all Qin When the Qin dynasty fell and was replaced by the Han dynasty many Chinese were relieved to return to the more humane virtues of Confucius citation needed Agriculture Edit The Shi Qiang pan inscribed with the accomplishments of the earliest Zhou kings circa 10th century BC Agriculture in the Zhou dynasty was very intensive and in many cases directed by the government All farming lands were owned by nobles who then gave their land to their serfs a situation similar to European feudalism For example a piece of land was divided into nine squares in the well field system with the grain from the middle square taken by the government and that of surrounding squares kept by individual farmers This way the government was able to store surplus food and distribute it in times of famine or bad harvest Some important manufacturing sectors during this period included bronze smelting which was integral to making weapons and farming tools Again these industries were dominated by the nobility who directed the production of such materials citation needed China s first projects of hydraulic engineering were initiated during the Zhou dynasty ultimately as a means to aid agricultural irrigation The chancellor of Wei Sunshu Ao who served King Zhuang of Chu dammed a river to create an enormous irrigation reservoir in modern day northern Anhui province For this Sunshu is credited as China s first hydraulic engineer The later Wei statesman Ximen Bao who served Marquis Wen of Wei 445 396 BC was the first hydraulic engineer of China to have created a large irrigation canal system As the main focus of his grandiose project his canal work eventually diverted the waters of the entire Zhang River to a spot further up the Yellow River citation needed Military Edit The early Western Zhou supported a strong army split into two major units the Six Armies of the west and the Eight Armies of Chengzhou The armies campaigned in the northern Loess Plateau modern Ningxia and the Yellow River floodplain The military prowess of Zhou peaked during the 19th year of King Zhao s reign when the six armies were wiped out along with King Zhao on a campaign around the Han River Early Zhou kings were true commanders in chief They were in constant wars with barbarians on behalf of the fiefs called guo which at that time meant statelet or principality A bronze figure of a charioteer from the Warring States era of the Zhou Dynasty dated 4th to 3rd century BC An embroidered silk gauze ritual garment from an Eastern Zhou era tomb at Mashan Hubei province China 4th century BC An Eastern Zhou bronze sword excavated from Changsa Hunan Province A drinking cup carved from crystal unearthed at Banshan Hangzhou Warring States period Hangzhou Museum The Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng a set of bronze bianzhong percussion instruments from the tomb of the aforesaid marquis in Hubei province China dated 433 BC Warring States period King Zhao was famous for repeated campaigns in the Yangtze areas and died in his last action Later kings campaigns were less effective King Li led 14 armies against barbarians in the south but failed to achieve any victory King Xuan fought the Quanrong nomads in vain King You was killed by the Quanrong when Haojing was sacked Although chariots had been introduced to China during the Shang dynasty from Central Asia the Zhou period saw the first major use of chariots in battle 33 34 Recent archaeological finds demonstrate similarities between horse burials of the Shang and Zhou dynasties and Indo European peoples in the west 35 Other possible cultural influences resulting from Indo European contact in this period may include fighting styles head and hooves burials art motifs and myths 35 Philosophy Edit During the Zhou dynasty the origins of native Chinese philosophy developed its initial stages of development beginning in the 6th century BC The greatest Chinese philosophers those who made the greatest impact on later generations of Chinese were Confucius founder of Confucianism and Laozi founder of Taoism Other philosophers theorists and schools of thought in this era were Mozi founder of Mohism Mencius a famous Confucian who expanded upon Confucius legacy Shang Yang and Han Fei responsible for the development of ancient Chinese Legalism the core philosophy of the Qin dynasty and Xun Zi who was arguably the center of ancient Chinese intellectual life during his time even more so than iconic intellectual figures such as Mencius 36 Li Edit Main article Li Confucian Established during the Western period the Li traditional Chinese 禮 simplified Chinese 礼 pinyin lǐ ritual system encoded an understanding of manners as an expression of the social hierarchy ethics and regulation concerning material life the corresponding social practices became idealized within Confucian ideology The system was canonized in the Book of Rites Zhouli and Yili compendiums of the Han dynasty 206 BC 220 AD thus becoming the heart of the Chinese imperial ideology While the system was initially a respected body of concrete regulations the fragmentation of the Western Zhou period led the ritual to drift towards moralization and formalization in regard to The five orders of Chinese nobility Ancestral temples size legitimate number of pavilions Ceremonial regulations number of ritual vessels musical instruments people in the dancing troupe Kings EditSee also The family tree of the Zhou kings The rulers of the Zhou dynasty were titled Wang 王 which is normally translated into English as king and was also the Shang term for their rulers 37 In addition to these rulers King Wu s immediate ancestors Danfu Jili and Wen are also referred to as Kings of Zhou despite having been nominal vassals of the Shang kings NB Dates in Chinese history before the first year of the Gonghe Regency in 841 BC are contentious and vary by source Those below are those published by Xia Shang Zhou Chronology Project and Edward L Shaughnessy s The Absolute Chronology of the Western Zhou Dynasty Personal name Posthumous name Reign period發 Fa 周武王 King Wu of Zhou 1046 1043 BC 1045 1043 BC誦 Song 周成王 King Cheng of Zhou 1042 1021 BC 1042 1035 1006 BC釗 Zhao 周康王 King Kang of Zhou 1020 996 BC 1005 1003 978 BC瑕 Xia 周昭王 King Zhao of Zhou 995 977 BC 977 975 957 BC滿 Man 周穆王 King Mu of Zhou 976 922 BC 956 918 BC繄扈 Yihu 周共王 周龔王 King Gong of Zhou 922 900 BC 917 915 900 BC囏 Jian 周懿王 King Yi of Zhou 899 892 BC 899 897 873 BC辟方 Pifang 周孝王 King Xiao of Zhou 891 886 BC 872 866 BC燮 Xie 周夷王 King Yi of Zhou 885 878 BC 865 858 BC胡 Hu 周厲王 周剌王 King Li of Zhou 877 841 BC 857 853 842 828 BC共和 Gonghe Regency 841 828 BC靜 Jing 周宣王 King Xuan of Zhou 827 782 BC宮湦 Gongsheng 周幽王 King You of Zhou 781 771 BCEnd of Western Zhou Beginning of Eastern Zhou宜臼 Yijiu 周平王 King Ping of Zhou 770 720 BC林 Lin 周桓王 King Huan of Zhou 719 697 BC佗 Tuo 周莊王 King Zhuang of Zhou 696 682 BC胡齊 Huqi 周僖王 King Xi of Zhou 681 677 BC閬 Lang 周惠王 King Hui of Zhou 676 652 BC鄭 Zheng 周襄王 King Xiang of Zhou 651 619 BC壬臣 Renchen 周頃王 King Qing of Zhou 618 613 BC班 Ban 周匡王 King Kuang of Zhou 612 607 BC瑜 Yu 周定王 King Ding of Zhou 606 586 BC夷 Yi 周簡王 King Jian of Zhou 585 572 BC洩心 Xiexin 周靈王 King Ling of Zhou 571 545 BC貴 Gui 周景王 King Jing of Zhou 544 521 BC猛 Meng 周悼王 King Dao of Zhou 520 BC丐 Gai 周敬王 King Jing of Zhou 519 476 BC仁 Ren 周元王 King Yuan of Zhou 475 469 BC介 Jie 周貞定王 King Zhending of Zhou 468 442 BC去疾 Quji 周哀王 King Ai of Zhou 441 BC叔 Shu 周思王 King Si of Zhou 441 BC嵬 Wei 周考王 King Kao of Zhou 440 426 BC午 Wu 周威烈王 King Weilie of Zhou 425 402 BC驕 Jiao 周安王 King An of Zhou 401 376 BC喜 Xi 周烈王 King Lie of Zhou 375 369 BC扁 Bian 周顯王 King Xian of Zhou 368 321 BC定 Ding 周慎靚王 King Shenjing of Zhou 320 315 BC延 Yan 周赧王 King Nan of Zhou 314 256 BC Nobles of the Ji family proclaimed Duke Hui of Eastern Zhou as King Nan s successor after their capital Chengzhou fell to Qin forces in 256 BC Ji Zhao a son of King Nan led a resistance against Qin for five years The dukedom fell in 249 BC The remaining Ji family ruled Yan and Wei until 209 BC Astrology Edit Fittings in the form of tigers Baoji Shaanxi province Middle Western Zhou dynasty c 900 BC bronze In traditional Chinese astrology Zhou is represented by two stars Eta Capricorni 週一 Zhōu yi the First Star of Zhou and 21 Capricorni 週二 Zhōu er the Second Star of Zhou in Twelve States asterism 38 Zhou is also represented by the star Beta Serpentis in asterism Right Wall Heavenly Market enclosure see Chinese constellation 39 See also Edit China portal History portal Family tree of the Zhou dynasty Four occupations Historical capitals of China Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng Women in ancient and imperial ChinaNotes Edit Fenghao is the modern name for the twin city formed by the Western Zhou capitals of Haojing and Fengjing The exact location of Wangcheng and its relation to Chengzhou is disputed According to Xu Zhaofeng Chengzhou and Wangcheng were originally synonymous and used to name the same capital city from 771 to 510 BC The creation of a distinction between Wangcheng and Chengzhou probably occurred during the reign of King Jing under whom a new capital Chengzhou was built to the east of the old city Wangcheng Nevertheless the new Chengzhou was still sometimes called Wangcheng and vice versa adding to the confusion 1 The exact location of Bin remains obscure but it may have been close to Linfen on the Fen River in present day Shanxi 10 11 Sima Qian was only able to establish historical dates after the time of the Gonghe Regency Earlier dates like that of 1046 BC for the Battle of Muye are given in this article according to the official PRC Xia Shang Zhou Chronology Project but they remain contentious Various historians have offered dates for the battle ranging between 1122 and 1027 BC Bodman 1980 p 41 Moreover Shang dynasty Chinese at least in its syntax and lexicon seems not to differ basically from that of the Zhou dynasty whose language is amply attested in inscriptions on bronze vessels and which was transmitted in the early classical literature References EditCitations Edit a b c d e Considering Chengzhou Completion of Zhou and Wangcheng City of the King PDF Xu Zhaofeng Archived from the original PDF on July 22 2015 Retrieved 22 July 2015 Encyclopaedia Britannica Tian Retrieved 17 August 2015 Schinz 1996 p 80 Baxter Sagart Old Chinese reconstruction version 1 1 20 September 2014 PDF p 155 Von Glahn Richard 2016 The Economic History of China From Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century Cambridge Cambridge University Press p 11 ISBN 9781139343848 OCLC 944748318 a b Shijing Ode 245 Hou Ji Encyclopaedia Britannica Sima Qian Records of the Grand Historian Annals of Zhou 3 Wu 1982 p 235 Shaughnessy 1999 p 303 Wu 1982 p 273 David McCraw 2010 An ABC Exercise in Old Sinitic Lexical Statistics PDF Sino Platonic Papers 202 Jessica Rawson Western Zhou Archaeology in Michael Loewe Edward L Shaughnessy eds The Cambridge History of Ancient China From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B C Cambridge University Press 1999 pp 352 448 p 387 a b Li Feng 2006 Landscape And Power In Early China Cambridge University Press p 286 Chiang Po Yi 1 Jan 2008 Han Cultural and Political Influences in the Transformation of the Shizhaishan Cultural Complex Australian National University 1 2 Cite journal requires journal help Shaughnessy 1999 p 310 311 a b Chinn 2007 p 43 Hucker 1978 p 32 Hucker 1978 p 33 a b Hucker 1978 p 37 The Steppe Scythian successes Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Retrieved 31 December 2014 Carr Brian amp al Companion Encyclopaedia of Asian Philosophy p 466 Taylor amp Francis 2012 ISBN 041503535X 9780415035354 Li Feng 2006 Landscape and Power in Early China The Crisis and Fall of the Western Zhou 1045 771 BC Cambridge University Press p 40 ISBN 1139456881 a b c Tignor Robert L 24 October 2013 Worlds together worlds apart Adelman Jeremy Aron Stephen Brown Peter Elman Benjamin A Liu Xinru Pittman Holly fourth two volume ed New York ISBN 9780393922080 OCLC 870312289 a b c Shaw Robert Tignor Jeremy Adelman Peter Brown Benjamin Elman Xinru Liu Holly Pittman Brent 2014 Worlds together worlds apart Fourth ed p 153 ISBN 978 0 393 92208 0 Brashier K E 2011 01 01 Ancestral Memory in Early China ISBN 9780674056077 The ramage system in China and Polynesia Li Hwei Archived copy PDF Archived from the original PDF on 2013 09 21 Retrieved 2013 05 13 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Tao Hsi Sheng Marriage and Family Shanghai 1934 Ancestral Memory in Early China Written By K E Brashier https books google com books id aJAMLt5NYAQC amp pg PA71 The Confucian Transformation of Korea A Study of Society and Ideology Written By Martina Deuchler https books google com books id NQeeYOyUx64C amp pg PA129 ChinaKnowledge de encyclopedia http www chinaknowledge de History Zhou zhou admin html permanent dead link Alternatively the sequence was translated as prince lord elder master chieftain Brooks 1997 3 n 9 Li Hsiang Lisa Rosenlee 2012 Confucianism and Women A Philosophical Interpretation SUNY Press pp 21 24 ISBN 0791481794 Ebrey Walthall amp Palais 2006 p 14 Shaughnessy 1988 a b Krech amp Steinicke 2011 p 100 Schirokauer amp Brown 2006 pp 25 47 Thorp Robert L 2005 China in the Early Bronze Age University of Pennsylvania Press p 176 ISBN 978 0 8122 3910 2 in Chinese AEEA Astronomy Education Network 天文教育資訊網 in Chinese July 4 2006 Retrieved December 5 2010 in Chinese AEEA Astronomy Education Network 天文教育資訊網 in Chinese June 24 2006 Retrieved December 5 2010 Works cited Edit Beckwith Christopher I 16 March 2009 Empires of the Silk Road A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present Princeton University Press ISBN 978 1400829941 Retrieved 30 December 2014 Bodman Nicholas C 1980 Proto Chinese and Sino Tibetan data towards establishing the nature of the relationship in van Coetsem Frans Waugh Linda R eds Contributions to historical linguistics issues and materials Leiden E J Brill pp 34 199 ISBN 978 90 04 06130 9 Chinn Ann ping 2007 The Authentic Confucius Scribner ISBN 978 0 7432 4618 7 Ebrey Patricia Buckley Walthall Anne Palais James B 2006 East Asia A Cultural Social and Political History Boston Houghton Mifflin Company ISBN 0 618 13384 4 Gernet Jacques 1996 A History of Chinese Civilization Second ed Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521 49781 7 Hucker Charles O 1978 China to 1850 A short history Stanford University Press ISBN 0 8047 0958 0 Krech Volkhard Steinicke Marian 2011 Dynamics in the History of Religions between Asia and Europe Encounters Notions and Comparative Perspectives Brill ISBN 978 9004225350 Retrieved 30 December 2014 Khayutina Maria 2003 Where Was the Western Zhou Capital The Warring States Working Group WSWG 17 Leiden Germany Warring States Project p 14 archived from the original PDF on 2010 05 29 retrieved 2009 03 06 Kleeman Terry F 1998 Great Perfection Religion and Ethnicity in a Chinese Millennial Kingdom University of Hawaii Press ISBN 0824818008 Retrieved 31 December 2014 Schinz Alfred 1996 Axel Menges ed The Magic Square Cities in Ancient China Stuttgart London Daehan Printing amp Publishing Co Schirokauer Conrad Brown Miranda 2006 A Brief History of Chinese Civilization Second ed Wadsworth Thomson Learning pp 25 47 Shaughnessy Edward L 1988 Historical Perspectives on The Introduction of The Chariot Into China Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 48 1 189 237 doi 10 2307 2719276 JSTOR 2719276 Shaughnessy Edward L 1999 Western Zhou History in Loewe Michael Shaughnessy Edward L eds The Cambridge History of Ancient China pp 292 351 ISBN 978 0 521 47030 8 Wu K C 1982 The Chinese Heritage New York Crown Publishers ISBN 0 517 54475 XFurther reading EditFong Wen ed 1980 The great Bronze Age of China an exhibition from the People s Republic of China New York The Metropolitan Museum of Art ISBN 978 0 87099 226 1 Lee Yuan Yuan Shen Sinyan 1999 Chinese Musical Instruments Chinese Music Monograph Series Chinese Music Society of North America Press ISBN 978 1 880464 03 8 Li Feng 2006 Landscape and Power in Early China The Crisis and Fall of the Western Zhou 1045 771 BC Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 85272 2 Shen Sinyan 1987 Acoustics of Ancient Chinese Bells Scientific American 256 4 94 Bibcode 1987SciAm 256d 104S doi 10 1038 scientificamerican0487 104 Sun Yan 2006 Cultural and Political Control in North China Style and Use of the Bronzes of Yan at Liulihe during the Early Western Zhou in Mair Victor H ed Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World Honolulu University of Hawai i Press pp 215 237 ISBN 978 0 8248 2884 4 Wagner Donald B 1999 The Earliest Use of Iron in China in Young S M M Pollard A M Budd P et al eds Metals in Antiquity Oxford Archaeopress pp 1 9 ISBN 978 1 84171 008 2 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Zhou Dynasty Chinese Text Project Rulers of the Zhou period with links to their occurrences in pre Qin and Han texts Preceded by Shang dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history 1046 256 BC Succeeded by Qin dynasty Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zhou dynasty amp oldid 1052471489, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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