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Sphalerite

"Zincblende" redirects here. For crystal structure, see Zincblende (crystal structure).

Sphalerite is a sulfide mineral with the chemical formula(Zn,Fe)S and an ore of zinc. When the iron content is high, sphalerite is an opaque black variety called marmatite. German geologist Ernst Friedrich Glocker discovered sphalerite in 1847, naming it based on the Greek word sphaleros, meaning "deceiving", due to the difficulty of identifying the mineral. Sphalerite is found in association with galena, chalcopyrite, pyrite (and other sulfides), calcite, dolomite, quartz, rhodochrosite, and fluorite. Miners have been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende, black-jack, and ruby blende. Sphalerite is found in a variety of deposit types, but it is primarily in sedimentary exhalative, Mississippi-Valley type, and volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. It is used for zinc, brass, bronze, gemstones, galvanization, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.

Sphalerite
Black crystals of sphalerite with minor chalcopyrite and calcite
General
CategorySulfide mineral
Formula
(repeating unit)
(Zn,Fe)S
Strunz classification2.CB.05a
Dana classification02.08.02.01
Crystal systemCubic
Crystal classHextetrahedral (43m)
H-M symbol: (4 3m)
Space groupF43m (No. 216)
Unit cella = 5.406 Å; Z = 4
Structure
Jmol (3D)Interactive image
Identification
ColorLight to dark brown, red-brown, yellow, red, green, light blue, black and colourless.
Crystal habitEuhedral crystals – occurs as well-formed crystals showing good external form. Granular – generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix.
TwinningSimple contact twins or complex lamellar forms, twin axis [111]
Cleavageperfect
FractureUneven to conchoidal
Mohs scale hardness3.5–4
LusterAdamantine, resinous, greasy
Streakbrownish white, pale yellow
DiaphaneityTransparent to translucent, opaque when iron-rich
Specific gravity3.9–4.2
Optical propertiesIsotropic
Refractive indexnα = 2.369
Other characteristicsnon-radioactive, non-magnetic, fluorescent and triboluminescent.
References

Sphalerite belongs to the hextetrahedral crystal class ( 4 ¯ 3 m {\displaystyle {\bar {4}}3m} ), as part of the cubic (isometric) crystal system. In the crystal structure, sulfur atoms form stacked layers, and zinc and iron fill in-between the layers and are tetrahedrally coordinated to the sulfur atoms. Minerals similar to sphalerite include those in the sphalerite group, consisting of sphalerite, colaradoite, hawleyite, metacinnabar, stilleite and tiemannite. The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond. The hexagonal polymorph of sphalerite is wurtzite, and the trigonal polymorph is matraite. Wurtzite is the higher temperature polymorph, sphalerite will become wurtzite at 1020 °C. The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the zinc blende crystal structure is 0.541 nm. Sphalerite has been found as a pseudomorph, taking the crystal structure of galena, tetrahedrite, barite and calcite. Sphalerite can have Spinel Law twins, where the twin axis is [111].

  • The crystal structure of sphalerite

The chemical formula of sphalerite is(Zn,Fe)S; the iron content generally increases with increasing formation temperature and can reach up to 40%. All natural sphalerite contains concentrations of various impurities, which generally substitute for zinc in the cation position in the lattice; the most common cation impurities are cadmium, mercury and manganese, but gallium, germanium and indium may also be present in relatively high concentrations (hundreds to thousands of ppm). Cadmium can replace up to 1% of zinc and manganese is generally found in sphalerite with high iron abundances. Sulfur in the anion position can be substituted for by selenium and tellurium. The abundances of these impurities are controlled by the conditions under which the sphalerite formed; formation temperature, pressure, element availability and fluid composition are important controls.

Physical properties

In thin section, sphalerite exhibits very high positive relief and appears colorless to pale yellow or brown, with no pleochroism. It possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage, having six cleavage planes. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, average wavelength 589.3 nm) ranges from 2.37 when it is pure ZnS to 2.50 when there is 40% iron content. Sphalerite is isotropic under cross-polarized light, however sphalerite can experience birefringence if intergrown with its polymorph wurtzite; the birefringence can increase from 0 (0% wurtzite) up to 0.022 (100% wurtzite).

  • Sphalerite fluorescing under ultra violet light. Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Kansas, USA

Optical properties

In thin section, sphalerite exhibits very high positive relief and appears colorless to pale yellow or brown, with no pleochroism. It possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage, having six cleavage planes. The refractive index of sphalerite (as measured via sodium light, average wavelength 589.3 nm) ranges from 2.37 when it is pure ZnS to 2.50 when there is 40% iron content. Sphalerite is isotropic under cross-polarized light, however sphalerite can experience birefringence if intergrown with its polymorph wurtzite; the birefringence can increase from 0 (0% wurtzite) up to 0.022 (100% wurtzite).

Gemmy, colorless to pale green sphalerite from Franklin, New Jersey (see Franklin Furnace), are highly fluorescent orange and/or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane, an almost pure ZnS variety. Cleiophane contains less than 0.1% of iron in the sphalerite crystal structure. Marmatite or christophite is an opaque black variety of sphalerite and its coloring is due to high quantities of iron, which can reach up to 25%; marmatite is named after Marmato mining district in Colombia and christophite is named for the St. Christoph mine in Breitenbrunn, Saxony. Both marmatite and cleiophane are not recognized by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA). Red, orange or brownish-red sphalerite is termed ruby blende or ruby zinc, whereas dark colored sphalerite is termed black-jack.

Sphalerite is amongst the most common sulfide minerals, and it is found worldwide and in a variety of deposit types. The reason for the wide distribution of sphalerite is that is appears in many types of deposits; it is found in skarns, hydrothermal deposits, sedimentary beds, volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS), Mississippi-valley type deposits (MVT), granite and coal.

Sedimentary exhalitive

Approximately 50% of zinc (from sphalerite) and lead comes from Sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits, which are stratiform Pb-Zn sulfides that form at seafloor vents. The metals precipitate from hydrothermal fluids and are hosted by shales, carbonates and organic-rich siltstones in back-arc basins and failed continental rifts. The main ore minerals in SEDEX deposits are sphalerite, galena, pyrite, pyrrhotite and marcasite, with minor sulfosalts such as tetrahedrite-freibergite and boulangerite; the Zn + Pb grade typically ranges between 10-20%. Important SEDEX mines are Red Dog in Alaska, Sullivan in British Columbia, Mount Isa and Broken Hill in Australia and Mehdiabad in Iran.

Mississippi-Valley type

Similar to SEDEX, Mississippi-Valley type (MVT) deposits are also a Pb-Zn deposit which contains sphalerite. However, they only account for 15–20% of zinc and lead, are 25% smaller in tonnage than SEDEX deposits and have lower grades of 5–10% Pb + Zn. MVT deposits form from the replacement of carbonate host rocks such as dolostone and limestone by ore minerals; they are located in platforms and foreland thrust belts. Furthermore, they are stratabound, typically Phanerozoic in age and epigenetic (form after the lithification of the carbonate host rocks). The ore minerals are the same as SEDEX deposits: sphalerite, galena, pyrite, pyrrhotite and marcasite, with minor sulfosalts. Mines that contain MVT deposits include Polaris in the Canadian arctic, Mississippi River in the United States, Pine Point in Northwest Territories, and Admiral Bay in Australia.

Volcanogenic massive sulfide

Volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits can be Cu-Zn- or Zn-Pb-Cu-rich, and accounts for 25% of Zn in reserves. There are various types of VMS deposits with a range of regional contexts and host rock compositions; a common characteristic is that they are all hosted by submarine volcanic rocks. They form from metals such as copper and zinc being transferred by hydrothermal fluids (modified seawater) which leach them from volcanic rocks in the oceanic crust; the metal-saturated fluid rises through fractures and faults to the surface, where it cools and deposits the metals as a VMS deposit. The most abundant ore minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and pyrrhotite. Mines that contain VMS deposits include Kidd Creek in Ontario, Urals in Russia, Troodos in Cyprus and Besshi in Japan.

Localities

The top producers of sphalerite include the United States, Russia, Mexico, Germany, Australia, Canada, China, Ireland, Peru, Kazakhstan and England.

Sources of high quality crystals include:

Place Country
Freiberg, Saxony,
Neudorf, Harz Mountains
Germany
Lengenbach Quarry, Binntal, Valais Switzerland
Horni Slavkov and Příbram Czech Republic
Rodna Romania
Madan, Smolyan Province, Rhodope Mountains Bulgaria
Aliva mine, Picos de Europa Mountains, Cantabria [Santander] Province Spain
Alston Moor, Cumbria England
Dalnegorsk, Primorskiy Kray Russia
Watson Lake, Yukon Territory Canada
Flin Flon, Manitoba Canada
Tri-State district including deposits near
Baxter Springs, Cherokee County, Kansas;
Joplin, Jasper County, Missouri
and Picher, Ottawa County, Oklahoma
USA
Elmwood mine, near Carthage, Smith County, Tennessee USA
Eagle mine, Gilman district, Eagle County, Colorado USA
Santa Eulalia, Chihuahua Mexico
Naica, Chihuahua Mexico
Cananea, Sonora Mexico
Huaron Peru
Casapalca Peru
Huancavelica Peru
Zinkgruvan Sweden

Metal

Sphalerite is an important ore of zinc; around 95% of all primary zinc is extracted from sphalerite ore. However, due to its variable trace element content, sphalerite is also an important source of several other metals such as cadmium, gallium germanium, and indium which replace zinc.

Brass and bronze

The zinc in sphalerite is used to produce brass, an alloy of copper with 3–45% zinc. Major element alloy compositions of brass objects provide evidence that sphalerite was being used to produce brass by the Islamic as far back as the medieval ages between the 7th and 16th century CE. Sphalerite may have also been used during the cementation process of brass in Northern China during the 12th–13th century CE (Jin Dynasty). Similarly to brass, the zinc in sphalerite can also be used to produce certain types of bronze; bronze is dominantly copper which is alloyed with other metals such as tin, zinc, lead, nickel, iron and arsenic.

Other

  • Yule Marble – sphalerite is found as intrusions in yule marble, which is used as a building material for the Lincoln Memorial and Tomb of the Unknown.
  • Galvanized iron – zinc from sphalerite is used as a protective coating to prevent corrosion and rusting; it is used on power transmission towers, nails and automobiles.
  • Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics – zinc is important to human health (as well as animals and plants) and is used in the body to grow, taste, smell, heal and by the immune system; a zinc deficiency can cause many side effects. Mined zinc from sphalerite can be used to produce zinc supplements, for food fortification and agronomic biofortification. Furthermore, zinc is used in products such as makeup, soap and especially sunscreen because it is useful in blocking ultraviolet radiation form the sun.
  • Batteries
  • Gemstone
  • Sphalerite and barite from Cumberland Mine, Tennessee, USA

  • Sphalerite on dolostone, from Millersville Quarry, Ohio, USA

  • Tan crystal of calcite attached to a cluster of black sphalerite crystals

  • Sharp, tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine, Telluride, Ouray District, Colorado, USA

  • Gem quality twinned cherry-red sphalerite crystal (1.8 cm) from Hunan Province, China

  • Sphalerite crystals from Áliva, Camaleño, Cantabria (Spain)

  • Purple fluorite and sphalerite, from the Elmwood mine, Smith county, Tennessee, US

  • Shalerite crystal in geodized brachiopod

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Sphalerite
Sphalerite Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Zinc blende Zincblende redirects here For crystal structure see Zincblende crystal structure Sphalerite is a sulfide mineral with the chemical formula Zn Fe S and an ore of zinc 4 5 When the iron content is high sphalerite is an opaque black variety called marmatite 6 German geologist Ernst Friedrich Glocker discovered sphalerite in 1847 naming it based on the Greek word sphaleros meaning deceiving due to the difficulty of identifying the mineral 7 Sphalerite is found in association with galena chalcopyrite pyrite and other sulfides calcite dolomite quartz rhodochrosite and fluorite 8 Miners have been known to refer to sphalerite as zinc blende black jack and ruby blende 9 Sphalerite is found in a variety of deposit types but it is primarily in sedimentary exhalative Mississippi Valley type and volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits 10 It is used for zinc brass bronze gemstones galvanization pharmaceuticals and cosmetics 11 SphaleriteBlack crystals of sphalerite with minor chalcopyrite and calciteGeneralCategorySulfide mineralFormula repeating unit Zn Fe SStrunz classification2 CB 05aDana classification02 08 02 01Crystal systemCubicCrystal classHextetrahedral 4 3m H M symbol 4 3m Space groupF4 3m No 216 Unit cella 5 406 A Z 4StructureJmol 3D Interactive imageIdentificationColorLight to dark brown red brown yellow red green light blue black and colourless Crystal habitEuhedral crystals occurs as well formed crystals showing good external form Granular generally occurs as anhedral to subhedral crystals in matrix TwinningSimple contact twins or complex lamellar forms twin axis 111 CleavageperfectFractureUneven to conchoidalMohs scale hardness3 5 4LusterAdamantine resinous greasyStreakbrownish white pale yellowDiaphaneityTransparent to translucent opaque when iron richSpecific gravity3 9 4 2Optical propertiesIsotropicRefractive indexna 2 369Other characteristicsnon radioactive non magnetic fluorescent and triboluminescent References 1 2 3 Crystal habit and structure EditSphalerite belongs to the hextetrahedral crystal class 4 3 m displaystyle bar 4 3m as part of the cubic isometric crystal system 12 In the crystal structure sulfur atoms form stacked layers and zinc and iron fill in between the layers and are tetrahedrally coordinated to the sulfur atoms 8 Minerals similar to sphalerite include those in the sphalerite group consisting of sphalerite colaradoite hawleyite metacinnabar stilleite and tiemannite 13 The structure is closely related to the structure of diamond 12 The hexagonal polymorph of sphalerite is wurtzite and the trigonal polymorph is matraite 13 Wurtzite is the higher temperature polymorph sphalerite will become wurtzite at 1020 C 14 The lattice constant for zinc sulfide in the zinc blende crystal structure is 0 541 nm 15 Sphalerite has been found as a pseudomorph taking the crystal structure of galena tetrahedrite barite and calcite 14 16 Sphalerite can have Spinel Law twins where the twin axis is 111 13 The crystal structure of sphalerite The chemical formula of sphalerite is Zn Fe S the iron content generally increases with increasing formation temperature and can reach up to 40 8 All natural sphalerite contains concentrations of various impurities which generally substitute for zinc in the cation position in the lattice the most common cation impurities are cadmium mercury and manganese but gallium germanium and indium may also be present in relatively high concentrations hundreds to thousands of ppm 4 17 Cadmium can replace up to 1 of zinc and manganese is generally found in sphalerite with high iron abundances 13 Sulfur in the anion position can be substituted for by selenium and tellurium 13 The abundances of these impurities are controlled by the conditions under which the sphalerite formed formation temperature pressure element availability and fluid composition are important controls 17 Properties EditPhysical properties Edit In thin section sphalerite exhibits very high positive relief and appears colorless to pale yellow or brown with no pleochroism 8 It possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage having six cleavage planes 18 The refractive index of sphalerite as measured via sodium light average wavelength 589 3 nm ranges from 2 37 when it is pure ZnS to 2 50 when there is 40 iron content 8 Sphalerite is isotropic under cross polarized light however sphalerite can experience birefringence if intergrown with its polymorph wurtzite the birefringence can increase from 0 0 wurtzite up to 0 022 100 wurtzite 19 8 Sphalerite fluorescing under ultra violet light Sternberg Museum of Natural History Kansas USAOptical properties Edit In thin section sphalerite exhibits very high positive relief and appears colorless to pale yellow or brown with no pleochroism 8 It possesses perfect dodecahedral cleavage having six cleavage planes 12 The refractive index of sphalerite as measured via sodium light average wavelength 589 3 nm ranges from 2 37 when it is pure ZnS to 2 50 when there is 40 iron content 8 Sphalerite is isotropic under cross polarized light however sphalerite can experience birefringence if intergrown with its polymorph wurtzite the birefringence can increase from 0 0 wurtzite up to 0 022 100 wurtzite 8 14 Varieties EditGemmy colorless to pale green sphalerite from Franklin New Jersey see Franklin Furnace are highly fluorescent orange and or blue under longwave ultraviolet light and are known as cleiophane an almost pure ZnS variety 20 Cleiophane contains less than 0 1 of iron in the sphalerite crystal structure 13 Marmatite or christophite is an opaque black variety of sphalerite and its coloring is due to high quantities of iron which can reach up to 25 marmatite is named after Marmato mining district in Colombia and christophite is named for the St Christoph mine in Breitenbrunn Saxony 20 Both marmatite and cleiophane are not recognized by the International Mineralogical Association IMA 21 Red orange or brownish red sphalerite is termed ruby blende or ruby zinc whereas dark colored sphalerite is termed black jack 20 Deposit types EditSphalerite is amongst the most common sulfide minerals and it is found worldwide and in a variety of deposit types 9 The reason for the wide distribution of sphalerite is that is appears in many types of deposits it is found in skarns 22 hydrothermal deposits 23 sedimentary beds 24 volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits VMS 25 Mississippi valley type deposits MVT 26 27 granite 13 and coal 28 Sedimentary exhalitive Edit Approximately 50 of zinc from sphalerite and lead comes from Sedimentary exhalative SEDEX deposits which are stratiform Pb Zn sulfides that form at seafloor vents 11 The metals precipitate from hydrothermal fluids and are hosted by shales carbonates and organic rich siltstones in back arc basins and failed continental rifts 10 The main ore minerals in SEDEX deposits are sphalerite galena pyrite pyrrhotite and marcasite with minor sulfosalts such as tetrahedrite freibergite and boulangerite the Zn Pb grade typically ranges between 10 20 10 Important SEDEX mines are Red Dog in Alaska Sullivan in British Columbia Mount Isa and Broken Hill in Australia and Mehdiabad in Iran 29 Mississippi Valley type Edit Similar to SEDEX Mississippi Valley type MVT deposits are also a Pb Zn deposit which contains sphalerite 30 However they only account for 15 20 of zinc and lead are 25 smaller in tonnage than SEDEX deposits and have lower grades of 5 10 Pb Zn 10 MVT deposits form from the replacement of carbonate host rocks such as dolostone and limestone by ore minerals they are located in platforms and foreland thrust belts 10 Furthermore they are stratabound typically Phanerozoic in age and epigenetic form after the lithification of the carbonate host rocks 31 The ore minerals are the same as SEDEX deposits sphalerite galena pyrite pyrrhotite and marcasite with minor sulfosalts 31 Mines that contain MVT deposits include Polaris in the Canadian arctic Mississippi River in the United States Pine Point in Northwest Territories and Admiral Bay in Australia 32 Volcanogenic massive sulfide Edit Volcanogenic massive sulfide VMS deposits can be Cu Zn or Zn Pb Cu rich and accounts for 25 of Zn in reserves 10 There are various types of VMS deposits with a range of regional contexts and host rock compositions a common characteristic is that they are all hosted by submarine volcanic rocks 11 They form from metals such as copper and zinc being transferred by hydrothermal fluids modified seawater which leach them from volcanic rocks in the oceanic crust the metal saturated fluid rises through fractures and faults to the surface where it cools and deposits the metals as a VMS deposit 33 The most abundant ore minerals are pyrite chalcopyrite sphalerite and pyrrhotite 10 Mines that contain VMS deposits include Kidd Creek in Ontario Urals in Russia Troodos in Cyprus and Besshi in Japan 34 Localities Edit The top producers of sphalerite include the United States Russia Mexico Germany Australia Canada China Ireland Peru Kazakhstan and England 35 36 Sources of high quality crystals include Place CountryFreiberg Saxony Neudorf Harz Mountains GermanyLengenbach Quarry Binntal Valais SwitzerlandHorni Slavkov and Pribram Czech RepublicRodna RomaniaMadan Smolyan Province Rhodope Mountains BulgariaAliva mine Picos de Europa Mountains Cantabria Santander Province SpainAlston Moor Cumbria EnglandDalnegorsk Primorskiy Kray RussiaWatson Lake Yukon Territory CanadaFlin Flon Manitoba CanadaTri State district including deposits near Baxter Springs Cherokee County Kansas Joplin Jasper County Missouri and Picher Ottawa County Oklahoma USAElmwood mine near Carthage Smith County Tennessee USAEagle mine Gilman district Eagle County Colorado USASanta Eulalia Chihuahua MexicoNaica Chihuahua MexicoCananea Sonora MexicoHuaron PeruCasapalca PeruHuancavelica PeruZinkgruvan SwedenUses EditMetal Edit Sphalerite is an important ore of zinc around 95 of all primary zinc is extracted from sphalerite ore 37 However due to its variable trace element content sphalerite is also an important source of several other metals such as cadmium 38 gallium 39 germanium 40 and indium 41 which replace zinc Brass and bronze Edit The zinc in sphalerite is used to produce brass an alloy of copper with 3 45 zinc 18 Major element alloy compositions of brass objects provide evidence that sphalerite was being used to produce brass by the Islamic as far back as the medieval ages between the 7th and 16th century CE 42 Sphalerite may have also been used during the cementation process of brass in Northern China during the 12th 13th century CE Jin Dynasty 43 Similarly to brass the zinc in sphalerite can also be used to produce certain types of bronze bronze is dominantly copper which is alloyed with other metals such as tin zinc lead nickel iron and arsenic 44 Other Edit Yule Marble sphalerite is found as intrusions in yule marble which is used as a building material for the Lincoln Memorial and Tomb of the Unknown 45 Galvanized iron zinc from sphalerite is used as a protective coating to prevent corrosion and rusting it is used on power transmission towers nails and automobiles 36 Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics zinc is important to human health as well as animals and plants and is used in the body to grow taste smell heal and by the immune system a zinc deficiency can cause many side effects 46 Mined zinc from sphalerite can be used to produce zinc supplements for food fortification and agronomic biofortification 47 Furthermore zinc is used in products such as makeup soap and especially sunscreen because it is useful in blocking ultraviolet radiation form the sun 11 Batteries 48 Gemstone 49 50 Gallery Edit Sphalerite and barite from Cumberland Mine Tennessee USA Sphalerite on dolostone from Millersville Quarry Ohio USA Tan crystal of calcite attached to a cluster of black sphalerite crystals Sharp tetrahedral sphalerite crystals with minor associated chalcopyrite from the Idarado Mine Telluride Ouray District Colorado USA Gem quality twinned cherry red sphalerite crystal 1 8 cm from Hunan Province China Sphalerite crystals from Aliva Camaleno Cantabria Spain Purple fluorite and sphalerite from the Elmwood mine Smith county Tennessee US Shalerite crystal in geodized brachiopodSee also EditList of mineralsReferences Edit Sphalerite WebMineral com retrieved 2011 06 20 Sphalerite Mindat org retrieved 2011 06 20 Sphalerite PDF Handbook of Mineralogy RRUFF Project a b Cook Nigel J Ciobanu Cristiana L Pring Allan Skinner William Shimizu Masaaki Danyushevsky Leonid Saini Eidukat Bernhardt Melcher Frank 2009 Trace and minor elements in sphalerite A LA ICPMS study Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73 16 4761 4791 Bibcode 2009GeCoA 73 4761C doi 10 1016 j gca 2009 05 045 Muntyan Barbara L 1999 Colorado Sphalerite Rocks amp Minerals 74 4 220 235 doi 10 1080 00357529909602545 ISSN 0035 7529 via Scholars Portal Journals Zhou Jiahui Jiang Feng Li Sijie Zhao Wenqing Sun Wei Ji Xiaobo Yang Yue 2019 Natural marmatite with low discharge platform and excellent cyclicity as potential anode material for lithium ion batteries Electrochimica Acta 321 134676 doi 10 1016 j electacta 2019 134676 via Elsevier SD Freedom Collection Glocker Ernst Friedrich Generum et specierum mineralium secundum ordines naturales digestorum synopsis omnium quotquot adhuc reperta sunt mineralium nomina complectens Adjectis synonymis et veteribus et recentioribus ac novissimarum analysium chemicarum summis Systematis mineralium naturalis prodromus OCLC 995480390 a b c d e f g h i Nesse William D 2013 Introduction to optical mineralogy 4th ed New York Oxford University Press p 121 ISBN 978 0 19 984627 6 OCLC 817795500 a b Richard Rennie and Jonathan Law 2016 A dictionary of chemistry 7th ed Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 178954 0 OCLC 936373100 a b c d e f g Arndt N T 2015 Metals and society an introduction to economic geology Stephen E Kesler Clement Ganino 2nd ed Cham ISBN 978 3 319 17232 3 OCLC 914168910 a b c d Kropschot S J Doebrich Jeff L 2011 Zinc The key to preventing corrosion Fact Sheet doi 10 3133 fs20113016 ISSN 2327 6932 a b c Klein Cornelis 2017 Earth materials introduction to mineralogy and petrology Anthony R Philpotts 2nd ed Cambridge United Kingdom ISBN 978 1 107 15540 4 OCLC 962853030 a b c d e f g Cook Robert B 2003 Connoisseur s Choice Sphalerite Eagle Mine Gilman Eagle County Colorado Rocks amp Minerals 78 5 330 334 doi 10 1080 00357529 2003 9926742 ISSN 0035 7529 S2CID 130762310 a b c Deer W A 2013 An introduction to the rock forming minerals R A Howie J Zussman 3rd ed London ISBN 978 0 903056 27 4 OCLC 858884283 International Centre for Diffraction Data reference 04 004 3804 ICCD reference 04 004 3804 Kloprogge J Theo 2017 Photo atlas of mineral pseudomorphism Robert M Lavinsky Amsterdam Netherlands ISBN 978 0 12 803703 4 OCLC 999727666 a b Frenzel Max Hirsch Tamino Gutzmer Jens July 2016 Gallium germanium indium and other trace and minor elements in sphalerite as a function of deposit type A meta analysis Ore Geology Reviews 76 52 78 doi 10 1016 j oregeorev 2015 12 017 a b Klein Cornelis Philpotts Anthony 2017 Earth materials introduction to mineralogy and petrology 2nd ed Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 1 107 15540 4 OCLC 975051556 Deer W A Howie R A Zussman J 2013 An introduction to the rock forming minerals 3rd ed London ISBN 978 0 903056 27 4 OCLC 858884283 a b c Manutchehr Danai Mohsen 2009 Dictionary of gems and gemology 3rd ed New York Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg ISBN 9783540727958 OCLC 646793373 International Mineralogical Association Commission on New Minerals Nomenclature and Classification cnmnc main jp Retrieved 2021 02 25 Ye Lin Cook Nigel J Ciobanu Cristiana L Yuping Liu Qian Zhang Tiegeng Liu Wei Gao Yulong Yang Danyushevskiy Leonid 2011 Trace and minor elements in sphalerite from base metal deposits in South China A LA ICPMS study Ore Geology Reviews 39 4 188 217 doi 10 1016 j oregeorev 2011 03 001 Knorsch Manuel Nadoll Patrick Klemd Reiner 2020 Trace elements and textures of hydrothermal sphalerite and pyrite in Upper Permian Zechstein carbonates of the North German Basin Journal of Geochemical Exploration 209 106416 doi 10 1016 j gexplo 2019 106416 Zhu Chuanwei Liao Shili Wang Wei Zhang Yuxu Yang Tao Fan Haifeng Wen Hanjie 2018 Variations in Zn and S isotope chemistry of sedimentary sphalerite Wusihe Zn Pb deposit Sichuan Province China Ore Geology Reviews 95 639 648 doi 10 1016 j oregeorev 2018 03 018 Akbulut Mehmet Oyman Tolga Cicek Mustafa Selby David Ozgenc Ismet Tokcaer Murat 2016 Petrography mineral chemistry fluid inclusion microthermometry and Re Os geochronology of the Kure volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit Central Pontides Northern Turkey Ore Geology Reviews 76 1 18 doi 10 1016 j oregeorev 2016 01 002 Nakai Shun ichi Halliday Alex N Kesler Stephen E Jones Henry D Kyle J Richard Lane Thomas E 1993 Rb Sr dating of sphalerites from Mississippi Valley type MVT ore deposits Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 57 2 417 427 Bibcode 1993GeCoA 57 417N doi 10 1016 0016 7037 93 90440 8 hdl 2027 42 31084 Viets John G Hopkins Roy T Miller Bruce M 1992 Variations in minor and trace metals in sphalerite from mississippi valley type deposits of the Ozark region genetic implications Economic Geology 87 7 1897 1905 doi 10 2113 gsecongeo 87 7 1897 ISSN 1554 0774 Hatch J R Gluskoter H J Lindahl P C 1976 Sphalerite in coals from the Illinois Basin Economic Geology 71 3 613 624 doi 10 2113 gsecongeo 71 3 613 ISSN 1554 0774 Emsbo Poul Seal Robert R Breit George N Diehl Sharon F Shah Anjana K 2016 Sedimentary exhalative SEDEX zinc lead silver deposit model Scientific Investigations Report doi 10 3133 sir20105070n ISSN 2328 0328 Misra Kula C 2000 Mississippi Valley Type MVT Zinc Lead Deposits Understanding Mineral Deposits Dordrecht Springer Netherlands pp 573 612 doi 10 1007 978 94 011 3925 0 13 ISBN 978 94 010 5752 3 retrieved 2021 03 26 a b Haldar S K 2020 Mineral deposits host rocks and genetic model Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology Elsevier pp 313 348 doi 10 1016 b978 0 12 820585 3 00009 0 ISBN 978 0 12 820585 3 retrieved 2021 03 26 Sangster D F 1995 Mississippi valley type lead zinc doi 10 4095 207988 Cite journal requires journal help Roland Shanks Wayne C Thurston 2012 Volcanogenic massive sulfide occurrence model U S Dept of the Interior U S Geological Survey OCLC 809680409 du Bray Edward A 1995 Preliminary compilation of descriptive geoenvironmental mineral deposit models Open File Report doi 10 3133 ofr95831 ISSN 2331 1258 Muntyan Barbara L 1999 Colorado Sphalerite Rocks amp Minerals 74 4 220 235 doi 10 1080 00357529909602545 ISSN 0035 7529 a b Zinc Agricultural and Mineral Commodities Year Book 0 ed Routledge pp 358 366 2003 09 02 doi 10 4324 9780203403556 47 ISBN 978 0 203 40355 6 retrieved 2021 02 25 Zinc Statistics and Information www usgs gov Retrieved 2021 02 25 Cadmium In USGS Mineral Commodity Summaries United States Geological Survey 2017 Frenzel Max Ketris Marina P Seifert Thomas Gutzmer Jens March 2016 On the current and future availability of gallium Resources Policy 47 38 50 doi 10 1016 j resourpol 2015 11 005 Frenzel Max Ketris Marina P Gutzmer Jens 2014 04 01 On the geological availability of germanium Mineralium Deposita 49 4 471 486 Bibcode 2014MinDe 49 471F doi 10 1007 s00126 013 0506 z ISSN 0026 4598 S2CID 129902592 Frenzel Max Mikolajczak Claire Reuter Markus A Gutzmer Jens June 2017 Quantifying the relative availability of high tech by product metals The cases of gallium germanium and indium Resources Policy 52 327 335 doi 10 1016 j resourpol 2017 04 008 Craddock P T 1990 Brass in the medieval Islamic world 2000 years of zinc and brass British Museum Publications Ltd pp 73 101 ISBN 0 86159 050 3 Xiao Hongyan Huang Xin Cui Jianfeng 2020 Local cementation brass production during 12th 13th century CE North China Evidences from a royal summer palace of Jin Dynasty Journal of Archaeological Science Reports 34 102657 doi 10 1016 j jasrep 2020 102657 Tylecote R F 2002 A history of metallurgy Institute of Materials 2nd ed London Maney Pub for the Institute of Materials ISBN 1 902653 79 3 OCLC 705004248 S McGee E 1999 Colorado Yule marble building stone of the Lincoln Memorial an investigation of differences in durability of the Colorado Yule marble a widely used building stone U S Dept of the Interior U S Geological Survey ISBN 0 607 91994 9 OCLC 1004947563 Roohani Nazanin Hurrell Richard Kelishadi Roya Schulin Rainer 2013 Zinc and its importance for human health An integrative review Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 18 2 144 157 ISSN 1735 1995 PMC 3724376 PMID 23914218 Hess Sonja Y Brown Kenneth H 2009 Impact of Zinc Fortification on Zinc Nutrition Food and Nutrition Bulletin 30 1 suppl1 S79 S107 doi 10 1177 15648265090301s106 ISSN 0379 5721 PMID 19472603 S2CID 2761636 Hai Yun Wang Shuonan Liu Hao Lv Guocheng Mei Lefu Liao Libing 2020 Nanosized Zinc Sulfide Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Synthesized from Natural Bulk Sphalerite as Good Performance Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries JOM 72 12 4505 4513 Bibcode 2020JOM 72 4505H doi 10 1007 s11837 020 04372 5 ISSN 1047 4838 Voudouris Panagiotis Mavrogonatos Constantinos Graham Ian Giuliani Gaston Tarantola Alexandre Melfos Vasilios Karampelas Stefanos Katerinopoulos Athanasios Magganas Andreas 2019 07 29 Gemstones of Greece Geology and Crystallizing Environments Minerals 9 8 461 doi 10 3390 min9080461 ISSN 2075 163X Murphy Jack Modreski Peter 2002 08 01 A Tour of Colorado Gemstone Localities Rocks amp Minerals 77 4 218 238 doi 10 1080 00357529 2002 9925639 ISSN 0035 7529 S2CID 128754037 Dana s Manual of Mineralogy ISBN 0 471 03288 3 Webster R Read P G Ed 2000 Gems Their sources descriptions and identification 5th ed p 386 Butterworth Heinemann Great Britain ISBN 0 7506 1674 1 Minerals net Minerals of Franklin NJExternal links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Sphalerite The sphalerite structure Possible relation of Sphalerite to origins of life and precursor chemicals in Primordial Soup Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sphalerite amp oldid 1050507052, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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