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Zionist political violence

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Zionist political violence refers to acts of violence or terror committed by Zionists. The most active period of most notable Zionist political violence began on June 30, 1924, through the 1940s, and continues to the present day, usually for the purpose of expanding Zionist settlements in Palestine.

Aftermath of the King David Hotel bombing, 1946

Contents

Actions were carried out by individuals and Jewish paramilitary groups such as the Irgun, the Lehi, the Haganah and the Palmach as part of a conflict between Jews, British authorities, and Palestinian Arabs, regarding land, immigration, and control over Palestine.

British soldiers and officials, United Nations personnel, Palestinian Arab fighters and civilians, and Jewish fighters and civilians were targets or victims of these actions. Domestic, commercial, and government property, infrastructure, and material have also been attacked.

During World War I, Zionist volunteers fought in the Jewish Legion of the British Army against the Ottoman Turks

During the 1920 Nebi Musa riots, the 1921 Jaffa riots and the 1929 Palestine riots, Palestinian Arabs manifested hostility against Zionist immigration, which provoked the reaction of Jewish militias. In 1935, the Irgun, a Zionist underground military organization, split off from the Haganah. The Irgun were the armed expression of the nascent ideology of Revisionist Zionism founded by Ze'ev Jabotinsky. He expressed this ideology as "every Jew had the right to enter Palestine; only active retaliation would deter the Arab and the British; only Jewish armed force would ensure the Jewish state".

During the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine, Palestinian Arabs fought for the end of the Mandate and the creation of an Arab state based on the whole of Palestine. They attacked both British and Jews as well as some Palestinian Arabs who supported a Pan-Arabism. Mainstream Zionists, represented by the Vaad Leumi and the Haganah, practiced the policy of Havlagah (restraint); Irgun militants did not follow this policy and called themselves "Havlagah breakers." The Irgun began bombing Palestinian Arab civilian targets in 1938. While the Palestinian Arabs were "carefully disarmed" by the British Mandatory authorities by 1939, the Zionists were not. As a conciliation to the Arabs, the White Paper of 1939 was passed, imposing significant limits in Jewish immigration in the shadow of World War II.

After the British Declaration of War in September 1939, the head of the Jewish Agency for Palestine David Ben-Gurion declared: 'We will fight the White Paper as if there is no war, and fight the war as if there is no White Paper.'; the Haganah and Irgun subsequently suspended their activity against the British in support of their war against Nazi Germany. However, the smaller Lehi continued anti-British attacks and direct action throughout the war. At that time, the British also supported the creation and the training of Palmach, as a unit that could withstand a German offensive in the area, with the consent of Yishuv which saw an opportunity to get trained units and soldiers for the planned Jewish state and during 1944–1945, the most mainstream Jewish paramilitary organization, Haganah, cooperated with the British authorities against the Lehi and Etzel.

After World War II, between 1945 and the 29 November 1947 Partition vote, British soldiers and policemen were targeted by Irgun and Lehi. The Haganah and Palmach at first collaborated with the British against them, particularly during the Hunting Season, before actively joining them in the Jewish Resistance Movement, then finally choosing an official neutral position after 1946 while the Irgun and the Lehi continued their attacks against the British.

The Haganah also carried out violent attacks in Palestine, such as the liberation of interned immigrants from the Atlit camp, the bombing of the country's railroad network, sabotage raids on radar installations and bases of the British Palestine police. It continued to organize illegal immigration throughout the entire war.

In February 1947, the British announced that they would end the mandate and withdraw from Palestine and they asked for the arbitration of the United Nations. After the vote of the Partition Plan for Palestine on 30 November 1947, civil war broke out in Palestine. Jewish and Arab communities fought each other violently in campaigns of attacks, retaliations, and counter-retaliations which provoked around 800 deaths after two months. Arab volunteers entered Palestine to fight alongside the Palestinian Arabs. In April, 6 weeks before the termination of the Mandate, the Jewish militias launched wide operations to control the territory dedicated to them by the Partition Plan. Many atrocities occurred during this time. The Arab population in the mixed cities of Tiberias, Safed, Haifa, Jaffa, Beisan and Acre and in the neighbouring villages fled or were expelled during this period. During the Battle for Jerusalem (1948) where the Jewish community of 100,000 people was besieged, most Arab villages of the Tel Aviv – Jerusalem corridor were captured by Jewish militias and leveled.

At the beginning of the civil war, the Jewish militias organized several bombing attacks against civilians and military Arab targets. On 12 December, Irgun placed a car bomb opposite the Damascus Gate, killing 20 people. On 4 January 1948, the Lehi detonated a lorry bomb against the headquarters of the paramilitary Najjada located in Jaffa's Town Hall, killing 15 Arabs and injuring 80. During the night between 5 and 6 January, the Haganah bombed the Semiramis Hotel in Jerusalem that had been reported to hide Arab militiamen, killing 24 people. The next day, Irgun members in a stolen police van rolled a barrel bomb into a large group of civilians who were waiting for a bus by the Jaffa Gate, killing around 16. Another Irgun bomb went off in the Ramla market on February 18, killing 7 residents and injuring 45. On 28 February, the Palmah organised a bombing attack against a garage at Haifa, killing 30 people.

Irgun was described as a terrorist organization by the United Nations, British, and United States governments, and in media such as The New York Times newspaper, and by the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry. In 1946, The World Zionist Congress strongly condemned terrorist activities in Palestine and "the shedding of innocent blood as a means of political warfare". Irgun was specifically condemned.

Menachem Begin was called a terrorist and a fascist by Albert Einstein and 27 other prominent Jewish intellectuals in a letter to the New York Times which was published on December 4, 1948. Specifically condemned was the participation of the Irgun in the Deir Yassin massacre:

  • "terrorist bands attacked this peaceful village, which was not a military objective in the fighting, killed most of its inhabitants – 240 men, women and children – and kept a few of them alive to parade as captives through the streets of Jerusalem."

The letter warns American Jews against supporting Begin's request for funding of his political party Herut, and ends with the warning:

  • "The discrepancies between the bold claims now being made by Begin and his party and their record of past performance in Palestine bear the imprint of no ordinary political party. This is the unmistakable stamp of a Fascist party for whom terrorism (against Jews, Arabs, and British alike), and misrepresentation are means, and a "Leader State" is the goal."

Lehi was described as a terrorist organization by the British authorities and United Nations mediator Ralph Bunche.

During the conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestine before the war, the criterion of "Purity of arms" was used to distinguish between the respective attitudes of the Irgun and Haganah towards Arabs, with the latter priding itself on its adherence to principle. The Jewish society in the British Mandate Palestine generally disapproved and denounced violent attacks both on grounds of moral rejection and political disagreement, stressing that terrorism is counter-productive in the Zionist quest for Jewish self-determination. Generally speaking, this precept requires that "weapons remain pure [and that] they are employed only in self-defence and [never] against innocent civilians and defenceless people". But if it "remained a central value in education" it was "rather vague and intentionally blurred" at the practical level.

In 1946, at a meeting held between the heads of the Haganah, David Ben-Gurion predicted a confrontation between the Arabs of Palestine and the Arab states. Concerning the "principle of purity of arms", he stressed that: "The end does not justify all means. Our war is based on moral grounds" and during the 1948 War, the Mapam, the political party affiliated to Palmach, asked "a strict observance of the Jewish Purity of arms to secure the moral character of [the] war". When he was later criticized by Mapam members for his attitude concerning the Arab refugee problem, Ben-Gurion reminded them of the Palestinian exodus from Lydda and Ramle and the fact Palmah officers had been responsible for the "outrage that had encouraged the Arabs' flight made the party uncomfortable."

According to Avi Shlaim, this condemnation of the use of violence is one of the key features of 'the conventional Zionist account or old history' whose 'popular-heroic-moralistic version' is 'taught in Israeli schools and used extensively in the quest for legitimacy abroad'. Benny Morris adds that '[t]he Israelis' collective memory of fighters characterized by "purity of arms" is also undermined by the evidence of [the dozen case] of rapes committed in conquered towns and villages.' According to him, 'after the 1948 war, the Israelis tended to hail the "purity of arms" of its militiamen and soldiers to contrast this with Arab barbarism, which on occasion expressed itself in the mutilation of captured Jewish corpses.' According to him, 'this reinforced the Israelis' positive self-image and helped them "sell" the new state abroad and (...) demonized the enemy'.

Some Israelis justify acts of political violence. Sixty years after participating in the assassination of Swedish diplomat Folke Bernadotte, Geulah Cohen had no regrets. As a broadcaster on Lehi's radio, she recalled the threats against Bernadotte in advance of the assassination. "I told him if you are not going to leave Jerusalem and go to your Stockholm, you won't be any more." Asked if it was right to assassinate Bernadotte, she replied, "There is no question about it. We would not have Jerusalem any more." In July 2006, the Menachem Begin Heritage Center organized a conference to mark the 60th anniversary of the King David Hotel bombing. The conference was attended by past and future Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and former members of Irgun. The British Ambassador in Tel Aviv and the Consul-General in Jerusalem protested that a plaque commemorating the bombing stated "For reasons known only to the British, the hotel was not evacuated." Netanyahu, then chairman of Likud and Leader of the Opposition in the Knesset, opined that the bombing was a legitimate act with a military target, distinguishing it from an act of terror intended to harm civilians since Irgun sent warnings to evacuate the building. He said "Imagine that Hamas or Hizbullah would call the military headquarters in Tel Aviv and say, 'We have placed a bomb and we are asking you to evacuate the area.' They don't do that. That is the difference." The British Ambassador in Tel Aviv and the Consul-General in Jerusalem protested, saying "We do not think that it is right for an act of terrorism, which led to the loss of many lives, to be commemorated", and wrote to the Mayor of Jerusalem that such an "act of terror" could not be honored. The British government also demanded the removal of the plaque, pointing out that the statement on it accusing the British of failing to evacuate the hotel was untrue and "did not absolve those who planted the bomb." To prevent a diplomatic incident, changes were made in the plaque's text. The final English version says "Warning phone calls have been made to the hotel, The Palestine Post and the French Consulate, urging the hotel's occupants to leave immediately. The hotel was not evacuated and after 25 minutes the bombs exploded. To the Irgun's regret, 92 persons were killed."

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(June 2015) ()
  • June 30, 1924. Dutch Jew Jacob Israël de Haan was assassinated by Avraham Tehomi on the orders of Haganah leader Yitzhak Ben-Zvi for his anti-Zionist political activities and contacts with Arab leaders.
  • 1937–1939 During the later stages of the 1936-1939 Arab Revolt in Mandatory Palestine The Irgun conducted a campaign of violence against Palestinian Arab civilians resulting in the deaths of at least 250. The group also killed a number of Jews it deemed guilty of "treason."
  • July 15, 1938* A bomb left in the vegetable market in Jerusalem by the Irgun injured 28.
  • July 25, 1938* The Irgun threw a bomb into the melon market in Haifa resulting in 49 deaths.
  • November 6, 1944 Lehi assassinated British minister Lord Moyne in Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt. The action was condemned by the Yishuv at the time, but the bodies of the assassins were brought home from Egypt in 1975 to a state funeral and burial on Mount Herzl.
  • 1944–1945 The killings of several suspected collaborators with the Haganah and the British mandate government during the Hunting Season.
  • 1946 Letter bombs sent to British officials, including foreign minister Ernst Bevin, by Lehi.
  • July 26, 1946 The bombing of British administrative headquarters at the King David Hotel, killing 91 people — 28 British, 41 Arab, 17 Jewish, and 5 others. Around 45 people were injured. In the literature about the practice and history of terrorism, it has been called one of the most lethal terrorist attacks of the 20th century.
  • 1946 Railways and British military airfields were attacked several times.
  • October 31, 1946 The bombing by the Irgun of the British Embassy in Rome. Nearly half the building was destroyed and 3 people were injured.
  • April 16, 1947* An Irgun bomb placed at the Colonial Office in London failed to detonate. The woman arrested for planting the bomb, alias "Esther," was identified as a Jewess claiming French nationality by the Scotland Yard unit investigating Jewish terrorist activities. The attack was linked to the 1946 Rome embassy bombing.
  • 14 June 1947 The Reuters office in Tel Aviv was raided by "Jewish terrorists."
  • July 25, 1947 The Sergeants affair: When death sentences were passed on two Irgun members, the Irgun kidnapped Sgt. Clifford Martin and Sgt. Mervyn Paice and threatened to kill them in retaliation if the sentences were carried out. When the threat was ignored, the hostages were killed. Afterwards, their bodies were taken to an orange grove and left hanging by the neck from trees. An improvised explosive device was set. This went off when one of the bodies was cut down, seriously wounding a British officer.
  • December 1947 – March 1948 Numerous attacks on Palestinian Arabs in the context of civil war after the vote of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.
  • 1947 Letter bombs sent to the Truman White House by Lehi.
  • January 5–6, 1948 The Semiramis Hotel bombing, carried out by the Haganah (or, according to some sources, Irgun) resulted in the deaths of 24 to 26 people.
  • April 1948 The Deir Yassin massacre carried out by the Irgun and Lehi, killed between 107 and 120 Palestinian villagers, the estimate generally accepted by scholars.
  • September 17, 1948 Lehi assassination of the United Nations mediator Folke Bernadotte, whom Lehi accused of a pro-Arab stance during the cease-fire negotiations.
  1. Arie Perliger, William L. Eubank, Middle Eastern Terrorism, 2006 p.37:Lehi viewed acts of terrorism as legitimate tools in the realization of the vision of the Jewish nation and a necessary condition for national liberation.;
  2. Jean E. Rosenfeld, Terrorism, Identity, and Legitimacy: The Four Waves Theory and Political Violence, 2010 p.161 n.7:'Lehi ... was the last group to identify itself as a terrorist one'
  3. Picciuto, Nico (2017). "Why Have Religious Zionists Perpetrated Acts of Violence in Hebron Post-2005?". Global Societies Journal. 5.
  4. "The Beleaguered Christians of the Palestinian-Controlled Areas, by David Raab". Jcpa.org. Retrieved2010-02-21.
  5. Hallaj, Muhammad (September 1998). "Zionist violence against Palestinians". The Link. Americans for Middle East Understanding. 21 (3).
  6. Welty, Gordon (1995). Palestinian Nationalism and the Struggle for National Self-Determination. Philadelphia: Temple University. p. 21. ISBN 1-56639-342-6.
  7. Howard Sachar: A History of the State of Israel, pps 265–266
  8. Mazin B. Qumsiyeh, Popular Resistance in Palestine: A History of Hope and Empowerment (New York, 2011), p. 85.
  9. Tucker, Spencer C.; Roberts, Priscilla (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. ABC-CLIO. p. 433. ISBN 9781851098415.
  10. The Brigade by Howard Blum, p.5.
  11. "Avraham Stern". Retrieved2007-11-19.
  12. Gal, Reuven (1986). A Portrait of the Israeli Soldier. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 6. ISBN 0313243158.
  13. Gal-or, Noemi. Tolerating Terrorism in the West: An International Survey. Routledge, 2004. p.74
  14. Horne, Edward (1982). A Job Well Done (Being a History of The Palestine Police Force 1920–1948). The Anchor Press. ISBN 0-9508367-0-2. Pages 272, 299. States that Haganah withdrew on 1 July 1946. But remained permanently uncooperative.
  15. "Atlit Immigration Camp | Jewish Virtual Library". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved2015-06-13.
  16. Morris, Benny (2003). Histoire revisitée du conflit arabo-sioniste. Editions complexe. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-2-87027-938-0.
  17. Lapierre, Dominique; Collins, Larry (1971). O Jérusalem. Simon & Schuster. pp. 131–153. ISBN 978-2-266-10698-6.
  18. Karsh (2002), p.32
  19. Yoav Gelber, 'Palestine 1948', p.20; The Scotsman newspaper, 6th January 1948; Walid Khalidi states that 25 civilians were killed, in addition to the military targets. 'Before Their Diaspora', 1984. p. 316, picture p. 325; Benny Morris, 'The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, 1947–1949', Cambridge University Press, p.46.
  20. Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, p. 123.
  21. Larry Collins/Dominique Lapierre, 'O Jerusalem'. History Book Club/ Weidenfeld and Nicolson. London. 1972. p.135: 'two fifty-gallon oil drums packed tight with old nails, bits of scrap iron, hinges, rusty metal filings. At their center was a core of TNT...'
  22. Collins/Lapierre. Page 138: 17 killed
  23. Joseph, Dov (1960).The faithful city: the siege of Jerusalem, 1948. Simon and Schuster. p. 56. LCCN 60-10976. OCLC 266413. It killed fourteen Arabs and wounded forty others.
  24. The Scotsman, 8 January 1948: 16 killed, 41 injured.
  25. Embassy of Israel, London, website. 2002. Quoting Zeev Vilnai - 'Ramla past and present'.
  26. Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem revisited, p.221.
  27. Pope Brewer, Sam. Irgun Bomb Kills 11 Arabs, 2 Britons. New York Times. December 30, 1947.
  28. Irgun's Hand Seen in Alps Rail Blast. New York Times. August 16, 1947.
  29. W. Khalidi, 1971, 'From Haven to Conquest', p. 598
  30. Zionists Condemn Palestine Terror New York Times. December 24, 1946.
  31. Isidore Abramowitz; Hannah Arendt; Abraham Brick; Jessurun Cardozo; Albert Einstein; Herman Eisen; Hayim Fineman; M. Gallen; H.H. Harris; Zellig Harris; Sidney Hook; Fred Karush; Bruria Kaufman; Irma L. Lindheim; Nahman Maisel; Seymour Melman; Myer D. Mendelson; Harry M. Oslinsky; Samuel Pitlick; Fritz Rohrlich; Louis P. Rocker; Ruth Sagis; Isaac Sankowsky; Isaac Jacob Schoenberg; Samuel Shuman; M. Singer; Irma Wolfe; Stefan Wolf (4 December 1948). "New Palestine Party". Letter to The New York Times. Retrieved2015-06-03.
  32. "Stern Gang" A Dictionary of World History. Oxford University Press, 2000. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press [1].
  33. Ralph Bunche report on assassination of UN mediator 27th Sept 1948, "notorious terrorists long known as the Stern group"
  34. Anita Shapira (1992), p. 252
  35. Avi Shlaim, The Debate About 1948, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 27:3, 1995, pp. 287–304
  36. Anita Shapira (1992), p. 295
  37. Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 291
  38. Morris 2008, pp. 404-406.
  39. Israel's forgotten hero: The assassination of Count Bernadotte - and the death of peace The Independent, 18 Jan 2008
  40. Tom Segev, "The spirit of the King David Hotel", Haaretz, July 23, 2006
  41. Bethell, Nicholas (1979). The Palestine Triangle. Andre Deutsch.
  42. Prince-Gibson, Eetta (July 27, 2006). "Reflective truth". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved2009-05-10.
  43. Ned Parker and Stephen Farrell, "British anger at terror celebration", The Times, July 20, 2006
  44. Shlomo Nakdimon; Shaul Mayzlish (1985). Deh Han : ha-retsah ha-politi ha-rishon be-Erets Yisraʼel / De Haan: The first political assassination in Palestine (in Hebrew) (1st ed.). Tel Aviv: Modan Press. OCLC 21528172.
  45. Marijke T.C.Stapert-Eggen. "The Rosenthaliana's Jacob Israel de Haan Archive". University of Amsterdam Library.
  46. Perliger and Weinberg, 101.
  47. J. Bowyer Bell, Terror out of Zion: the fight for Israeli independence (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1977). pp.181
  48. The TimesSaturday July 17, 1938
  49. The Times Tuesday July 26, 1938
  50. "The Hunting Season". Archived from the original on September 25, 2013. RetrievedAugust 12, 2013. The 'Hunting Season'.
  51. Walton, Calder (2 December 2017). "Coat Bomb and Explosive Prosthesis: British Intel Files Reveal How the Zionist Stern Gang Terrorized London". Haaretz. Retrieved5 February 2019.
  52. Rapoport, D.C., The Four Waves of Modern Terrorism, in Cronin, A. K. & Ludes, J. M. (eds.), Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy, Georgetown University Press, 2004, Washington, DC., pp. 50-51
  53. "Jewish Terrorists Admit Bombing Embassy in Rome". St Petersburg Times. 1946-11-05. Retrieved2010-04-08.
  54. "Time Bomb Found in London after British hang Gruner as Terrorist in Holy Land". Google News. St. Petersburg Times. Apr 17, 1947. Retrieved17 November 2015.
  55. "Police Say Woman Bomb "Planter" Now in Custody". The Age. A.A.P. 13 June 1947. The woman, who is a Jewess, claims French nationality. Officers of the special branch of Scotland Yard who have been investigating Jewish terrorist activities are satisfied the man who made the bomb is also under arrest.
  56. "EUROPE-WIDE SEARCH FOR MAN WHO MADE BOMB". The Argus (Melbourne). A.A.P. 19 April 1947. Retrieved26 May 2018. The bomb was of the same type as that used in the explosion at the i British Embassy in Rome last year! and in several other outrages by Jewish terrorists.
  57. "Palestine Threat". The Age. A.A.P. 13 June 1947. Retrieved26 May 2018. Jewish terrorists have raided Reuter's Tel Aviv office, where they forced the staff to lie on the floor.
  58. Britain Since 1945, David Childs P.34 para 1
  59. Pace, Eric (2 December 1972). "Letter‐Bombs Mailed to Truman in 1947". New York Times. Retrieved5 February 2019.
  60. Kana'ana, Sharif and Zeitawi, Nihad (1987), "The Village of Deir Yassin," Bir Zeit, Bir Zeit University Press
  61. Morris, Benny (2003). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81120-1.: Chapter 4: The second wave: the mass exodus, April–June 1948, Section: Operation Nahshon, page 238
  62. Milstein, Uri (1998) [1987]. Alan Sacks (ed.). History of the War of Independence IV: Out of Crisis Came Decision (in Hebrew and English). Translated by Alan Sacks. Lanhan, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc. ISBN 0-7618-1489-2.: Chapter 16: Deir Yassin, Section 12: The Massacre, page 377
  63. Macintyre, Donald (2008-09-18). "Israel's forgotten hero: The assassination of Count Bernadotte – and the death of peace". The Independent. Retrieved2008-12-11.
  64. Sune Persson, Folke Bernadotte and the White Buses, Journal of Holocaust Education, Vol 9, Iss 2–3, 2000, 237–268. Also published in David Cesarani and Paul A. Levine (eds.), Bystanders to the Holocaust: A Re-evaluation (Routledge, 2002). The precise number is nowhere officially recorded. A count of the first 21,000 included 8,000 Danes and Norwegians, 5,911 Poles, 2,629 French, 1,615 stateless Jews and 1,124 Germans. The total number of Jews was 6,500 to 11,000 depending on definitions. Also see A. Ilan, Bernadotte in Palestine, 1948 (Macmillan, 1989), p37.
  • Berberoglu, Berch (2006). Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict: Class, State, and Nation in the Age of Globalization. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-3544-2.
  • Childs, David. Britain since 1945 (5th ed.).online version at Internet Archive
  • J. Bowyer Bell (1977). Terror out of Zion: Irgun Zvai Leumi, LEHI, and the Palestine underground, 1929–1949. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-79205-0.

Zionist political violence
Zionist political violence Language Watch Edit This article has multiple issues Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page Learn how and when to remove these template messages This article s lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article March 2020 This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Zionist political violence news newspapers books scholar JSTOR June 2015 Learn how and when to remove this template message Learn how and when to remove this template message Zionist political violence refers to acts of violence or terror 1 2 committed by Zionists The most active period of most notable Zionist political violence began on June 30 1924 through the 1940s and continues to the present day usually for the purpose of expanding Zionist settlements in Palestine 3 Aftermath of the King David Hotel bombing 1946 Contents 1 Impact 2 Main occurrences 3 Condemnation as terrorism 4 Jewish public opinion 5 Irgun Haganah and Lehi attacks 6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingImpactActions were carried out by individuals and Jewish paramilitary groups such as the Irgun the Lehi the Haganah and the Palmach as part of a conflict between Jews British authorities and Palestinian Arabs regarding land immigration and control over Palestine 4 British soldiers and officials United Nations personnel Palestinian Arab fighters and civilians and Jewish fighters and civilians were targets or victims of these actions Domestic commercial and government property infrastructure and material have also been attacked Main occurrencesDuring World War I Zionist volunteers fought in the Jewish Legion of the British Army against the Ottoman Turks During the 1920 Nebi Musa riots the 1921 Jaffa riots and the 1929 Palestine riots Palestinian Arabs manifested hostility against Zionist immigration which provoked the reaction of Jewish militias 5 In 1935 the Irgun a Zionist underground military organization split off from the Haganah 6 The Irgun were the armed expression of the nascent ideology of Revisionist Zionism founded by Ze ev Jabotinsky He expressed this ideology as every Jew had the right to enter Palestine only active retaliation would deter the Arab and the British only Jewish armed force would ensure the Jewish state 7 During the 1936 39 Arab revolt in Palestine Palestinian Arabs fought for the end of the Mandate and the creation of an Arab state based on the whole of Palestine 8 They attacked both British and Jews as well as some Palestinian Arabs who supported a Pan Arabism Mainstream Zionists represented by the Vaad Leumi and the Haganah practiced the policy of Havlagah restraint Irgun militants did not follow this policy and called themselves Havlagah breakers 9 The Irgun began bombing Palestinian Arab civilian targets in 1938 6 While the Palestinian Arabs were carefully disarmed by the British Mandatory authorities by 1939 the Zionists were not 6 As a conciliation to the Arabs the White Paper of 1939 was passed imposing significant limits in Jewish immigration in the shadow of World War II After the British Declaration of War in September 1939 the head of the Jewish Agency for Palestine David Ben Gurion declared We will fight the White Paper as if there is no war and fight the war as if there is no White Paper 10 the Haganah and Irgun subsequently suspended their activity against the British in support of their war against Nazi Germany 11 However the smaller Lehi continued anti British attacks and direct action throughout the war At that time the British also supported the creation and the training of Palmach as a unit that could withstand a German offensive in the area with the consent of Yishuv which saw an opportunity to get trained units and soldiers for the planned Jewish state 12 and during 1944 1945 the most mainstream Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah cooperated with the British authorities against the Lehi and Etzel 13 After World War II between 1945 and the 29 November 1947 Partition vote British soldiers and policemen were targeted by Irgun and Lehi The Haganah and Palmach at first collaborated with the British against them particularly during the Hunting Season before actively joining them in the Jewish Resistance Movement then finally choosing an official neutral position after 1946 while the Irgun and the Lehi continued their attacks against the British 14 The Haganah also carried out violent attacks in Palestine such as the liberation of interned immigrants from the Atlit camp the bombing of the country s railroad network sabotage raids on radar installations and bases of the British Palestine police It continued to organize illegal immigration throughout the entire war 15 In February 1947 the British announced that they would end the mandate and withdraw from Palestine and they asked for the arbitration of the United Nations After the vote of the Partition Plan for Palestine on 30 November 1947 civil war broke out in Palestine Jewish and Arab communities fought each other violently in campaigns of attacks retaliations and counter retaliations which provoked around 800 deaths after two months Arab volunteers entered Palestine to fight alongside the Palestinian Arabs In April 6 weeks before the termination of the Mandate the Jewish militias launched wide operations to control the territory dedicated to them by the Partition Plan 16 Many atrocities occurred during this time The Arab population in the mixed cities of Tiberias Safed Haifa Jaffa Beisan and Acre and in the neighbouring villages fled or were expelled during this period During the Battle for Jerusalem 1948 where the Jewish community of 100 000 people was besieged most Arab villages of the Tel Aviv Jerusalem corridor were captured by Jewish militias and leveled 17 At the beginning of the civil war the Jewish militias organized several bombing attacks against civilians and military Arab targets On 12 December Irgun placed a car bomb opposite the Damascus Gate killing 20 people 18 On 4 January 1948 the Lehi detonated a lorry bomb against the headquarters of the paramilitary Najjada located in Jaffa s Town Hall killing 15 Arabs and injuring 80 18 19 During the night between 5 and 6 January the Haganah bombed the Semiramis Hotel in Jerusalem that had been reported to hide Arab militiamen killing 24 people 20 The next day Irgun members in a stolen police van rolled a barrel bomb 21 into a large group of civilians who were waiting for a bus by the Jaffa Gate killing around 16 22 23 24 Another Irgun bomb went off in the Ramla market on February 18 killing 7 residents and injuring 45 25 On 28 February the Palmah organised a bombing attack against a garage at Haifa killing 30 people 26 Condemnation as terrorism Hannah Arendt Jessurun Cardozo Albert Einstein and others letter Irgun was described as a terrorist organization by the United Nations British and United States governments and in media such as The New York Times newspaper 27 28 and by the Anglo American Committee of Inquiry 29 In 1946 The World Zionist Congress strongly condemned terrorist activities in Palestine and the shedding of innocent blood as a means of political warfare Irgun was specifically condemned 30 Menachem Begin was called a terrorist and a fascist by Albert Einstein and 27 other prominent Jewish intellectuals in a letter to the New York Times which was published on December 4 1948 Specifically condemned was the participation of the Irgun in the Deir Yassin massacre 31 terrorist bands attacked this peaceful village which was not a military objective in the fighting killed most of its inhabitants 240 men women and children and kept a few of them alive to parade as captives through the streets of Jerusalem The letter warns American Jews against supporting Begin s request for funding of his political party Herut and ends with the warning The discrepancies between the bold claims now being made by Begin and his party and their record of past performance in Palestine bear the imprint of no ordinary political party This is the unmistakable stamp of a Fascist party for whom terrorism against Jews Arabs and British alike and misrepresentation are means and a Leader State is the goal 31 Lehi was described as a terrorist organization 32 by the British authorities and United Nations mediator Ralph Bunche 33 Jewish public opinionDuring the conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestine before the war the criterion of Purity of arms was used to distinguish between the respective attitudes of the Irgun and Haganah towards Arabs with the latter priding itself on its adherence to principle 34 The Jewish society in the British Mandate Palestine generally disapproved and denounced violent attacks both on grounds of moral rejection and political disagreement stressing that terrorism is counter productive in the Zionist quest for Jewish self determination 13 Generally speaking this precept requires that weapons remain pure and that they are employed only in self defence and never against innocent civilians and defenceless people 35 But if it remained a central value in education it was rather vague and intentionally blurred at the practical level 34 In 1946 at a meeting held between the heads of the Haganah David Ben Gurion predicted a confrontation between the Arabs of Palestine and the Arab states Concerning the principle of purity of arms he stressed that The end does not justify all means Our war is based on moral grounds 36 and during the 1948 War the Mapam the political party affiliated to Palmach asked a strict observance of the Jewish Purity of arms to secure the moral character of the war 37 When he was later criticized by Mapam members for his attitude concerning the Arab refugee problem Ben Gurion reminded them of the Palestinian exodus from Lydda and Ramle and the fact Palmah officers had been responsible for the outrage that had encouraged the Arabs flight made the party uncomfortable 37 According to Avi Shlaim this condemnation of the use of violence is one of the key features of the conventional Zionist account or old history whose popular heroic moralistic version is taught in Israeli schools and used extensively in the quest for legitimacy abroad 35 Benny Morris adds that t he Israelis collective memory of fighters characterized by purity of arms is also undermined by the evidence of the dozen case of rapes committed in conquered towns and villages According to him after the 1948 war the Israelis tended to hail the purity of arms of its militiamen and soldiers to contrast this with Arab barbarism which on occasion expressed itself in the mutilation of captured Jewish corpses According to him this reinforced the Israelis positive self image and helped them sell the new state abroad and demonized the enemy 38 Some Israelis justify acts of political violence Sixty years after participating in the assassination of Swedish diplomat Folke Bernadotte Geulah Cohen had no regrets As a broadcaster on Lehi s radio she recalled the threats against Bernadotte in advance of the assassination I told him if you are not going to leave Jerusalem and go to your Stockholm you won t be any more Asked if it was right to assassinate Bernadotte she replied There is no question about it We would not have Jerusalem any more 39 In July 2006 the Menachem Begin Heritage Center organized a conference to mark the 60th anniversary of the King David Hotel bombing The conference was attended by past and future Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and former members of Irgun 40 The British Ambassador in Tel Aviv and the Consul General in Jerusalem protested that a plaque commemorating the bombing stated For reasons known only to the British the hotel was not evacuated 40 Netanyahu then chairman of Likud and Leader of the Opposition in the Knesset opined that the bombing was a legitimate act with a military target distinguishing it from an act of terror intended to harm civilians since Irgun sent warnings to evacuate the building 41 He said Imagine that Hamas or Hizbullah would call the military headquarters in Tel Aviv and say We have placed a bomb and we are asking you to evacuate the area They don t do that That is the difference 42 The British Ambassador in Tel Aviv and the Consul General in Jerusalem protested saying We do not think that it is right for an act of terrorism which led to the loss of many lives to be commemorated and wrote to the Mayor of Jerusalem that such an act of terror could not be honored The British government also demanded the removal of the plaque pointing out that the statement on it accusing the British of failing to evacuate the hotel was untrue and did not absolve those who planted the bomb 43 To prevent a diplomatic incident changes were made in the plaque s text The final English version says Warning phone calls have been made to the hotel The Palestine Post and the French Consulate urging the hotel s occupants to leave immediately The hotel was not evacuated and after 25 minutes the bombs exploded To the Irgun s regret 92 persons were killed 42 Irgun Haganah and Lehi attacksThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed June 2015 Learn how and when to remove this template message Main articles List of Irgun attacks and Killings and massacres during the 1948 Palestine War June 30 1924 Dutch Jew Jacob Israel de Haan was assassinated by Avraham Tehomi on the orders of Haganah leader Yitzhak Ben Zvi 44 for his anti Zionist political activities and contacts with Arab leaders 45 1937 1939 During the later stages of the 1936 1939 Arab Revolt in Mandatory Palestine The Irgun conducted a campaign of violence against Palestinian Arab civilians resulting in the deaths of at least 250 The group also killed a number of Jews it deemed guilty of treason 46 47 July 15 1938 A bomb left in the vegetable market in Jerusalem by the Irgun injured 28 48 July 25 1938 The Irgun threw a bomb into the melon market in Haifa resulting in 49 deaths 49 November 6 1944 Lehi assassinated British minister Lord Moyne in Cairo Kingdom of Egypt The action was condemned by the Yishuv at the time but the bodies of the assassins were brought home from Egypt in 1975 to a state funeral and burial on Mount Herzl 50 1944 1945 The killings of several suspected collaborators with the Haganah and the British mandate government during the Hunting Season 1946 Letter bombs sent to British officials including foreign minister Ernst Bevin by Lehi 51 July 26 1946 The bombing of British administrative headquarters at the King David Hotel killing 91 people 28 British 41 Arab 17 Jewish and 5 others Around 45 people were injured In the literature about the practice and history of terrorism it has been called one of the most lethal terrorist attacks of the 20th century 52 1946 Railways and British military airfields were attacked several times October 31 1946 The bombing by the Irgun of the British Embassy in Rome Nearly half the building was destroyed and 3 people were injured 53 April 16 1947 An Irgun bomb placed at the Colonial Office in London failed to detonate 54 The woman arrested for planting the bomb alias Esther was identified as a Jewess claiming French nationality by the Scotland Yard unit investigating Jewish terrorist activities The attack was linked to the 1946 Rome embassy bombing 55 56 14 June 1947 The Reuters office in Tel Aviv was raided by Jewish terrorists 57 July 25 1947 The Sergeants affair When death sentences were passed on two Irgun members the Irgun kidnapped Sgt Clifford Martin and Sgt Mervyn Paice and threatened to kill them in retaliation if the sentences were carried out When the threat was ignored the hostages were killed Afterwards their bodies were taken to an orange grove and left hanging by the neck from trees An improvised explosive device was set This went off when one of the bodies was cut down seriously wounding a British officer 58 December 1947 March 1948 Numerous attacks on Palestinian Arabs in the context of civil war after the vote of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine 1947 Letter bombs sent to the Truman White House by Lehi 59 January 5 6 1948 The Semiramis Hotel bombing carried out by the Haganah or according to some sources Irgun resulted in the deaths of 24 to 26 people April 1948 The Deir Yassin massacre carried out by the Irgun and Lehi killed between 107 and 120 Palestinian villagers 60 the estimate generally accepted by scholars 61 62 September 17 1948 Lehi assassination of the United Nations mediator Folke Bernadotte 63 64 whom Lehi accused of a pro Arab stance during the cease fire negotiations See also Israel portal Israeli settler violence Kahanism Jewish Defense League Lehava Jewish religious terrorism Nationalism Nationalist terrorism Palestinian political violence Violence in the Israeli Palestinian conflict Jewish fundamentalismReferences Arie Perliger William L Eubank Middle Eastern Terrorism 2006 p 37 Lehi viewed acts of terrorism as legitimate tools in the realization of the vision of the Jewish nation and a necessary condition for national liberation Jean E Rosenfeld Terrorism Identity and Legitimacy The Four Waves Theory and Political Violence 2010 p 161 n 7 Lehi was the last group to identify itself as a terrorist one Picciuto Nico 2017 Why Have Religious Zionists Perpetrated Acts of Violence in Hebron Post 2005 Global Societies Journal 5 The Beleaguered Christians of the Palestinian Controlled Areas by David Raab Jcpa org Retrieved 2010 02 21 Hallaj Muhammad September 1998 Zionist violence against Palestinians The Link Americans for Middle East Understanding 21 3 a b c Welty Gordon 1995 Palestinian Nationalism and the Struggle for National Self Determination Philadelphia Temple University p 21 ISBN 1 56639 342 6 Howard Sachar A History of the State of Israel pps 265 266 Mazin B Qumsiyeh Popular Resistance in Palestine A History of Hope and Empowerment New York 2011 p 85 Tucker Spencer C Roberts Priscilla 2008 The Encyclopedia of the Arab Israeli Conflict ABC CLIO p 433 ISBN 9781851098415 The Brigade by Howard Blum p 5 Avraham Stern Retrieved 2007 11 19 Gal Reuven 1986 A Portrait of the Israeli Soldier Greenwood Publishing Group p 6 ISBN 0313243158 a b Gal or Noemi Tolerating Terrorism in the West An International Survey Routledge 2004 p 74 Horne Edward 1982 A Job Well Done Being a History of The Palestine Police Force 1920 1948 The Anchor Press ISBN 0 9508367 0 2 Pages 272 299 States that Haganah withdrew on 1 July 1946 But remained permanently uncooperative Atlit Immigration Camp Jewish Virtual Library jewishvirtuallibrary org Retrieved 2015 06 13 Morris Benny 2003 Histoire revisitee du conflit arabo sioniste Editions complexe pp 16 17 ISBN 978 2 87027 938 0 Lapierre Dominique Collins Larry 1971 O Jerusalem Simon amp Schuster pp 131 153 ISBN 978 2 266 10698 6 a b Karsh 2002 p 32 Yoav Gelber Palestine 1948 p 20 The Scotsman newspaper 6th January 1948 Walid Khalidi states that 25 civilians were killed in addition to the military targets Before Their Diaspora 1984 p 316 picture p 325 Benny Morris The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem 1947 1949 Cambridge University Press p 46 Benny Morris The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited p 123 Larry Collins Dominique Lapierre O Jerusalem History Book Club Weidenfeld and Nicolson London 1972 p 135 two fifty gallon oil drums packed tight with old nails bits of scrap iron hinges rusty metal filings At their center was a core of TNT Collins Lapierre Page 138 17 killed Joseph Dov 1960 The faithful city the siege of Jerusalem 1948 Simon and Schuster p 56 LCCN 60 10976 OCLC 266413 It killed fourteen Arabs and wounded forty others The Scotsman 8 January 1948 16 killed 41 injured Embassy of Israel London website 2002 Quoting Zeev Vilnai Ramla past and present Benny Morris The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem revisited p 221 Pope Brewer Sam Irgun Bomb Kills 11 Arabs 2 Britons New York Times December 30 1947 Irgun s Hand Seen in Alps Rail Blast New York Times August 16 1947 W Khalidi 1971 From Haven to Conquest p 598 Zionists Condemn Palestine Terror New York Times December 24 1946 a b Isidore Abramowitz Hannah Arendt Abraham Brick Jessurun Cardozo Albert Einstein Herman Eisen Hayim Fineman M Gallen H H Harris Zellig Harris Sidney Hook Fred Karush Bruria Kaufman Irma L Lindheim Nahman Maisel Seymour Melman Myer D Mendelson Harry M Oslinsky Samuel Pitlick Fritz Rohrlich Louis P Rocker Ruth Sagis Isaac Sankowsky Isaac Jacob Schoenberg Samuel Shuman M Singer Irma Wolfe Stefan Wolf 4 December 1948 New Palestine Party Letter to The New York Times Retrieved 2015 06 03 Stern Gang A Dictionary of World History Oxford University Press 2000 Oxford Reference Online Oxford University Press 1 Ralph Bunche report on assassination of UN mediator 27th Sept 1948 notorious terrorists long known as the Stern group a b Anita Shapira 1992 p 252 a b Avi Shlaim The Debate About 1948 International Journal of Middle East Studies 27 3 1995 pp 287 304 Anita Shapira 1992 p 295 a b Yoav Gelber 2006 p 291 Morris 2008 pp 404 406 Israel s forgotten hero The assassination of Count Bernadotte and the death of peace The Independent 18 Jan 2008 a b Tom Segev The spirit of the King David Hotel Haaretz July 23 2006 Bethell Nicholas 1979 The Palestine Triangle Andre Deutsch a b Prince Gibson Eetta July 27 2006 Reflective truth Jerusalem Post Retrieved 2009 05 10 Ned Parker and Stephen Farrell British anger at terror celebration The Times July 20 2006 Shlomo Nakdimon Shaul Mayzlish 1985 Deh Han ha retsah ha politi ha rishon be Erets Yisraʼel De Haan The first political assassination in Palestine in Hebrew 1st ed Tel Aviv Modan Press OCLC 21528172 Marijke T C Stapert Eggen The Rosenthaliana s Jacob Israel de Haan Archive University of Amsterdam Library Perliger and Weinberg 101 J Bowyer Bell Terror out of Zion the fight for Israeli independence New York St Martin s Press 1977 pp 181 The TimesSaturday July 17 1938 The Times Tuesday July 26 1938 The Hunting Season Archived from the original on September 25 2013 Retrieved August 12 2013 The Hunting Season Walton Calder 2 December 2017 Coat Bomb and Explosive Prosthesis British Intel Files Reveal How the Zionist Stern Gang Terrorized London Haaretz Retrieved 5 February 2019 Rapoport D C The Four Waves of Modern Terrorism in Cronin A K amp Ludes J M eds Attacking Terrorism Elements of a Grand Strategy Georgetown University Press 2004 Washington DC pp 50 51 Jewish Terrorists Admit Bombing Embassy in Rome St Petersburg Times 1946 11 05 Retrieved 2010 04 08 Time Bomb Found in London after British hang Gruner as Terrorist in Holy Land Google News St Petersburg Times Apr 17 1947 Retrieved 17 November 2015 Police Say Woman Bomb Planter Now in Custody The Age A A P 13 June 1947 The woman who is a Jewess claims French nationality Officers of the special branch of Scotland Yard who have been investigating Jewish terrorist activities are satisfied the man who made the bomb is also under arrest EUROPE WIDE SEARCH FOR MAN WHO MADE BOMB The Argus Melbourne A A P 19 April 1947 Retrieved 26 May 2018 The bomb was of the same type as that used in the explosion at the i British Embassy in Rome last year and in several other outrages by Jewish terrorists Palestine Threat The Age A A P 13 June 1947 Retrieved 26 May 2018 Jewish terrorists have raided Reuter s Tel Aviv office where they forced the staff to lie on the floor Britain Since 1945 David Childs P 34 para 1 Pace Eric 2 December 1972 Letter Bombs Mailed to Truman in 1947 New York Times Retrieved 5 February 2019 Kana ana Sharif and Zeitawi Nihad 1987 The Village of Deir Yassin Bir Zeit Bir Zeit University Press Morris Benny 2003 The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited Cambridge UK New York Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521 81120 1 Chapter 4 The second wave the mass exodus April June 1948 Section Operation Nahshon page 238 Milstein Uri 1998 1987 Alan Sacks ed History of the War of Independence IV Out of Crisis Came Decision in Hebrew and English Translated by Alan Sacks Lanhan Maryland University Press of America Inc ISBN 0 7618 1489 2 Chapter 16 Deir Yassin Section 12 The Massacre page 377 Macintyre Donald 2008 09 18 Israel s forgotten hero The assassination of Count Bernadotte and the death of peace The Independent Retrieved 2008 12 11 Sune Persson Folke Bernadotte and the White Buses Journal of Holocaust Education Vol 9 Iss 2 3 2000 237 268 Also published in David Cesarani and Paul A Levine eds Bystanders to the Holocaust A Re evaluation Routledge 2002 The precise number is nowhere officially recorded A count of the first 21 000 included 8 000 Danes and Norwegians 5 911 Poles 2 629 French 1 615 stateless Jews and 1 124 Germans The total number of Jews was 6 500 to 11 000 depending on definitions Also see A Ilan Bernadotte in Palestine 1948 Macmillan 1989 p37 Further readingBerberoglu Berch 2006 Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict Class State and Nation in the Age of Globalization Rowman amp Littlefield ISBN 978 0 7425 3544 2 Childs David Britain since 1945 5th ed online version at Internet Archive J Bowyer Bell 1977 Terror out of Zion Irgun Zvai Leumi LEHI and the Palestine underground 1929 1949 St Martin s Press ISBN 0 312 79205 0 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zionist political violence amp oldid 1048223562, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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