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Zircon

This article is about the mineral and gemstone. For the white crystalline oxide of zirconium, see Zirconium dioxide. For the diamond simulant, see Cubic zirconia. For other uses, see Zircon (disambiguation).

Zircon ( or) is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates and is a source of the metal zirconium. Its chemical name is zirconium silicate, and its corresponding chemical formula is ZrSiO4. A common empirical formula showing some of the range of substitution in zircon is (Zr1–y, REEy)(SiO4)1–x(OH)4x–y. Zircon forms in silicate melts with large proportions of high field strength incompatible elements. For example, hafnium is almost always present in quantities ranging from 1 to 4%. The crystal structure of zircon is tetragonal crystal system. The natural color of zircon varies between colorless, yellow-golden, red, brown, blue, and green.

Zircon
A lustrous crystal of zircon perched on a tan matrix of calcite from the Gilgit District of Pakistan
General
CategoryNesosilicates
Formula
(repeating unit)
zirconium silicate (ZrSiO4)
Strunz classification9.AD.30
Crystal systemTetragonal
Crystal classDitetragonal dipyramidal (4/mmm)
H-M symbol: (4/m 2/m 2/m)
Space groupI41/amd (No. 141)
Unit cella = 6.607(1), c = 5.982(1) [Å]; Z = 4
Identification
ColorReddish brown, yellow, green, blue, gray, colorless; in thin section, colorless to pale brown
Crystal habittabular to prismatic crystals, irregular grains, massive
TwinningOn {101}. Crystals shocked by meteorite impact show polysynthetic twins on {112}
Cleavage{110} and {111}
FractureConchoidal to uneven
TenacityBrittle
Mohs scale hardness7.5
LusterVitreous to adamantine; greasy when metamict.
StreakWhite
DiaphaneityTransparent to opaque
Specific gravity4.6–4.7
Optical propertiesUniaxial (+)
Refractive indexnω = 1.925–1.961
nε = 1.980–2.015, 1.75 when metamict
Birefringenceδ = 0.047–0.055
PleochroismWeak
Fusibilityclose to 2,550 °C depend on Hf,Th,U,H,etc... concentrations.
SolubilityInsoluble
Other characteristicsFluorescent and Radioactive,
May form pleochroic halos,
Relief: high
References

The name derives from the Persian zargun, meaning "gold-hued". This word is corrupted into "jargoon", a term applied to light-colored zircons. The English word "zircon" is derived from Zirkon, which is the German adaptation of this word. Yellow, orange, and red zircon is also known as "hyacinth", from the flower hyacinthus, whose name is of Ancient Greek origin.

Contents

Optical microscope photograph; the length of the crystal is about 250 µm

Zircon is common in the crust of Earth. It occurs as a common accessory mineral in igneous rocks (as primary crystallization products), in metamorphic rocks and as detrital grains in sedimentary rocks. Large zircon crystals are rare. Their average size in granite rocks is about 0.1–0.3 mm (0.0039–0.0118 in), but they can also grow to sizes of several centimeters, especially in mafic pegmatites and carbonatites. Zircon is fairly hard (with a Mohs hardness of 7.5) and chemically stable, and so is highly resistant to weathering. It also is resistant to heat, so that detrital zircon grains are sometimes preserved in igneous rocks formed from melted sediments. Its resistance to weathering, together with its relatively high specific gravity (4.68), make it an important component of the heavy mineral fraction of sandstones.

Because of their uranium and thorium content, some zircons undergo metamictization. Connected to internal radiation damage, these processes partially disrupt the crystal structure and partly explain the highly variable properties of zircon. As zircon becomes more and more modified by internal radiation damage, the density decreases, the crystal structure is compromised, and the color changes.

Zircon occurs in many colors, including reddish brown, yellow, green, blue, gray, and colorless. The color of zircons can sometimes be changed by heat treatment. Common brown zircons can be transformed into colorless and blue zircons by heating to 800 to 1,000 °C (1,470 to 1,830 °F). In geological settings, the development of pink, red, and purple zircon occurs after hundreds of millions of years, if the crystal has sufficient trace elements to produce color centers. Color in this red or pink series is annealed in geological conditions above temperatures of around 400 °C (752 °F).

Structurally, zircon consists of parallel chains of alternating silica tetrahedra (silicon ions in fourfold coordination with oxygen ions) and zirconium ions, with the large zirconium ions in eightfold coordination with oxygen ions.

Sand-sized grains of zircon

Zircon is mainly consumed as an opacifier, and has been known to be used in the decorative ceramics industry. It is also the principal precursor not only to metallic zirconium, although this application is small, but also to all compounds of zirconium including zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), an important refractory oxide with a melting point of 2,717 °C (4,923 °F).

Other applications include use in refractories and foundry casting and a growing array of specialty applications as zirconia and zirconium chemicals, including in nuclear fuel rods, catalytic fuel converters and in water and air purification systems.

Zircon is one of the key minerals used by geologists for geochronology.

Zircon is a part of the ZTR index to classify highly-weathered sediments.

A pale blue zircon gemstone weighing 3.36 carats

Transparent zircon is a well-known form of semi-precious gemstone, favored for its high specific gravity (between 4.2 and 4.86) and adamantine luster. Because of its high refractive index (1.92) it has sometimes been used as a substitute for diamond, though it does not display quite the same play of color as a diamond. Zircon is the heaviest of any gem, readily sinking in even highly viscous liquids. Its Mohs hardness is between that of quartz and topaz, at 7.5 on the 10 point scale, though below that of the similar manmade stone cubic zirconia (9). Zircons may sometimes lose their inherent color after long exposure to bright sunlight, which is unusual in a gemstone. It is immune to acid attack except by sulfuric acid and then only when ground into a fine powder.

Most gem-grade zircons show a high degree of birefringence which, on stones cut with a table and pavilion cuts (i.e., nearly all cut stones), can be seen as the apparent doubling-up of the latter when viewed through the former, and this characteristic can be used to distinguish them from diamonds and cubic zirconias (CZ) as well as soda-lime glass, none of which show this characteristic. However, some zircons from Sri Lanka display only weak or no birefringence at all, and some other Sri Lanka stones may show clear birefringence in one place and little or none in another part of the same cut stone. Other gemstones also display birefringence, so while the presence of this characteristic may help distinguish a given zircon from a diamond or a CZ, it will not help distinguish it from, for example, a topaz gemstone. The high specific gravity of zircon, however, can usually separate it from any other gem and is simple to test.

Also, birefringence depends on the cut of the stone in relation to its optical axis. If a zircon is cut with this axis perpendicular to its table, birefringence may be reduced to undetectable levels unless viewed with a jeweler's loupe or other magnifying optics. The highest grade zircons are cut to minimize birefringence.

The value of a zircon gem depends largely on its color, clarity, and size. Prior to World War II, blue zircons (the most valuable color) were available from many gemstone suppliers in sizes between 15 and 25 carats; since then, stones even as large as 10 carats have become very scarce, especially in the most desirable color varieties.

Synthetic zircons have been created in laboratories, but they are only of scientific interest and are never encountered in the jewellery trade. Zircons are sometimes imitated by spinel and synthetic sapphire, but are not difficult to distinguish from them with simple tools.

World production trend of zirconium mineral concentrates

Zircon is a common accessory to trace mineral constituent of all kinds of igneous rocks, but particularly granite and felsic igneous rocks. Due to its hardness, durability and chemical inertness, zircon persists in sedimentary deposits and is a common constituent of most sands. Zircon can occasionally be found as a trace mineral in ultrapotassic intrusive rocks such as kimberlites, carbonatites, and lamprophyre, owing to the unusual magma genesis of these rocks.[citation needed]

Zircon forms economic concentrations within heavy mineral sands ore deposits, within certain pegmatites, and within some rare alkaline volcanic rocks, for example the Toongi Trachyte, Dubbo, New South Wales Australia in association with the zirconium-hafnium minerals eudialyte and armstrongite.

Australia leads the world in zircon mining, producing 37% of the world total and accounting for 40% of world EDR (economic demonstrated resources) for the mineral. South Africa is Africa's main producer, with 30% of world production, second after Australia.

SEM-CL image of Zircon grain showing zonations and poly-cycles (core-rim structure)

Zircon has played an important role during the evolution of radiometric dating. Zircons contain trace amounts of uranium and thorium (from 10 ppm up to 1 wt%) and can be dated using several modern analytical techniques. Because zircons can survive geologic processes like erosion, transport, even high-grade metamorphism, they contain a rich and varied record of geological processes. Currently, zircons are typically dated by uranium-lead (U-Pb), fission-track, cathodoluminescence, and U+Th/He techniques. For instance, imaging the cathodoluminescence emission from fast electrons can be used as a prescreening tool for high-resolution secondary-ion-mass spectrometry (SIMS) to image the zonation pattern and identify regions of interest for isotope analysis. This is done using an integrated cathodoluminescence and scanning electron microscope. Zircons in sedimentary rock can identify the sediment source.

Zircons from Jack Hills in the Narryer Gneiss Terrane, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, have yielded U-Pb ages up to 4.404 billion years, interpreted to be the age of crystallization, making them the oldest minerals so far dated on Earth. In addition, the oxygen isotopic compositions of some of these zircons have been interpreted to indicate that more than 4.4 billion years ago there was already water on the surface of the Earth. This interpretation is supported by additional trace element data, but is also the subject of debate. In 2015, "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in the Jack Hills of Western Australia. According to one of the researchers, "If life arose relatively quickly on Earth ... then it could be common in the universe."

Hafnon (HfSiO4), xenotime (YPO4), béhierite, schiavinatoite ((Ta,Nb)BO4), thorite (ThSiO4), and coffinite (USiO4) all share the same crystal structure (IVX IVY O4, IIIX VY O4 in the case of xenotime) as zircon.

  • Crystal structure of zircon

  • Unit cell of zircon

  • SEM image of zircon

  • Unusual olive-green zircon

  • Cluster of three compound crystals of zircon

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Zircon
Zircon Language Watch Edit This article is about the mineral and gemstone For the white crystalline oxide of zirconium see Zirconium dioxide For the diamond simulant see Cubic zirconia For other uses see Zircon disambiguation Zircon ˈ z ɜːr k ɒ n 6 7 or ˈ z ɜːr k en 8 is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates and is a source of the metal zirconium Its chemical name is zirconium silicate and its corresponding chemical formula is ZrSiO4 A common empirical formula showing some of the range of substitution in zircon is Zr1 y REEy SiO4 1 x OH 4x y Zircon forms in silicate melts with large proportions of high field strength incompatible elements For example hafnium is almost always present in quantities ranging from 1 to 4 The crystal structure of zircon is tetragonal crystal system The natural color of zircon varies between colorless yellow golden red brown blue and green ZirconA lustrous crystal of zircon perched on a tan matrix of calcite from the Gilgit District of PakistanGeneralCategoryNesosilicatesFormula repeating unit zirconium silicate ZrSiO4 Strunz classification9 AD 30Crystal systemTetragonalCrystal classDitetragonal dipyramidal 4 mmm H M symbol 4 m 2 m 2 m Space groupI41 amd No 141 Unit cella 6 607 1 c 5 982 1 A Z 4IdentificationColorReddish brown yellow green blue gray colorless in thin section colorless to pale brownCrystal habittabular to prismatic crystals irregular grains massiveTwinningOn 101 Crystals shocked by meteorite impact show polysynthetic twins on 112 Cleavage 110 and 111 FractureConchoidal to unevenTenacityBrittleMohs scale hardness7 5LusterVitreous to adamantine greasy when metamict StreakWhiteDiaphaneityTransparent to opaqueSpecific gravity4 6 4 7Optical propertiesUniaxial Refractive indexnw 1 925 1 961 ne 1 980 2 015 1 75 when metamictBirefringenced 0 047 0 055PleochroismWeakFusibilityclose to 2 550 C depend on Hf Th U H etc concentrations SolubilityInsolubleOther characteristicsFluorescent and Radioactive May form pleochroic halos Relief highReferences 1 2 3 4 5 The name derives from the Persian zargun meaning gold hued 9 This word is corrupted into jargoon a term applied to light colored zircons The English word zircon is derived from Zirkon which is the German adaptation of this word 10 Yellow orange and red zircon is also known as hyacinth 11 from the flower hyacinthus whose name is of Ancient Greek origin Contents 1 Properties 2 Applications 3 As gemstone 4 Occurrence 5 Radiometric dating 6 Similar minerals 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksProperties Edit Optical microscope photograph the length of the crystal is about 250 µm Zircon is common in the crust of Earth It occurs as a common accessory mineral in igneous rocks as primary crystallization products in metamorphic rocks and as detrital grains in sedimentary rocks 1 Large zircon crystals are rare Their average size in granite rocks is about 0 1 0 3 mm 0 0039 0 0118 in but they can also grow to sizes of several centimeters especially in mafic pegmatites and carbonatites 1 Zircon is fairly hard with a Mohs hardness of 7 5 and chemically stable and so is highly resistant to weathering It also is resistant to heat so that detrital zircon grains are sometimes preserved in igneous rocks formed from melted sediments 12 Its resistance to weathering together with its relatively high specific gravity 4 68 make it an important component of the heavy mineral fraction of sandstones 4 Because of their uranium and thorium content some zircons undergo metamictization Connected to internal radiation damage these processes partially disrupt the crystal structure and partly explain the highly variable properties of zircon As zircon becomes more and more modified by internal radiation damage the density decreases the crystal structure is compromised and the color changes 13 Zircon occurs in many colors including reddish brown yellow green blue gray and colorless 1 The color of zircons can sometimes be changed by heat treatment Common brown zircons can be transformed into colorless and blue zircons by heating to 800 to 1 000 C 1 470 to 1 830 F 14 In geological settings the development of pink red and purple zircon occurs after hundreds of millions of years if the crystal has sufficient trace elements to produce color centers Color in this red or pink series is annealed in geological conditions above temperatures of around 400 C 752 F 15 Structurally zircon consists of parallel chains of alternating silica tetrahedra silicon ions in fourfold coordination with oxygen ions and zirconium ions with the large zirconium ions in eightfold coordination with oxygen ions 16 Applications Edit Sand sized grains of zircon Zircon is mainly consumed as an opacifier and has been known to be used in the decorative ceramics industry 17 It is also the principal precursor not only to metallic zirconium although this application is small but also to all compounds of zirconium including zirconium dioxide ZrO2 an important refractory oxide with a melting point of 2 717 C 4 923 F 18 Other applications include use in refractories and foundry casting and a growing array of specialty applications as zirconia and zirconium chemicals including in nuclear fuel rods catalytic fuel converters and in water and air purification systems 19 Zircon is one of the key minerals used by geologists for geochronology 20 Zircon is a part of the ZTR index to classify highly weathered sediments 21 As gemstone Edit A pale blue zircon gemstone weighing 3 36 carats Transparent zircon is a well known form of semi precious gemstone favored for its high specific gravity between 4 2 and 4 86 and adamantine luster Because of its high refractive index 1 92 it has sometimes been used as a substitute for diamond though it does not display quite the same play of color as a diamond Zircon is the heaviest of any gem readily sinking in even highly viscous liquids Its Mohs hardness is between that of quartz and topaz at 7 5 on the 10 point scale though below that of the similar manmade stone cubic zirconia 9 Zircons may sometimes lose their inherent color after long exposure to bright sunlight which is unusual in a gemstone It is immune to acid attack except by sulfuric acid and then only when ground into a fine powder 22 Most gem grade zircons show a high degree of birefringence which on stones cut with a table and pavilion cuts i e nearly all cut stones can be seen as the apparent doubling up of the latter when viewed through the former and this characteristic can be used to distinguish them from diamonds and cubic zirconias CZ as well as soda lime glass none of which show this characteristic However some zircons from Sri Lanka display only weak or no birefringence at all and some other Sri Lanka stones may show clear birefringence in one place and little or none in another part of the same cut stone 23 Other gemstones also display birefringence so while the presence of this characteristic may help distinguish a given zircon from a diamond or a CZ it will not help distinguish it from for example a topaz gemstone The high specific gravity of zircon however can usually separate it from any other gem and is simple to test Also birefringence depends on the cut of the stone in relation to its optical axis If a zircon is cut with this axis perpendicular to its table birefringence may be reduced to undetectable levels unless viewed with a jeweler s loupe or other magnifying optics The highest grade zircons are cut to minimize birefringence 24 The value of a zircon gem depends largely on its color clarity and size Prior to World War II blue zircons the most valuable color were available from many gemstone suppliers in sizes between 15 and 25 carats since then stones even as large as 10 carats have become very scarce especially in the most desirable color varieties 24 Synthetic zircons have been created in laboratories 25 but they are only of scientific interest and are never encountered in the jewellery trade Zircons are sometimes imitated by spinel and synthetic sapphire but are not difficult to distinguish from them with simple tools Occurrence Edit World production trend of zirconium mineral concentrates Zircon is a common accessory to trace mineral constituent of all kinds of igneous rocks but particularly granite and felsic igneous rocks Due to its hardness durability and chemical inertness zircon persists in sedimentary deposits and is a common constituent of most sands 26 27 Zircon can occasionally be found as a trace mineral in ultrapotassic intrusive rocks such as kimberlites carbonatites and lamprophyre owing to the unusual magma genesis of these rocks citation needed Zircon forms economic concentrations within heavy mineral sands ore deposits within certain pegmatites and within some rare alkaline volcanic rocks for example the Toongi Trachyte Dubbo New South Wales Australia 28 in association with the zirconium hafnium minerals eudialyte and armstrongite Australia leads the world in zircon mining producing 37 of the world total and accounting for 40 of world EDR economic demonstrated resources for the mineral 29 South Africa is Africa s main producer with 30 of world production second after Australia 30 Radiometric dating Edit SEM CL image of Zircon grain showing zonations and poly cycles core rim structure Zircon has played an important role during the evolution of radiometric dating Zircons contain trace amounts of uranium and thorium from 10 ppm up to 1 wt and can be dated using several modern analytical techniques Because zircons can survive geologic processes like erosion transport even high grade metamorphism they contain a rich and varied record of geological processes Currently zircons are typically dated by uranium lead U Pb fission track cathodoluminescence and U Th He techniques For instance imaging the cathodoluminescence emission from fast electrons can be used as a prescreening tool for high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry SIMS to image the zonation pattern and identify regions of interest for isotope analysis This is done using an integrated cathodoluminescence and scanning electron microscope 31 Zircons in sedimentary rock can identify the sediment source 32 Zircons from Jack Hills in the Narryer Gneiss Terrane Yilgarn Craton Western Australia have yielded U Pb ages up to 4 404 billion years 33 interpreted to be the age of crystallization making them the oldest minerals so far dated on Earth In addition the oxygen isotopic compositions of some of these zircons have been interpreted to indicate that more than 4 4 billion years ago there was already water on the surface of the Earth 33 34 This interpretation is supported by additional trace element data 35 36 but is also the subject of debate 37 38 In 2015 remains of biotic life were found in 4 1 billion year old rocks in the Jack Hills of Western Australia 39 40 According to one of the researchers If life arose relatively quickly on Earth then it could be common in the universe 39 Similar minerals EditHafnon HfSiO4 xenotime YPO4 behierite schiavinatoite Ta Nb BO4 thorite ThSiO4 and coffinite USiO4 all share the same crystal structure IVX IVY O4 IIIX VY O4 in the case of xenotime as zircon Gallery Edit Crystal structure of zircon Unit cell of zircon SEM image of zircon Unusual olive green zircon Cluster of three compound crystals of zirconSee also EditBaddeleyite ZrO2 Cathodoluminescence microscope Cool Early Earth Earliest known life forms Hadean zircon Heavy mineral sands ore deposits History of Earth Ilmenite Cerium anomalyReferences Edit a b c d Anthony John W Bideaux Richard A Bladh Kenneth W Nichols Monte C eds 1995 Zircon PDF Handbook of Mineralogy II Silica Silicates Chantilly VA US Mineralogical Society of America ISBN 978 0962209710 Zircon Mineral information data and localities Mindat org Retrieved October 19 2021 Zircon Mineral Data Webmineral Retrieved October 19 2021 a b Hurlbut Cornelius S Klein Cornelis 1985 Manual of Mineralogy 20th ed ISBN 0 471 80580 7 Erickson Timmons M Cavosie Aaron J Moser Desmond E et al 2013 Abstract Correlating planar microstructures in shocked zircon from the Vredefort Dome at multiple scales Crystallographic modeling external and internal imaging and EBSD structural analysis PDF American Mineralogist Volume 98 53 65 doi 10 2138 am 2013 4165 volume has extra text help Zircon definition and meaning Collins English Dictionary www collinsdictionary com Retrieved April 29 2018 zircon The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 5th ed Boston Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Definition of ZIRCON Merriam Webster Retrieved April 29 2018 Stwertka Albert 1996 A Guide to the Elements Oxford University Press pp 117 119 ISBN 978 0 19 508083 4 Harper Douglas zircon Online Etymology Dictionary Hyacinth gem Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc Retrieved October 7 2016 Nesse William D 2000 Introduction to mineralogy New York Oxford University Press pp 313 314 ISBN 9780195106916 Nesse 2000 pp 93 94 Zircon gemstone information www gemdat org Retrieved April 29 2018 Garver John I Kamp Peter J J 2002 Integration of zircon color and zircon fission track zonation patterns in orogenic belts Application to the Southern Alps New Zealand Tectonophysics 349 1 4 203 219 Bibcode 2002Tectp 349 203G CiteSeerX 10 1 1 570 3912 doi 10 1016 S0040 1951 02 00054 9 Nesse 2000 p 313 Nielsen Ralph 2000 Zirconium and Zirconium Compounds Ullmann s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry doi 10 1002 14356007 a28 543 ISBN 978 3527306732 Davis Sergio Belonoshko Anatoly Rosengren Anders Duin Adri Johansson Borje January 1 2010 Molecular dynamics simulation of zirconia melting Open Physics 8 5 789 Bibcode 2010CEJPh 8 789D doi 10 2478 s11534 009 0152 3 S2CID 120967147 Products Mineral Commodities Ltd Archived from the original on October 7 2016 Retrieved August 8 2016 Nesse 2000 p 314 Blatt Harvey Middleton Gerard Murray Raymond 1980 Origin of sedimentary rocks 2d ed Englewood Cliffs N J Prentice Hall pp 321 322 ISBN 0136427103 Oliver Cummings Farrington 1903 Gems and Gem Minerals A W Mumford p 109 L J Spencer 1905 Report of the Seventy Fourth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science John Murray pp 562 563 a b Physical amp Optical Properties of Zircon Colored Gemstones Guide Retrieved October 19 2021 Van Westrenen Wim Frank Mark R Hanchar John M Fei Yingwei Finch Robert J Zha Chang Sheng January 2004 In situ determination of the compressibility of synthetic pure zircon ZrSiO4 and the onset of the zircon reidite phase transition American Mineralogist 89 1 197 203 Bibcode 2004AmMin 89 197V doi 10 2138 am 2004 0123 S2CID 102001496 Nesse 2000 pp 313 314 Hurlbut amp Klein 1985 p 454 Staff June 2007 Dubbo Zirconia Project Fact Sheet June 2014 PDF Alkane Resources Limited Archived from the original PDF on February 28 2008 Retrieved September 10 2007 The Mineral Sands Industry Factbook PDF Archived from the original PDF on August 18 2016 Heavy Minerals Mining in Africa Titanium And Zirconium Archived from the original on May 28 2008 Retrieved August 8 2016 Zircons Application Note DELMIC Retrieved February 10 2017 Cawood P A Hawkesworth C J Dhuime B October 2012 Detrital zircon record and tectonic setting Geology 40 10 875 878 Bibcode 2012Geo 40 875C doi 10 1130 G32945 1 a b Wilde Simon A Valley John W Peck William H Graham Colin M 2001 Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4 4 Gyr ago Nature 409 6817 175 178 Bibcode 2001Natur 409 175W doi 10 1038 35051550 PMID 11196637 S2CID 4319774 Mojzsis Stephen J Harrison T Mark Pidgeon Robert T 2001 Oxygen isotope evidence from ancient zircons for liquid water at the Earth s surface 4 300 Myr ago Nature 409 6817 178 181 doi 10 1038 35051557 PMID 11196638 S2CID 2819082 Ushikubo Takayuki Kita Noriko T Cavosie Aaron J Wilde Simon A Rudnick Roberta L Valley John W 2008 Lithium in Jack Hills zircons Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth s earliest crust Earth and Planetary Science Letters 272 3 4 666 676 Bibcode 2008E amp PSL 272 666U doi 10 1016 j epsl 2008 05 032 Ancient mineral shows early Earth climate tough on continents Physorg com June 13 2008 Nemchin A Pidgeon R Whitehouse M 2006 Re evaluation of the origin and evolution of gt 4 2 Ga zircons from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks Earth and Planetary Science Letters 244 1 2 218 233 Bibcode 2006E amp PSL 244 218N doi 10 1016 j epsl 2006 01 054 Cavosie A J Valley J W Wilde S A e i m f 2005 Magmatic d18O in 4400 3900 Ma detrital zircons A record of the alteration and recycling of crust in the Early Archean Earth and Planetary Science Letters 235 3 4 663 681 Bibcode 2005E amp PSL 235 663C doi 10 1016 j epsl 2005 04 028 a b Borenstein Seth October 19 2015 Hints of life on what was thought to be desolate early Earth Excite Yonkers NY Mindspark Interactive Network Associated Press Archived from the original on October 23 2015 Retrieved October 8 2018 Bell Elizabeth A Boehnke Patrick Harrison T Mark Mao Wendy L 2015 Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4 1 billion year old zircon Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 47 14518 14521 Bibcode 2015PNAS 11214518B doi 10 1073 pnas 1517557112 PMC 4664351 PMID 26483481 Further reading EditJohn M Hanchar amp Paul W O Hoskin eds 2003 Zircon Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry Mineralogical Society of America monograph 53 ISBN 0 939950 65 0 D J Cherniak amp E B Watson 2000 Pb diffusion in zircon Chemical Geology 172 1 2 5 24 Bibcode 2001ChGeo 172 5C doi 10 1016 S0009 2541 00 00233 3 A N Halliday 2001 In the beginning Nature 409 6817 144 145 doi 10 1038 35051685 PMID 11196624 S2CID 4339433 Hermann Kohler 1970 Die Anderung der Zirkonmorphologie mit dem Differentiationsgrad eines Granits Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie Monatshefte 9 405 420 K Mezger amp E J Krogstad 1997 Interpretation of discordant U Pb zircon ages An evaluation Journal of Metamorphic Geology 15 1 127 140 Bibcode 1997JMetG 15 127M doi 10 1111 j 1525 1314 1997 00008 x J P Pupin 1980 Zircon and Granite petrology Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 73 3 207 220 Bibcode 1980CoMP 73 207P doi 10 1007 BF00381441 S2CID 96470918 Gunnar Ries 2001 Zirkon als akzessorisches Mineral Aufschluss 52 381 383 G Vavra 1990 On the kinematics of zircon growth and its petrogenetic significance a cathodoluminescence study Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 106 1 90 99 Bibcode 1990CoMP 106 90V doi 10 1007 BF00306410 S2CID 140566387 John W Valley William H Peck Elizabeth M King Simon A Wilde 2002 A Cool Early Earth Geology 30 4 351 354 Bibcode 2002Geo 30 351V doi 10 1130 0091 7613 2002 030 lt 0351 ACEE gt 2 0 CO 2 Retrieved April 11 2005 G Vavra 1994 Systematics of internal zircon morphology in major Variscan granitoid types Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 117 4 331 344 Bibcode 1994CoMP 117 331V doi 10 1007 BF00307269 S2CID 128459636 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Zircon Geochemistry of old zircons Mineral galleries GIA Gem Encyclopedia Zircon Online articles and information on zircon history lore and research Zircon Industry Association Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zircon amp oldid 1052882790, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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