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Zinc sulfide

Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS. This is the main form of zinc found in nature, where it mainly occurs as the mineral sphalerite. Although this mineral is usually black because of various impurities, the pure material is white, and it is widely used as a pigment. In its dense synthetic form, zinc sulfide can be transparent, and it is used as a window for visible optics and infrared optics.


ZnS powders containing different concentrations of sulfur vacancies
Names
Other names
Identifiers
  • 1314-98-3 Y
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.013.866
RTECS number
  • ZH5400000
UNII
  • sphalerite: [SH+2]12[ZnH2-2][SH+2]3[ZnH2-2][SH+2]([ZnH-2]14)[ZnH-2]1[S+2]5([ZnH-2]38)[Zn-2]26[SH+2]2[ZnH-2]([S+2]4)[SH+2]1[ZnH2-2][SH+2]3[ZnH-2]2[S+2][ZnH-2]([SH+2]6[ZnH-2]([SH+2])[SH+2]68)[SH+2]([ZnH2-2]6)[ZnH-2]35
  • wurtzite: [ZnH2-2]1[S+2]47[ZnH-2]2[S+2][ZnH-2]3[S+2]8([ZnH2-2][SH+2]([ZnH2-2]4)[ZnH2-2]6)[ZnH-2]4[S+2][ZnH-2]5[S+2]6([ZnH2-2]6)[Zn-2]78[S+2]78[ZnH-2]([SH+2]69)[SH+2]5[ZnH2-2][SH+2]4[ZnH-2]7[SH+2]3[ZnH2-2][SH+2]2[ZnH-2]8[SH+2]1[ZnH2-2]9
  • wurtzite: [ZnH2-2]1[SH+2]([ZnH2-2]6)[ZnH2-2][SH+2]7[ZnH-2]2[S+2][Zn-2]3([S+2][ZnH-2]9[S+2]5)[S+2]18[Zn-2]45[S+2][ZnH-2]5[SH+2]6[Zn-2]78[S+2]78[ZnH2-2][SH+2]5[ZnH2-2][S+2]4([ZnH2-2][SH+2]9[ZnH2-2]4)[ZnH-2]7[S+2]34[ZnH2-2][SH+2]2[ZnH2-2]8
Properties
ZnS
Molar mass 97.474 g/mol
Density 4.090 g/cm3
Melting point 1,850 °C (3,360 °F; 2,120 K) (sublime)
negligible
Band gap 3.54 eV (cubic, 300 K)
3.91 eV (hexagonal, 300 K)
2.3677
Structure
see text
Tetrahedral (Zn2+)
Tetrahedral (S2−)
Thermochemistry
−204.6 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 1627
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
1
0
0
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other anions
Zinc oxide
Zinc selenide
Zinc telluride
Other cations
Cadmium sulfide
Mercury sulfide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Yverify (what is YN ?)
Infobox references

Contents

Sphalerite, the more common polymorph of zinc sulfide
Wurtzite, the less common polymorph of zinc sulfide

ZnS exists in two main crystalline forms, and this dualism is often a salient example of polymorphism. In each form, the coordination geometry at Zn and S is tetrahedral. The more stable cubic form is known also as zinc blende or sphalerite. The hexagonal form is known as the mineral wurtzite, although it also can be produced synthetically. The transition from the sphalerite form to the wurtzite form occurs at around 1020 °C. A tetragonal form is also known as the very rare mineral called polhemusite, with the formula (Zn,Hg)S.

Luminescent material

Zinc sulfide, with addition of few ppm of suitable activator, exhibits strong phosphorescence (described by Nikola Tesla in 1893), and is currently used in many applications, from cathode ray tubes through X-ray screens to glow in the dark products. When silver is used as activator, the resulting color is bright blue, with maximum at 450 nanometers. Using manganese yields an orange-red color at around 590 nanometers. Copper gives long-time glow, and it has the familiar greenish glow-in-the-dark. Copper-doped zinc sulfide ("ZnS plus Cu") is used also in electroluminescent panels. It also exhibits phosphorescence due to impurities on illumination with blue or ultraviolet light.

Optical material

Zinc sulfide is also used as an infrared optical material, transmitting from visible wavelengths to just over 12 micrometers. It can be used planar as an optical window or shaped into a lens. It is made as microcrystalline sheets by the synthesis from hydrogen sulfide gas and zinc vapour, and this is sold as FLIR-grade (Forward Looking Infrared), where the zinc sulfide is in a milky-yellow, opaque form. This material when hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) can be converted to a water-clear form known as Cleartran (trademark). Early commercial forms were marketed as Irtran-2 but this designation is now obsolete.

Pigment

Zinc sulfide is a common pigment, sometimes called sachtolith. When combined with barium sulfate, zinc sulfide forms lithopone.

Catalyst

Fine ZnS powder is an efficient photocatalyst, which produces hydrogen gas from water upon illumination. Sulfur vacancies can be introduced in ZnS during its synthesis; this gradually turns the white-yellowish ZnS into a brown powder, and boosts the photocatalytic activity through enhanced light absorption.

Semiconductor properties

Both sphalerite and wurtzite are intrinsic, wide-bandgap semiconductors. These are prototypical II-VI semiconductors, and they adopt structures related to many of the other semiconductors, such as gallium arsenide. The cubic form of ZnS has a band gap of about 3.54 electron volts at 300 kelvins, but the hexagonal form has a band gap of about 3.91 electron volts. ZnS can be doped as either an n-type semiconductor or a p-type semiconductor.

The phosphorescence of ZnS was first reported by the French chemist Théodore Sidot in 1866. His findings were presented by A. E. Becquerel, who was renowned for the research on luminescence. ZnS was used by Ernest Rutherford and others in the early years of nuclear physics as a scintillation detector, because it emits light upon excitation by x-rays or electron beam, making it useful for X-ray screens and cathode ray tubes. This property made zinc sulfide useful in the dials of radium watches.

Mixtures of zinc and sulfur react pyrotechnically, leaving behind zinc sulfide.

Zinc sulfide is usually produced from waste materials from other applications. Typical sources include smelter, slag, and pickle liquors. It is also a by-product of the synthesis of ammonia from methane where zinc oxide is used to scavenge hydrogen sulfide impurities in the natural gas:

ZnO + H2S → ZnS + H2O

Laboratory preparation

It is easily produced by igniting a mixture of zinc and sulfur. Since zinc sulfide is insoluble in water, it can also be produced in a precipitation reaction. Solutions containing Zn2+ salts readily form a precipitate ZnS in the presence of sulfide ions (e.g., from H2S).

Zn2+ + S2− → ZnS

This reaction is the basis of a gravimetric analysis for zinc.

  1. Wang, Gang; Huang, Baibiao; Li, Zhujie; Lou, Zaizhu; Wang, Zeyan; Dai, Ying; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan (2015). "Synthesis and characterization of ZnS with controlled amount of S vacancies for photocatalytic H2 production under visible light". Scientific Reports. 5: 8544. Bibcode:2015NatSR...5E8544W. doi:10.1038/srep08544. PMC4339798. PMID 25712901.
  2. Wells, A. F. (1984), Structural Inorganic Chemistry (5th ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-855370-6.
  3. Tesla, Nikola. "The Inventions, Researches, and Writings of Nikola Tesla". Internet Archive. Retrieved1 October 2017.
  4. Karl A. Franz, Wolfgang G. Kehr, Alfred Siggel, Jürgen Wieczoreck, and Waldemar Adam "Luminescent Materials" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_519
  5. Gerhard Auer, Peter Woditsch, Axel Westerhaus, Jürgen Kischkewitz, Wolf-Dieter Griebler and Marcel Liedekerke "Pigments, Inorganic, 2. White Pigments" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2009, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi: 10.1002/14356007.n20_n01
  6. Sidot, T. (1866). "Sur les propriétés de la blende hexagonale". Compt. Rend. 63: 188–189.
  7. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1984). Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Pergamon Press. p. 1405. ISBN 978-0-08-022057-4.
  8. Sur un nouveau procédé de préparation – du sulfure de zinc phosphorescent" by R. Coustal, F. Prevet, 1929
  9. Mendham, J.; Denney, R. C.; Barnes, J. D.; Thomas, M. J. K. (2000), Vogel's Quantitative Chemical Analysis (6th ed.), New York: Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-582-22628-7
Wikimedia Commons has media related toZinc sulfide.

Zinc sulfide
Zinc sulfide Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from ZnS Zinc sulfide or zinc sulphide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS This is the main form of zinc found in nature where it mainly occurs as the mineral sphalerite Although this mineral is usually black because of various impurities the pure material is white and it is widely used as a pigment In its dense synthetic form zinc sulfide can be transparent and it is used as a window for visible optics and infrared optics ZnS powders containing different concentrations of sulfur vacancies 1 NamesOther names Zincblende WurtziteIdentifiersCAS Number 1314 98 3 Y3D model JSmol sphalerite Interactive imagewurtzite Interactive imagewurtzite Interactive imageECHA InfoCard 100 013 866PubChem CID 14821RTECS number ZH5400000UNII KPS085631O YCompTox Dashboard EPA DTXSID7042518SMILES sphalerite SH 2 12 ZnH2 2 SH 2 3 ZnH2 2 SH 2 ZnH 2 14 ZnH 2 1 S 2 5 ZnH 2 38 Zn 2 26 SH 2 2 ZnH 2 S 2 4 SH 2 1 ZnH2 2 SH 2 3 ZnH 2 2 S 2 ZnH 2 SH 2 6 ZnH 2 SH 2 SH 2 68 SH 2 ZnH2 2 6 ZnH 2 35wurtzite ZnH2 2 1 S 2 47 ZnH 2 2 S 2 ZnH 2 3 S 2 8 ZnH2 2 SH 2 ZnH2 2 4 ZnH2 2 6 ZnH 2 4 S 2 ZnH 2 5 S 2 6 ZnH2 2 6 Zn 2 78 S 2 78 ZnH 2 SH 2 69 SH 2 5 ZnH2 2 SH 2 4 ZnH 2 7 SH 2 3 ZnH2 2 SH 2 2 ZnH 2 8 SH 2 1 ZnH2 2 9wurtzite ZnH2 2 1 SH 2 ZnH2 2 6 ZnH2 2 SH 2 7 ZnH 2 2 S 2 Zn 2 3 S 2 ZnH 2 9 S 2 5 S 2 18 Zn 2 45 S 2 ZnH 2 5 SH 2 6 Zn 2 78 S 2 78 ZnH2 2 SH 2 5 ZnH2 2 S 2 4 ZnH2 2 SH 2 9 ZnH2 2 4 ZnH 2 7 S 2 34 ZnH2 2 SH 2 2 ZnH2 2 8PropertiesChemical formula ZnSMolar mass 97 474 g molDensity 4 090 g cm3Melting point 1 850 C 3 360 F 2 120 K sublime Solubility in water negligibleBand gap 3 54 eV cubic 300 K 3 91 eV hexagonal 300 K Refractive index nD 2 3677StructureCrystal structure see textCoordination geometry Tetrahedral Zn2 Tetrahedral S2 ThermochemistryStd enthalpy of formation DfH 298 204 6 kJ molHazardsSafety data sheet ICSC 1627NFPA 704 fire diamond 100Flash point Non flammableRelated compoundsOther anions Zinc oxide Zinc selenide Zinc tellurideOther cations Cadmium sulfide Mercury sulfideExcept where otherwise noted data are given for materials in their standard state at 25 C 77 F 100 kPa Y verify what is Y N Infobox references Contents 1 Structure 2 Applications 2 1 Luminescent material 2 2 Optical material 2 3 Pigment 2 4 Catalyst 2 5 Semiconductor properties 3 History 4 Production 4 1 Laboratory preparation 5 References 6 External linksStructure Edit Sphalerite the more common polymorph of zinc sulfide Wurtzite the less common polymorph of zinc sulfide ZnS exists in two main crystalline forms and this dualism is often a salient example of polymorphism In each form the coordination geometry at Zn and S is tetrahedral The more stable cubic form is known also as zinc blende or sphalerite The hexagonal form is known as the mineral wurtzite although it also can be produced synthetically 2 The transition from the sphalerite form to the wurtzite form occurs at around 1020 C A tetragonal form is also known as the very rare mineral called polhemusite with the formula Zn Hg S Applications EditLuminescent material Edit Zinc sulfide with addition of few ppm of suitable activator exhibits strong phosphorescence described by Nikola Tesla in 1893 3 and is currently used in many applications from cathode ray tubes through X ray screens to glow in the dark products When silver is used as activator the resulting color is bright blue with maximum at 450 nanometers Using manganese yields an orange red color at around 590 nanometers Copper gives long time glow and it has the familiar greenish glow in the dark Copper doped zinc sulfide ZnS plus Cu is used also in electroluminescent panels 4 It also exhibits phosphorescence due to impurities on illumination with blue or ultraviolet light Optical material Edit Zinc sulfide is also used as an infrared optical material transmitting from visible wavelengths to just over 12 micrometers It can be used planar as an optical window or shaped into a lens It is made as microcrystalline sheets by the synthesis from hydrogen sulfide gas and zinc vapour and this is sold as FLIR grade Forward Looking Infrared where the zinc sulfide is in a milky yellow opaque form This material when hot isostatically pressed HIPed can be converted to a water clear form known as Cleartran trademark Early commercial forms were marketed as Irtran 2 but this designation is now obsolete Pigment Edit Zinc sulfide is a common pigment sometimes called sachtolith When combined with barium sulfate zinc sulfide forms lithopone 5 Catalyst Edit Fine ZnS powder is an efficient photocatalyst which produces hydrogen gas from water upon illumination Sulfur vacancies can be introduced in ZnS during its synthesis this gradually turns the white yellowish ZnS into a brown powder and boosts the photocatalytic activity through enhanced light absorption 1 Semiconductor properties Edit Both sphalerite and wurtzite are intrinsic wide bandgap semiconductors These are prototypical II VI semiconductors and they adopt structures related to many of the other semiconductors such as gallium arsenide The cubic form of ZnS has a band gap of about 3 54 electron volts at 300 kelvins but the hexagonal form has a band gap of about 3 91 electron volts ZnS can be doped as either an n type semiconductor or a p type semiconductor History EditThe phosphorescence of ZnS was first reported by the French chemist Theodore Sidot in 1866 His findings were presented by A E Becquerel who was renowned for the research on luminescence 6 ZnS was used by Ernest Rutherford and others in the early years of nuclear physics as a scintillation detector because it emits light upon excitation by x rays or electron beam making it useful for X ray screens and cathode ray tubes 7 This property made zinc sulfide useful in the dials of radium watches Production Edit Mixtures of zinc and sulfur react pyrotechnically leaving behind zinc sulfide Zinc sulfide is usually produced from waste materials from other applications Typical sources include smelter slag and pickle liquors 5 It is also a by product of the synthesis of ammonia from methane where zinc oxide is used to scavenge hydrogen sulfide impurities in the natural gas ZnO H2S ZnS H2OLaboratory preparation Edit It is easily produced by igniting a mixture of zinc and sulfur 8 Since zinc sulfide is insoluble in water it can also be produced in a precipitation reaction Solutions containing Zn2 salts readily form a precipitate ZnS in the presence of sulfide ions e g from H2S Zn2 S2 ZnS This reaction is the basis of a gravimetric analysis for zinc 9 References Edit a b Wang Gang Huang Baibiao Li Zhujie Lou Zaizhu Wang Zeyan Dai Ying Whangbo Myung Hwan 2015 Synthesis and characterization of ZnS with controlled amount of S vacancies for photocatalytic H2 production under visible light Scientific Reports 5 8544 Bibcode 2015NatSR 5E8544W doi 10 1038 srep08544 PMC 4339798 PMID 25712901 Wells A F 1984 Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th ed Oxford Clarendon Press ISBN 0 19 855370 6 Tesla Nikola The Inventions Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla Internet Archive Retrieved 1 October 2017 Karl A Franz Wolfgang G Kehr Alfred Siggel Jurgen Wieczoreck and Waldemar Adam Luminescent Materials in Ullmann s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002 Wiley VCH Weinheim doi 10 1002 14356007 a15 519 a b Gerhard Auer Peter Woditsch Axel Westerhaus Jurgen Kischkewitz Wolf Dieter Griebler and Marcel Liedekerke Pigments Inorganic 2 White Pigments in Ullmann s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2009 Wiley VCH Weinheim doi 10 1002 14356007 n20 n01 Sidot T 1866 Sur les proprietes de la blende hexagonale Compt Rend 63 188 189 Greenwood Norman N Earnshaw Alan 1984 Chemistry of the Elements Oxford Pergamon Press p 1405 ISBN 978 0 08 022057 4 Sur un nouveau procede de preparation du sulfure de zinc phosphorescent by R Coustal F Prevet 1929 Mendham J Denney R C Barnes J D Thomas M J K 2000 Vogel s Quantitative Chemical Analysis 6th ed New York Prentice Hall ISBN 0 582 22628 7External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Zinc sulfide Zinc and Sulfur at The Periodic Table of Videos University of Nottingham Composition of CRT phosphors University of Reading Infrared Multilayer Laboratory optical data 1 melting point Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zinc sulfide amp oldid 1029271651, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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