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Astrological sign

Not to be confused with Constellations.
"Birth sign" redirects here. For the album by George Freeman, see Birth Sign (album).

In Western astrology, astrological signs are the twelve 30 degree sectors that make up Earth's 360 degree orbit around the Sun. The signs enumerate from the first day of spring known as the First Point of Aries which is the vernal equinox. The Western astrological signs are Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces. The Western zodiac originated in Babylonian astrology, and was later influenced by Hellenistic culture. Each sign was named after a constellation the sun annually moved through while crossing the sky. This observation is emphasized in the simplified and popular sun sign astrology. Over the centuries, Western astrology's zodiacal divisions have shifted out of alignment with the constellations they were named after by axial precession while Hindu astrology measurements correct for shifting.Astrology has developed in Chinese and Tibetan cultures as well.

Astrology is a pseudoscience. Scientific investigations of the theoretical basis and experimental verification of claims have shown it to have no scientific validity or explanatory power.

According to astrology, celestial phenomena relate to human activity on the principle of "as above, so below", so that the signs are held to represent characteristic modes of expression. Modern discoveries about the nature of celestial objects have undermined the theoretical basis for assigning meaning to astrological signs, and empirical scientific investigation has shown that predictions and recommendations based on these systems are not accurate.: 85,: 424 Scientific astronomy used the same sectors of the ecliptic as Western astrology until the 19th century.

Various approaches to measuring and dividing the sky are currently used by differing systems of astrology, although the tradition of the Zodiac's names and symbols remain mostly consistent. Western astrology measures from Equinox and Solstice points (points relating to equal, longest, and shortest days of the tropical year), while Hindu astrology measures along the equatorial plane (sidereal year).

The twelve signs of the zodiac, miniatures from a book of hours. (The Sky: Order and Chaos by Jean-Pierre Verdet, from the 'New Horizons' series)

Contents

History

Main articles: Zodiac and History of astrology
The twelve ecliptic signs. Each dot marks the start of a sign and they are separated by 30°. The intersection of the celestial equator and the ecliptic define the equinoctial points: First Point of Aries () and First Point of Libra (). The great circle containing the celestial poles and the ecliptic poles (P and P'), intersect the ecliptic at 0° Cancer () and 0° Capricorn (). In this illustration, the Sun is schematically positioned at the start of Aquarius ().

Western astrology is a direct continuation of Hellenistic astrology as recorded by Ptolemy in the 2nd century. Hellenistic astrology in turn was partly based on concepts from Babylonian tradition. Specifically, the division of the ecliptic in twelve equal sectors is a Babylonian conceptual construction.

By the 4th century BC, Babylonian astronomy and its system of celestial omens influenced the culture of ancient Greece, as did the astronomy of Egypt by late 2nd century BC. This resulted, unlike the Mesopotamian tradition, in a strong focus on the birth chart of the individual and the creation of Horoscopic astrology, employing the use of the Ascendant (the rising degree of the ecliptic, at the time of birth), and of the twelve houses. Association of the astrological signs with Empedocles' four classical elements was another important development in the characterization of the twelve signs.

The body of the Hellenistic astrological tradition as it stood by the 2nd century is described in Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos. This is the seminal work for later astronomical tradition not only in the West but also in India and the Islamic sphere and has remained a reference for almost seventeen centuries as later traditions made few substantial changes to its core teachings.

Western astrological correspondence chart

The following table shows the approximate dates of the twelve astrological signs, along with the classical and modern rulerships of each sign. By definition, Aries starts at the First Point of Aries which is the location of the Sun at the March equinox. The precise date of the Equinox varies from year to year but is always between 19 March and 21 March. The consequence is the start date of Aries and therefore the start date of all the other signs can change slightly from year to year. The following Western astrology table enumerates the twelve divisions of celestial longitude with the Latin names. The longitude intervals, are treated as closed for the first endpoint (a) and open for the second (b) – for instance, 30° of longitude is the first point of Taurus, not part of Aries. The signs are occasionally numbered 0 through 11 in place of symbols in astronomical works.

The 12 astrological signs represented by their symbols
Sign Gloss Symbol Unicode Character Approximate Sun Sign Dates Ecliptic Longitude
(aλ < b)
House Polarity Modality Triplicity Northern Hemisphere Season Southern Hemisphere Season Modern Ruler Classic Ruler
Aries The Ram ♈︎ March 21 – April 19 0° to 30° 1 Positive Cardinal Fire Spring Autumn Mars
Taurus The Bull ♉︎ April 20 – May 20 30° to 60° 2 Negative Fixed Earth Spring Autumn Venus
Gemini The Twins ♊︎ May 21 – June 21 60° to 90° 3 Positive Mutable Air Spring Autumn Mercury
Cancer The Crab ♋︎ June 22 – July 22 90° to 120° 4 Negative Cardinal Water Summer Winter Moon
Leo The Lion ♌︎ July 23 – August 22 120° to 150° 5 Positive Fixed Fire Summer Winter Sun
Virgo The Maiden ♍︎ August 23 – September 22 150° to 180° 6 Negative Mutable Earth Summer Winter Mercury
Libra The Scales ♎︎ September 23 – October 22 180° to 210° 7 Positive Cardinal Air Autumn Spring Venus
Scorpio The Scorpion ♏︎ October 23 – November 22 210° to 240° 8 Negative Fixed Water Autumn Spring Pluto (or) Mars
Sagittarius The Archer (Centaur) ♐︎ November 23 – December 21 240° to 270° 9 Positive Mutable Fire Autumn Spring Jupiter
Capricorn The Goat ♑︎ December 22 – January 19 270° to 300° 10 Negative Cardinal Earth Winter Summer Saturn
Aquarius The Water-bearer ♒︎ January 20 – February 18 300° to 330° 11 Positive Fixed Air Winter Summer Uranus Saturn
Pisces The Fish ♓︎ February 19 – March 20 330° to 360° 12 Negative Mutable Water Winter Summer Neptune Jupiter

The twelve signs each have opposites, resulting in six opposite couples. Fire and air elements are opposites, and earth and water elements are opposites. Spring signs are opposite to autumn ones, winter signs are opposite to summer ones and vice versa.

  • Aries is opposite to Libra
  • Taurus is opposite to Scorpio
  • Gemini is opposite to Sagittarius
  • Cancer is opposite to Capricorn
  • Leo is opposite to Aquarius
  • Virgo is opposite to Pisces

Polarity

In Western astrology, the polarity divides the zodiac in half and refers to the alignment of a sign's energy as either positive or negative, with various attributes associated to them as a result. Positive polarity signs, also called active, yang, expressive, or masculine signs, are the six odd-numbered signs of the zodiac: Aries, Gemini, Leo, Libra, Sagittarius, and Aquarius. Positive signs make up the fire and air triplicities. Negative polarity signs, also called passive, yin, receptive, or feminine signs, are the six even-numbered signs of the zodiac: Taurus, Cancer, Virgo, Scorpio, Capricorn, and Pisces. Negative signs make up the earth and water triplicities.

The three modalities

The modality or mode of a given sign refers to its position in the season it is found in. Each of the four elements manifests in three modalities: cardinal, fixed, and mutable. Since each modality comprehends four signs, they are also known as Quadruplicities. For example, the sign Aries is found in the first month of spring in the Western Hemisphere, so practitioners of astrology describe it as having a cardinal modality. The combination of element and modality provides the signs with their unique characterizations. For instance, Capricorn is the cardinal earth sign, impressing its association with action (cardinal modality) in the material world (earth element).

Modality Symbol Keywords Fire signs Water signs Air signs Earth signs
Cardinal Action, dynamic, initiative, great force Aries Cancer Libra Capricorn
Fixed Resistance to change, great willpower, inflexible Leo Scorpio Aquarius Taurus
Mutable Adaptability, flexibility, resourcefulness Sagittarius Pisces Gemini Virgo

Triplicities of the four elements

Main article: Triplicity
Further information: Classical element
The planets' sign positions on May 16, 2012. The signs are colored according to the associated element. Each planet is represented by a glyph next to its longitude within the sign. Additional symbols may be added to represent apparent retrograde motion (), or apparent stationary moment (shift from retrograde to direct, or vice versa: S).

The Greek philosopher Empedocles identified fire, earth, air, and water as elements in the fifth-century BC. He explained the nature of the universe as an interaction of two opposing principles, love and strife, manipulate the elements into different mixtures that produce the different natures of things. He stated all the elements are equal, the same age, rule their own provinces, and possess their own individual character. Empedocles said that those born with nearly equal proportions of the elements are more intelligent and have the most exact perceptions.

The elemental categories are called triplicities because each classical element is associated with three signs The four astrological elements are also considered as a direct equivalent to Hippocrates' personality types (sanguine = air; choleric = fire; melancholic = earth; phlegmatic = water). A modern approach looks at elements as "the energy substance of experience" and the next table tries to summarize their description through keywords. The elements have grown in importance and some astrologers begin natal chart interpretations by studying the balance of elements in the location of planets (especially the Sun's and Moon's ascendant signs) and the position of angles in the chart .

Polarity Element Symbol Keywords Sign triplicity
Positive Fire Assertion, drive, willpower Aries, Leo, Sagittarius
Air Communication, socialization, conceptualization Gemini, Libra, Aquarius
Negative Earth Practicality, caution, material world Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn
Water Emotion, empathy, sensitivity Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces

Celestial body rulerships

Representation of the western astrological signs in a 1716 Acta Eruditorum table illustration

Rulership is the connection between planet and correlated sign and house. The conventional rulerships are as follows: Aries (Mars), Taurus (Venus), Gemini (Mercury), Cancer (Moon), Leo (Sun), Virgo (Mercury), Libra (Venus), Scorpio (Pluto), Sagittarius (Jupiter), Capricorn (Saturn), Aquarius (Uranus), and Pisces (Neptune).

Dignity and detriment, exaltation and fall

A traditional belief of astrology, known as essential dignity, is the idea that the Sun, Moon, and planets are more powerful and effective in some signs than others because the basic nature of both is held to be in harmony. By contrast, they are held to find some signs to be weak or difficult to operate in because their natures are thought to be in conflict. These categories are Dignity, Detriment, Exaltation, and Fall.

  • Dignity and Detriment: A planet is strengthened or dignified if it falls within the sign that it rules. In other words, it is said to exercise Rulership of the sign. For example, the Moon in Cancer is considered "strong" (well-dignified). If a planet is in the sign opposite which it rules (or is dignified in), it is said to be weakened or in Detriment (for example, the Moon in Capricorn). This may also be termed a "debility".

In traditional astrology, other levels of Dignity are recognised in addition to Rulership. These are known as Exaltation, Triplicity, Terms or bounds, and Face or Decan, which together are known as describing a planet's Essential dignity, the quality or ability of one's true nature.

  • Exaltation and Fall: A planet is also strengthened when it is in its sign of exaltation. In traditional horary astrology, this denotes a dignity just less than rulership. Exaltation was considered to give the planet's significance(s) the dignity of an honoured guest: the centre of attention but constrained in power. Examples of planets in their Exaltation are: Saturn (Libra), Sun (Aries), Venus (Pisces), Moon (Taurus), Mercury (Virgo, although some disagree with this classification), Mars (Capricorn), Jupiter (Cancer). A planet in the opposite sign of this is in its fall, and thus weakened, perhaps more than Detriment. There is discord as to the signs in which the two extra-Saturnian planets may be considered to be exalted.

The following table summarizes the positions described above:

Planet (Symbol) in dignity in detriment in exaltation at fall
Sun () Leo Aquarius Aries Libra
Moon () Cancer Capricorn Taurus Scorpio
Mercury () Gemini and Virgo Sagittarius and Pisces Virgo Pisces
Venus () Libra and Taurus Aries and Scorpio Pisces Virgo
Mars () Aries and Scorpio Libra and Taurus Capricorn Cancer
Jupiter () Sagittarius and Pisces Gemini and Virgo Cancer Capricorn
Saturn () Capricorn and Aquarius Cancer and Leo Libra Aries

In addition to essential dignity, the traditional astrologer considers Accidental dignity of planets. This is placement by house in the chart under examination. Accidental dignity is the planet's "ability to act." So we might have, for example, Moon in Cancer, dignified by rulership, is placed in the 12th house it would have little scope to express its good nature. The 12th is a cadent house as are the 3rd, 6th and 9th and planets in these houses are considered weak or afflicted. On the other hand, Moon in the 1st, 4th, 7th, or 10th would be more able to act as these are Angular houses. Planets in Succedent houses of the chart (2nd, 5th, 8th, 11th) are generally considered to be of medium ability to act. Besides Accidental Dignity, there are a range of Accidental Debilities, such as retrogradation, Under the Sun's Beams, Combust, and so forth.

Additional classifications

Further information: Decans
Equirectangular plot of declination vs right ascension of the modern constellations with a dotted line denoting the ecliptic. Constellations are colour-coded by family and year established. (detailed view)

Each sign can be divided into three 10° sectors known as decans or decanates, though these have fallen into disuse. The first decanate is said to be most emphatically of its own nature and is ruled by the sign ruler. The next decanate is sub-ruled by the planet ruling the next sign in the same triplicity. The last decanate is sub-ruled by the next in order in the same triplicity.

While the element and modality of a sign are together sufficient to define it, they can be grouped to indicate their symbolism. The first four signs, Aries, Taurus, Gemini, and Cancer, form the group of personal signs. The next four signs, Leo, Virgo, Libra, and Scorpio form the group of interpersonal signs. The last four signs of the zodiac, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces, form the group of transpersonal signs.

Dane Rudhyar presented the tropical zodiac primary factors, used in the curriculum of the RASA School of Astrology. The tropical zodiac is the zodiac of seasonal factors as opposed to the sidereal zodiac (constellation factors). The primary seasonal factors are based on the changing ratio of sunlight and darkness across the year. The first factor is whether the chosen time falls in the half of the year when daylight is increasing, or the half of the year when darkness is increasing. The second factor is whether the chosen time falls in the half of the year when there is more daylight than darkness, or the half when there is more darkness than daylight. The third factor is which of the four seasons the chosen time falls in, defined by the first two factors. Thus

  • The winter season is when daylight is increasing and there is more darkness than daylight.
  • The spring season is when daylight is increasing and there is more daylight than darkness.
  • The summer season is when darkness is increasing and there is more daylight than darkness.
  • The autumn season is when darkness is increasing and there is more darkness than daylight.

Western sign gallery

  • Aries at the Wisconsin State Capitol

  • Taurus at the Wisconsin State Capitol

  • Gemini at the Wisconsin State Capitol

  • Cancer at the Wisconsin State Capitol

  • Leo at the Wisconsin State Capitol

  • Virgo at the Wisconsin State Capitol

  • Libra at the Wisconsin State Capitol

  • Scorpio at the Wisconsin State Capitol

  • Sagittarius at the Wisconsin State Capitol

  • Capricornus at the Wisconsin State Capitol

  • Aquarius at the Wisconsin State Capitol

  • Pisces at the Wisconsin State Capitol

Further information: Hindu astrology

In Indian astrology, there are five elements: fire, earth, air, water, and ether. The master of fire is Mars, while Mercury is of earth, Saturn of air, Venus of water, and Jupiter of ether.

Jyotish astrology recognises twelve zodiac signs (Rāśi), that correspond to those in Western astrology. The relation of the signs to the elements is the same in the two systems.

Nakshatras

Main article: Nakshatra

A nakshatra (Devanagari: नक्षत्र, Sanskrit nakshatra, a metaphorical compound of naksha- 'map/chart', and tra- 'guard'), or lunar mansion, is one of the 27 divisions of the sky identified by prominent star(s), as used in Hindu astronomy and astrology (Jyotisha). "Nakshatra" in Sanskrit, Kannada, Tulu and Tamil also, thus, refers to stars themselves.

Main article: Chinese zodiac

Chinese astrological signs operate on cycles of years, lunar months, and two-hour periods of the day (also known as shichen). A particular feature of the Chinese zodiac is its operation in a 60-year cycle in combination with the Five Phases of Chinese astrology (Wood, Fire, Metal, Water and Earth). Nevertheless, some researches say that there is an obvious relationship between the Chinese 12-year cycle and zodiac constellations: each year of the cycle corresponds to a certain disposal of Jupiter. For example, in the year of Snake Jupiter is in the Sign of Gemini, in the year of Horse Jupiter is in the Sign of Cancer and so on. So the Chinese 12-year calendar is a solar-lunar-jovian calendar.

Zodiac symbolism

The following table shows the twelve signs and their attributes.

Sign Yin/Yang Direction Season Fixed Element Trine
Rat Yang North Mid-Winter Water 1st
Ox Yin North Late Winter Earth 2nd
Tiger Yang East Early Spring Wood 3rd
Rabbit Yin East Mid-Spring Wood 4th
Dragon Yang East Late Spring Earth 1st
Snake Yin South Early Summer Fire 2nd
Horse Yang South Mid-Summer Fire 3rd
Sheep Yin South Late Summer Earth 4th
Monkey Yang West Early Autumn Metal 1st
Rooster Yin West Mid-Autumn Metal 2nd
Dog Yang West Late Autumn Earth 3rd
Pig Yin North Early Winter Water 4th

The twelve signs

Chart showing the 24 cardinal directions and the symbols of the sign associated with them.

In Chinese astrology, the zodiac of twelve animal signs represents twelve different types of personality. The zodiac traditionally begins with the sign of the Rat, and there are many stories about the Origins of the Chinese Zodiac which explain why this is so. When the twelve zodiac signs are part of the 60-year calendar in combination with the four elements, they are traditionally called the twelve Earthly Branches. The Chinese zodiac follows the lunisolar Chinese calendar and thus the "changeover" days in a month (when one sign changes to another sign) vary each year. The following are the twelve zodiac signs in order.

  1. Rat (Yang, 1st Trine, Fixed Element Water): Rat years include 1900, 1912, 1924, 1936, 1948, 1960, 1972, 1984, 1996, 2008, 2020, 2032. The Rat also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Rat are 11pm – 1am.
  2. Ox (Yin, 2nd Trine, Fixed Element Earth: Ox years include 1901, 1913, 1925, 1937, 1949, 1961, 1973, 1985, 1997, 2009, 2021, 2033. The Ox also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Ox are 1am – 3am.
  3. Tiger (Yang, 3rd Trine, Fixed Element Wood): Tiger years include 1902, 1914, 1926, 1938, 1950, 1962, 1974, 1986, 1998, 2010, 2022, 2034. The Tiger also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Tiger are 3am – 5am.
  4. Rabbit (Yin, 4th Trine, Fixed Element Wood): Rabbit Years include 1903, 1915, 1927, 1939, 1951, 1963, 1975, 1987, 1999, 2011, 2023, 2035. The Rabbit also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Rabbit are 5am – 7am.
  5. Dragon (Yang, 1st Trine, Fixed Element Earth): Dragon years include 1904, 1916, 1928, 1940, 1952, 1964, 1976, 1988, 2000, 2012, 2024, 2036. The Dragon also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Dragon are 7am – 9am.
  6. Snake (Yin, 2nd Trine, Fixed Element Fire): Snake years include 1905, 1917, 1929, 1941, 1953, 1965, 1977, 1989, 2001, 2013, 2025, 2037. The Snake also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Snake are 9am – 11am.
  7. Horse (Yang, 3rd Trine, Fixed Element Fire): Horse years include 1906, 1918, 1930, 1942, 1954, 1966, 1978, 1990, 2002, 2014, 2026, 2038. The Horse also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Horse are 11am – 1pm.
  8. Goat (Yin, 4th Trine, Fixed Element Earth): Goat years include 1907, 1919, 1931, 1943, 1955, 1967, 1979, 1991, 2003, 2015, 2027, 2039. The Goat also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Goat are 1pm – 3pm.
  9. Monkey (Yang, 1st Trine, Fixed Element Metal): Monkey years include 1908, 1920, 1932, 1944, 1956, 1968, 1980, 1992, 2004, 2016, 2028, 2040. The Monkey also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Monkey are 3pm – 5pm.
  10. Rooster (Yin, 2nd Trine, Fixed Element Metal): Rooster years include 1909, 1921, 1933, 1945, 1957, 1969, 1981, 1993, 2005, 2017, 2029, 2041. The Rooster also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Rooster are 5pm – 7pm.
  11. Dog (Yang, 3rd Trine, Fixed Element Earth): Dog years include 1910, 1922, 1934, 1946, 1958, 1970, 1982, 1994, 2006, 2018, 2030, 2042. The Dog also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Dog are 7pm – 9pm.
  12. Pig (Yin, 4th Trine, Fixed Element Water): Pig years include 1911, 1923, 1935, 1947, 1959, 1971, 1983, 1995, 2007, 2019, 2031, 2043. The Pig also corresponds to a particular month in the year. The hours of the Pig are 9pm – 11pm.

The five elements

  • Wood: The wood person has high morals, is self-confident, expansive and co-operative, with wide and varied interests and idealistic goals. The direction associated with Wood is East, and the season is spring, which makes it the fixed element for the animal signs Tiger and Rabbit.
  • Fire: The fire person has leadership qualities, dynamic passion, and is decisive, self-confident, positive, and assertive. The direction associated with Fire is South, and the season is summer, which makes it the fixed element for the animal signs Snake and Horse.
  • Earth: The earth person is serious, logical and methodical, intelligent, objective and good at planning. The direction associated with Earth is Center. The season for Earth is the changeover point of the four seasons. It is the fixed element for the animal signs Ox, Dragon, Goat and Dog.
  • Metal: The metal person is sincere, has fixed values and opinions, is strong of will, and has eloquence of speech. The direction associated with Metal is West. The season for Metal is Autumn. It is the fixed element for the animal signs Monkey and Rooster.
  • Water: The water person is persuasive, intuitive, and empathetic. The water person is objective and often sought out for their counsel. The direction associated with water is North. The season for Water is Winter. It is the fixed element for the animal signs Rat and Pig.

The five elements operate together with the twelve animal signs in a 60-year calendar. The five elements appear in the calendar in both their yin and yang forms and are known as the ten Celestial stems. The yin/yang split seen in the Gregorian calendar means years that end in an even number are Yang (representing masculine, active, and light), those that end with an odd number are Yin (representing feminine, passive and darkness), subject to Chinese New Year having passed.

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  • Rudhyar, Dane (1943). Astrological Signs – The Pulse of Life.
  • Sachs, Abraham (1948), "A Classification of the Babylonian Astronomical Tablets of the Seleucid Period", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 271–290. doi:10.2307/3515929. JSTOR 3515929.
  • Sutton, Komilla (1999). The Essentials of Vedic Astrology. England: The Wessex Astrologer Ltd.

Astrological sign
Astrological sign Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Zodiac sign Not to be confused with Constellations Birth sign redirects here For the album by George Freeman see Birth Sign album In Western astrology astrological signs are the twelve 30 degree sectors that make up Earth s 360 degree orbit around the Sun The signs enumerate from the first day of spring known as the First Point of Aries which is the vernal equinox The Western astrological signs are Aries Taurus Gemini Cancer Leo Virgo Libra Scorpio Sagittarius Capricorn Aquarius and Pisces The Western zodiac originated in Babylonian astrology and was later influenced by Hellenistic culture Each sign was named after a constellation the sun annually moved through while crossing the sky This observation is emphasized in the simplified and popular sun sign astrology Over the centuries Western astrology s zodiacal divisions have shifted out of alignment with the constellations they were named after by axial precession 1 while Hindu astrology measurements correct for shifting 2 Astrology has developed in Chinese and Tibetan cultures as well Astrology is a pseudoscience 3 Scientific investigations of the theoretical 4 basis and experimental verification of claims 5 have shown it to have no scientific validity or explanatory power According to astrology celestial phenomena relate to human activity on the principle of as above so below so that the signs are held to represent characteristic modes of expression 6 Modern discoveries about the nature of celestial objects have undermined the theoretical basis for assigning meaning to astrological signs and empirical scientific investigation has shown that predictions and recommendations based on these systems are not accurate 7 85 8 424 Scientific astronomy used the same sectors of the ecliptic as Western astrology until the 19th century Various approaches to measuring and dividing the sky are currently used by differing systems of astrology although the tradition of the Zodiac s names and symbols remain mostly consistent Western astrology measures from Equinox and Solstice points points relating to equal longest and shortest days of the tropical year while Hindu astrology measures along the equatorial plane sidereal year The twelve signs of the zodiac miniatures from a book of hours The Sky Order and Chaos by Jean Pierre Verdet from the New Horizons series Contents 1 Western zodiac signs 1 1 History 1 2 Western astrological correspondence chart 1 2 1 Polarity 1 2 2 The three modalities 1 2 3 Triplicities of the four elements 1 2 4 Celestial body rulerships 1 2 5 Dignity and detriment exaltation and fall 1 2 6 Additional classifications 1 3 Western sign gallery 2 Indian astrology 2 1 Nakshatras 3 Chinese zodiac signs 3 1 Zodiac symbolism 3 2 The twelve signs 3 3 The five elements 4 Notes 5 ReferencesWestern zodiac signs EditHistory Edit Main articles Zodiac and History of astrology Further information Babylonian astrology Hellenistic astrology and Ancient Egyptian astronomy The twelve ecliptic signs Each dot marks the start of a sign and they are separated by 30 The intersection of the celestial equator and the ecliptic define the equinoctial points First Point of Aries and First Point of Libra The great circle containing the celestial poles and the ecliptic poles P and P intersect the ecliptic at 0 Cancer and 0 Capricorn In this illustration the Sun is schematically positioned at the start of Aquarius Western astrology is a direct continuation of Hellenistic astrology as recorded by Ptolemy in the 2nd century Hellenistic astrology in turn was partly based on concepts from Babylonian tradition Specifically the division of the ecliptic in twelve equal sectors is a Babylonian conceptual construction 9 By the 4th century BC Babylonian astronomy and its system of celestial omens influenced the culture of ancient Greece as did the astronomy of Egypt by late 2nd century BC This resulted unlike the Mesopotamian tradition in a strong focus on the birth chart of the individual and the creation of Horoscopic astrology employing the use of the Ascendant the rising degree of the ecliptic at the time of birth and of the twelve houses Association of the astrological signs with Empedocles four classical elements was another important development in the characterization of the twelve signs The body of the Hellenistic astrological tradition as it stood by the 2nd century is described in Ptolemy s Tetrabiblos This is the seminal work for later astronomical tradition not only in the West but also in India and the Islamic sphere and has remained a reference for almost seventeen centuries as later traditions made few substantial changes to its core teachings Western astrological correspondence chart Edit The following table shows the approximate dates of the twelve astrological signs along with the classical 10 and modern 11 rulerships of each sign By definition Aries starts at the First Point of Aries which is the location of the Sun at the March equinox The precise date of the Equinox varies from year to year but is always between 19 March and 21 March The consequence is the start date of Aries and therefore the start date of all the other signs can change slightly from year to year The following Western astrology table enumerates the twelve divisions of celestial longitude with the Latin names The longitude intervals are treated as closed for the first endpoint a and open for the second b for instance 30 of longitude is the first point of Taurus not part of Aries The signs are occasionally numbered 0 through 11 in place of symbols in astronomical works The 12 astrological signs represented by their symbols Sign Gloss Symbol Unicode Character Approximate Sun Sign Dates Ecliptic Longitude a l lt b House Polarity Modality Triplicity Northern Hemisphere Season Southern Hemisphere Season Modern Ruler Classic RulerAries The Ram March 21 April 19 0 to 30 1 Positive Cardinal Fire Spring Autumn MarsTaurus The Bull April 20 May 20 30 to 60 2 Negative Fixed Earth Spring Autumn VenusGemini The Twins May 21 June 21 60 to 90 3 Positive Mutable Air Spring Autumn MercuryCancer The Crab June 22 July 22 90 to 120 4 Negative Cardinal Water Summer Winter MoonLeo The Lion July 23 August 22 120 to 150 5 Positive Fixed Fire Summer Winter SunVirgo The Maiden August 23 September 22 150 to 180 6 Negative Mutable Earth Summer Winter MercuryLibra The Scales September 23 October 22 180 to 210 7 Positive Cardinal Air Autumn Spring VenusScorpio The Scorpion October 23 November 22 210 to 240 8 Negative Fixed Water Autumn Spring Pluto or MarsSagittarius The Archer Centaur November 23 December 21 240 to 270 9 Positive Mutable Fire Autumn Spring JupiterCapricorn The Goat December 22 January 19 270 to 300 10 Negative Cardinal Earth Winter Summer SaturnAquarius The Water bearer January 20 February 18 300 to 330 11 Positive Fixed Air Winter Summer Uranus SaturnPisces The Fish February 19 March 20 330 to 360 12 Negative Mutable Water Winter Summer Neptune Jupiter The twelve signs each have opposites resulting in six opposite couples Fire and air elements are opposites and earth and water elements are opposites 12 Spring signs are opposite to autumn ones winter signs are opposite to summer ones and vice versa 13 14 15 16 Aries is opposite to Libra Taurus is opposite to Scorpio Gemini is opposite to Sagittarius Cancer is opposite to Capricorn Leo is opposite to Aquarius Virgo is opposite to PiscesPolarity Edit In Western astrology the polarity divides the zodiac in half and refers to the alignment of a sign s energy as either positive or negative with various attributes associated to them as a result 17 Positive polarity signs also called active yang expressive or masculine signs are the six odd numbered signs of the zodiac Aries Gemini Leo Libra Sagittarius and Aquarius Positive signs make up the fire and air triplicities 18 19 Negative polarity signs also called passive yin receptive or feminine signs 18 are the six even numbered signs of the zodiac Taurus Cancer Virgo Scorpio Capricorn and Pisces Negative signs make up the earth and water triplicities 19 The three modalities Edit The modality or mode of a given sign refers to its position in the season it is found in Each of the four elements manifests in three modalities cardinal fixed and mutable 20 Since each modality comprehends four signs they are also known as Quadruplicities 21 22 For example the sign Aries is found in the first month of spring in the Western Hemisphere so practitioners of astrology describe it as having a cardinal modality 23 The combination of element and modality provides the signs with their unique characterizations For instance Capricorn is the cardinal earth sign impressing its association with action cardinal modality in the material world earth element 24 25 26 Modality Symbol 27 Keywords 28 29 Fire signs Water signs Air signs Earth signsCardinal Action dynamic initiative great force Aries Cancer Libra CapricornFixed Resistance to change great willpower inflexible Leo Scorpio Aquarius TaurusMutable Adaptability flexibility resourcefulness Sagittarius Pisces Gemini VirgoTriplicities of the four elements Edit Main article Triplicity Further information Classical element The planets sign positions on May 16 2012 The signs are colored according to the associated element Each planet is represented by a glyph next to its longitude within the sign Additional symbols may be added to represent apparent retrograde motion or apparent stationary moment shift from retrograde to direct or vice versa S The Greek philosopher Empedocles identified fire earth air and water as elements in the fifth century BC He explained the nature of the universe as an interaction of two opposing principles love and strife manipulate the elements into different mixtures that produce the different natures of things He stated all the elements are equal the same age rule their own provinces and possess their own individual character Empedocles said that those born with nearly equal proportions of the elements are more intelligent and have the most exact perceptions 30 31 The elemental categories are called triplicities because each classical element is associated with three signs 21 22 The four astrological elements are also considered as a direct equivalent to Hippocrates personality types sanguine air choleric fire melancholic earth phlegmatic water A modern approach looks at elements as the energy substance of experience 32 and the next table tries to summarize their description through keywords 33 34 The elements have grown in importance and some astrologers begin natal chart interpretations by studying the balance of elements in the location of planets especially the Sun s and Moon s ascendant signs and the position of angles in the chart 35 Polarity Element Symbol 36 Keywords Sign triplicityPositive Fire Assertion drive willpower Aries Leo SagittariusAir Communication socialization conceptualization Gemini Libra AquariusNegative Earth Practicality caution material world Taurus Virgo CapricornWater Emotion empathy sensitivity Cancer Scorpio PiscesCelestial body rulerships Edit See also Domicile astrology Representation of the western astrological signs in a 1716 Acta Eruditorum table illustration Rulership is the connection between planet and correlated sign and house 37 The conventional rulerships are as follows Aries Mars Taurus Venus Gemini Mercury Cancer Moon Leo Sun Virgo Mercury Libra Venus Scorpio Pluto Sagittarius Jupiter Capricorn Saturn Aquarius Uranus and Pisces Neptune 10 38 Dignity and detriment exaltation and fall Edit A traditional belief of astrology known as essential dignity is the idea that the Sun Moon and planets are more powerful and effective in some signs than others because the basic nature of both is held to be in harmony By contrast they are held to find some signs to be weak or difficult to operate in because their natures are thought to be in conflict These categories are Dignity Detriment Exaltation and Fall Dignity and Detriment A planet is strengthened or dignified if it falls within the sign that it rules In other words it is said to exercise Rulership of the sign For example the Moon in Cancer is considered strong well dignified If a planet is in the sign opposite which it rules or is dignified in it is said to be weakened or in Detriment for example the Moon in Capricorn This may also be termed a debility 39 In traditional astrology other levels of Dignity are recognised in addition to Rulership These are known as Exaltation Triplicity Terms or bounds and Face or Decan which together are known as describing a planet s Essential dignity the quality or ability of one s true nature 39 Exaltation and Fall A planet is also strengthened when it is in its sign of exaltation In traditional horary astrology this denotes a dignity just less than rulership Exaltation was considered to give the planet s significance s the dignity of an honoured guest the centre of attention but constrained in power Examples of planets in their Exaltation are Saturn Libra Sun Aries Venus Pisces Moon Taurus Mercury Virgo although some disagree with this classification Mars Capricorn Jupiter Cancer A planet in the opposite sign of this is in its fall and thus weakened perhaps more than Detriment 39 There is discord as to the signs in which the two extra Saturnian planets may be considered to be exalted 40 The following table summarizes the positions described above Planet Symbol in dignity in detriment in exaltation at fall Sun Leo Aquarius Aries LibraMoon Cancer Capricorn Taurus ScorpioMercury Gemini and Virgo Sagittarius and Pisces Virgo PiscesVenus Libra and Taurus Aries and Scorpio Pisces VirgoMars Aries and Scorpio Libra and Taurus Capricorn CancerJupiter Sagittarius and Pisces Gemini and Virgo Cancer CapricornSaturn Capricorn and Aquarius Cancer and Leo Libra Aries In addition to essential dignity the traditional astrologer considers Accidental dignity of planets This is placement by house in the chart under examination Accidental dignity is the planet s ability to act So we might have for example Moon in Cancer dignified by rulership is placed in the 12th house it would have little scope to express its good nature 41 The 12th is a cadent house as are the 3rd 6th and 9th and planets in these houses are considered weak or afflicted On the other hand Moon in the 1st 4th 7th or 10th would be more able to act as these are Angular houses Planets in Succedent houses of the chart 2nd 5th 8th 11th are generally considered to be of medium ability to act Besides Accidental Dignity there are a range of Accidental Debilities such as retrogradation Under the Sun s Beams Combust and so forth Additional classifications Edit Further information Decans Equirectangular plot of declination vs right ascension of the modern constellations with a dotted line denoting the ecliptic Constellations are colour coded by family and year established detailed view Each sign can be divided into three 10 sectors known as decans or decanates though these have fallen into disuse The first decanate is said to be most emphatically of its own nature and is ruled by the sign ruler 42 The next decanate is sub ruled by the planet ruling the next sign in the same triplicity The last decanate is sub ruled by the next in order in the same triplicity 43 While the element and modality of a sign are together sufficient to define it they can be grouped to indicate their symbolism The first four signs Aries Taurus Gemini and Cancer form the group of personal signs The next four signs Leo Virgo Libra and Scorpio form the group of interpersonal signs The last four signs of the zodiac Sagittarius Capricorn Aquarius and Pisces form the group of transpersonal signs 44 Dane Rudhyar presented the tropical zodiac primary factors 45 used in the curriculum of the RASA School of Astrology The tropical zodiac is the zodiac of seasonal factors as opposed to the sidereal zodiac constellation factors The primary seasonal factors are based on the changing ratio of sunlight and darkness across the year The first factor is whether the chosen time falls in the half of the year when daylight is increasing or the half of the year when darkness is increasing The second factor is whether the chosen time falls in the half of the year when there is more daylight than darkness or the half when there is more darkness than daylight The third factor is which of the four seasons the chosen time falls in defined by the first two factors Thus 46 47 The winter season is when daylight is increasing and there is more darkness than daylight The spring season is when daylight is increasing and there is more daylight than darkness The summer season is when darkness is increasing and there is more daylight than darkness The autumn season is when darkness is increasing and there is more darkness than daylight Western sign gallery Edit Aries at the Wisconsin State Capitol Taurus at the Wisconsin State Capitol Gemini at the Wisconsin State Capitol Cancer at the Wisconsin State Capitol Leo at the Wisconsin State Capitol Virgo at the Wisconsin State Capitol Libra at the Wisconsin State Capitol Scorpio at the Wisconsin State Capitol Sagittarius at the Wisconsin State Capitol Capricornus at the Wisconsin State Capitol Aquarius at the Wisconsin State Capitol Pisces at the Wisconsin State CapitolIndian astrology EditFurther information Hindu astrology In Indian astrology there are five elements fire earth air water and ether The master of fire is Mars while Mercury is of earth Saturn of air Venus of water and Jupiter of ether Jyotish astrology recognises twelve zodiac signs Rasi 48 that correspond to those in Western astrology The relation of the signs to the elements is the same in the two systems Nakshatras Edit Main article Nakshatra A nakshatra Devanagari नक षत र Sanskrit nakshatra a metaphorical compound of naksha map chart and tra guard or lunar mansion is one of the 27 divisions of the sky identified by prominent star s as used in Hindu astronomy and astrology Jyotisha 49 Nakshatra in Sanskrit Kannada Tulu and Tamil also thus refers to stars themselves Chinese zodiac signs EditMain article Chinese zodiac Chinese astrological signs operate on cycles of years lunar months and two hour periods of the day also known as shichen A particular feature of the Chinese zodiac is its operation in a 60 year cycle in combination with the Five Phases of Chinese astrology Wood Fire Metal Water and Earth 50 Nevertheless some researches say that there is an obvious relationship between the Chinese 12 year cycle and zodiac constellations each year of the cycle corresponds to a certain disposal of Jupiter For example in the year of Snake Jupiter is in the Sign of Gemini in the year of Horse Jupiter is in the Sign of Cancer and so on So the Chinese 12 year calendar is a solar lunar jovian calendar Zodiac symbolism Edit The following table shows the twelve signs and their attributes Sign Yin Yang Direction Season Fixed Element TrineRat Yang North Mid Winter Water 1stOx Yin North Late Winter Earth 2ndTiger Yang East Early Spring Wood 3rdRabbit Yin East Mid Spring Wood 4thDragon Yang East Late Spring Earth 1stSnake Yin South Early Summer Fire 2ndHorse Yang South Mid Summer Fire 3rdSheep Yin South Late Summer Earth 4thMonkey Yang West Early Autumn Metal 1stRooster Yin West Mid Autumn Metal 2ndDog Yang West Late Autumn Earth 3rdPig Yin North Early Winter Water 4thThe twelve signs Edit Chart showing the 24 cardinal directions and the symbols of the sign associated with them In Chinese astrology the zodiac of twelve animal signs represents twelve different types of personality The zodiac traditionally begins with the sign of the Rat and there are many stories about the Origins of the Chinese Zodiac which explain why this is so When the twelve zodiac signs are part of the 60 year calendar in combination with the four elements they are traditionally called the twelve Earthly Branches The Chinese zodiac follows the lunisolar Chinese calendar 51 and thus the changeover days in a month when one sign changes to another sign vary each year The following are the twelve zodiac signs in order 52 子 Rat Yang 1st Trine Fixed Element Water Rat years include 1900 1912 1924 1936 1948 1960 1972 1984 1996 2008 2020 2032 The Rat also corresponds to a particular month in the year The hours of the Rat are 11pm 1am 丑 Ox Yin 2nd Trine Fixed Element Earth 53 Ox years include 1901 1913 1925 1937 1949 1961 1973 1985 1997 2009 2021 2033 The Ox also corresponds to a particular month in the year The hours of the Ox are 1am 3am 寅 Tiger Yang 3rd Trine Fixed Element Wood Tiger years include 1902 1914 1926 1938 1950 1962 1974 1986 1998 2010 2022 2034 The Tiger also corresponds to a particular month in the year The hours of the Tiger are 3am 5am 卯 Rabbit Yin 4th Trine Fixed Element Wood Rabbit Years include 1903 1915 1927 1939 1951 1963 1975 1987 1999 2011 2023 2035 The Rabbit also corresponds to a particular month in the year The hours of the Rabbit are 5am 7am 辰 Dragon Yang 1st Trine Fixed Element Earth 53 Dragon years include 1904 1916 1928 1940 1952 1964 1976 1988 2000 2012 2024 2036 The Dragon also corresponds to a particular month in the year The hours of the Dragon are 7am 9am 巳 Snake Yin 2nd Trine Fixed Element Fire Snake years include 1905 1917 1929 1941 1953 1965 1977 1989 2001 2013 2025 2037 The Snake also corresponds to a particular month in the year The hours of the Snake are 9am 11am 午 Horse Yang 3rd Trine Fixed Element Fire Horse years include 1906 1918 1930 1942 1954 1966 1978 1990 2002 2014 2026 2038 The Horse also corresponds to a particular month in the year The hours of the Horse are 11am 1pm 未 Goat Yin 4th Trine Fixed Element Earth 53 Goat years include 1907 1919 1931 1943 1955 1967 1979 1991 2003 2015 2027 2039 The Goat also corresponds to a particular month in the year The hours of the Goat are 1pm 3pm 申 Monkey Yang 1st Trine Fixed Element Metal Monkey years include 1908 1920 1932 1944 1956 1968 1980 1992 2004 2016 2028 2040 The Monkey also corresponds to a particular month in the year The hours of the Monkey are 3pm 5pm 酉 Rooster Yin 2nd Trine Fixed Element Metal Rooster years include 1909 1921 1933 1945 1957 1969 1981 1993 2005 2017 2029 2041 The Rooster also corresponds to a particular month in the year The hours of the Rooster are 5pm 7pm 戌 Dog Yang 3rd Trine Fixed Element Earth 53 Dog years include 1910 1922 1934 1946 1958 1970 1982 1994 2006 2018 2030 2042 The Dog also corresponds to a particular month in the year The hours of the Dog are 7pm 9pm 亥 Pig Yin 4th Trine Fixed Element Water Pig years include 1911 1923 1935 1947 1959 1971 1983 1995 2007 2019 2031 2043 The Pig also corresponds to a particular month in the year The hours of the Pig are 9pm 11pm The five elements Edit Wood The wood person has high morals is self confident expansive and co operative with wide and varied interests and idealistic goals The direction associated with Wood is East and the season is spring which makes it the fixed element for the animal signs Tiger and Rabbit 53 Fire The fire person has leadership qualities dynamic passion and is decisive self confident positive and assertive The direction associated with Fire is South and the season is summer which makes it the fixed element for the animal signs Snake and Horse 53 Earth The earth person is serious logical and methodical intelligent objective and good at planning The direction associated with Earth is Center The season for Earth is the changeover point of the four seasons It is the fixed element for the animal signs Ox Dragon Goat and Dog 53 Metal The metal person is sincere has fixed values and opinions is strong of will and has eloquence of speech The direction associated with Metal is West The season for Metal is Autumn It is the fixed element for the animal signs Monkey and Rooster 53 Water The water person is persuasive intuitive and empathetic The water person is objective and often sought out for their counsel The direction associated with water is North The season for Water is Winter It is the fixed element for the animal signs Rat and Pig 53 The five elements operate together with the twelve animal signs in a 60 year calendar The five elements appear in the calendar in both their yin and yang forms and are known as the ten Celestial stems The yin yang split seen in the Gregorian calendar means years that end in an even number are Yang representing masculine active and light those that end with an odd number are Yin representing feminine passive and darkness subject to Chinese New Year having passed 53 Notes Edit Bobrick 2005 pp 10 23 Johnsen 2004 Sven Ove Hansson Edward N Zalta Science and Pseudo Science Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved 6 July 2012 There is widespread agreement for instance that creationism astrology homeopathy Kirlian photography dowsing ufology ancient astronaut theory Holocaust denialism Velikovskian catastrophism and climate change denialism are pseudosciences Vishveshwara edited by S K Biswas D C V Mallik C V 1989 Cosmic Perspectives Essays Dedicated to the Memory of M K V Bappu 1 publ ed Cambridge England Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 34354 1 CS1 maint extra text authors list link Carlson Shawn 1985 A double blind test of astrology PDF Nature 318 6045 419 425 Bibcode 1985Natur 318 419C doi 10 1038 318419a0 Mayo 1979 p 35 Jeffrey Bennett Megan Donohue Nicholas Schneider Mark Voit 2007 The cosmic perspective 4th ed San Francisco CA Pearson Addison Wesley pp 82 84 ISBN 0 8053 9283 1 Zarka Philippe 2011 Astronomy and astrology PDF Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 5 S260 420 425 doi 10 1017 S1743921311002602 Sachs 1948 p 289 Isolated references to celestial signs in Sumerian sources are insufficient to speak of a Sumerian zodiac see Rochberg 1998 p ix a b Carol Wills 2007 Rulerships astrologynow com Retrieved 2007 11 29 Hone 1978 p 21 Opposition dichesegnosei it in Italian The element of Air dichesegnosei it in Italian The element of Fire dichesegnosei it in Italian The element of Water dichesegnosei it in Italian The element of Earth dichesegnosei it in Italian Hall Judy 2005 The Astrology Bible The Definitive Guide to the Zodiac Sterling Publishing Company Inc p 137 ISBN 978 1 4027 2759 7 a b Standen Anthony 1975 Is There An Astrological Effect On Personality The Journal of Psychology 89 2 259 260 doi 10 1080 00223980 1975 9915759 PMID 1151896 Retrieved November 20 2011 a b van Rooij Jan J F 1993 Introversion Extraversion astrology versus psychology Department of Psychology University of Leiden the Netherlands 16 6 985 988 doi 10 1016 0191 8869 94 90243 7 Arroyo 1989 p 29 a b Pelletier Robert and Leonard Cataldo 1984 Be Your Own Astrologer London Pan Books pp 43 44 a b Pottenger Maritha 1991 Astro Essentials San Diego ACS Publications pp 31 36 Woodwell 2019 p 26 Hone 1978 p 75 Tierney Bil 2001 All Around the Zodiac Exploring Astrology s Twelve Signs Llewellyn Worldwide ISBN 978 0 7387 0111 0 Woodwell Donna 2019 11 19 The Astrology Dictionary Cosmic Knowledge from A to Z Simon and Schuster ISBN 978 1 5072 1144 1 As used in Sepharial s The Manual of Astrology Brazilian edition 1988 by Editora Nova Fronteira S A Rio de Janeiro Hone 1978 p 40 Arroyo 1989 p 30 Charlie Higgins 1997 Astrology and The Four Elements Archived from the original on 2010 01 03 Retrieved 2009 12 27 Ajay Mohan 2002 Astrology and The Four Elements Archived from the original on 2020 05 14 Retrieved 2017 08 03 Arroyo 1989 p 27 Arroyo 1989 pp 30 34 Hone 1978 p 42 Arroyo 1975 pp 131 140 Glyphs from the alchemical symbology Hone 1978 p 22 Shamos Geoffery 2013 Astrology as a Social Framework The Children of Planets 1400 1600 Journal for the Study of Religion Nature and Culture 7 4 434 460 doi 10 1558 jsrnc v7i4 434 a b c Glossary of Astrological Terms Logos Asaa 1998 2004 26 Nov 2007 Archived copy Archived from the original on 2008 01 22 Retrieved 2007 11 29 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Hone 1978 p 144 Accidental Dignity www gotohoroscope com Astrological Dictionary 1998 2007 26 November 2007 Hone 1978 p 87 Hone 1978 p 88 An Introduction to Astrology Spiritsingles com 25 Nov 2007 Archived copy Archived from the original on 2007 12 09 Retrieved 2007 11 29 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Rudhyar 1943 Armstrong Robin 2009 The Signs and the Houses RASA School of Astrology Armstrong Robin 2009 I Ching The Sequence of Change RA Publications Sutton 1999 pp 74 92 Sutton 1999 p 168 Almanac lunar zodiac beginning of spring as the boundary dislocation China Network 16 February 2009 Retrieved 5 January 2011 Novak Sarah The Chinese Zodiac Faces 34 42 Theodora Lau Ibid pp 2 8 30 5 60 4 88 94 118 24 148 53 178 84 208 13 238 44 270 78 306 12 338 44 2005 a b c d e f g h i j Chinese Astrology Exploring the Eastern Zodiac by Shelly WuReferences EditArroyo Stephen 1975 Astrology Psychology and The Four Elements California CCRS Publications Arroyo Stephen 1989 Chart Interpretation Handbook California CCRS Publications ISBN 0 916360 49 0 Bobrick Benson 2005 The Fated Sky Astrology in History Simon amp Schuster 369 pp Caiozzo Anna 2003 Images of the Sky Paris Sorbonne Signs and Constellations Eric Francis 2016 Why Your Zodiac Sign is Not Wrong Hone Margaret 1978 The Modern Text Book of Astrology Revised edition England L N Fowler amp Co Ltd ISBN 085243 357 3 Johnsen Linda 2004 March A Thousand Suns Designing Your Future with Vedic Astrology Yes International Publishers Mayo Jeff 1979 Teach Yourself Astrology London Hodder and Stoughton Rochberg Francesca 1998 Babylonian Horoscopes American Philosophical Society New Series Vol 88 No 1 pp i 164 doi 10 2307 1006632 JSTOR 1006632 Rudhyar Dane 1943 Astrological Signs The Pulse of Life Sachs Abraham 1948 A Classification of the Babylonian Astronomical Tablets of the Seleucid Period Journal of Cuneiform Studies Vol 2 No 4 pp 271 290 doi 10 2307 3515929 JSTOR 3515929 Sutton Komilla 1999 The Essentials of Vedic Astrology England The Wessex Astrologer Ltd Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Astrological sign amp oldid 1055601333, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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