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Zoogeography

Zoogeography is the branch of the science of biogeography that is concerned with geographic distribution (present and past) of animal species.

Zoogeographic regions of Wallace, 1876

As a multifaceted field of study, zoogeography incorporates methods of molecular biology, genetics, morphology, phylogenetics, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to delineate evolutionary events within defined regions of study around the globe. Once proposed by Alfred Russell Wallace, known to be the father of Zoogeography, phylogenetic affinities can be quantified among zoogeographic regions, further elucidating the phenomena surrounding geographic distributions of organisms and explaining evolutionary relationships of taxa.

Advancements in molecular biology and theory of evolution within zoological research has unraveled questions concerning speciation events and has expanded phylogenic relationships amongst taxa. Integration of phylogenetics with GIS provides a means for communicating evolutionary origins through cartographic design. Related research linking phylogenetics and GIS has been conducted in areas of the southern Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Pacific Oceans. Recent innovations in DNA bar-coding, for example, have allowed for explanations of phylogenetic relationships within two families of marine venomous fishes, Scorpaenidae and Tetraodontidae, residing in the Andaman Sea. Continued efforts to understand species evolutionary divergence articulated in the geologic time scale based on fossil records for killifish (Aphanius and Aphanolebias) in locales of the Mediterranean and Paratethys areas revealed climatological influences during the Miocene Further development of research within zoogeography has expanded upon knowledge of the productivity of South Atlantic ocean regions and distribution of organisms in analogous regions, providing both ecological and geographic data to supply a framework for the taxonomic relationships and evolutionary branching of benthic polychaetes.

Modern-day zoogeography also places a reliance on GIS to integrate a more precise understanding and predictive model of the past, current, and future population dynamics of animal species both on land and in the ocean. Through employment of GIS technology, linkages between abiotic factors of habitat such as topography, latitude, longitude, temperatures, and sea level can serve to explain the distribution of species populations through geologic time. Understanding correlations of habitat formation and the migration patterns of organisms at an ecological level allows for explanations of speciation events that may have arisen due to physical geographic isolation events or the incorporation of new refugia to survive unfavorable environmental conditions

Contents

Schmarda (1853) proposed 21 regions, while Woodward proposed 27 terrestrial and 18 marine, Murray (1866) proposed 4, Blyth (1871) proposed 7, Allen (1871) 8 regions, Heilprin (1871) proposed 6, Newton (1893) proposed 6, Gadow (1893) proposed 4.

Philip Sclater (1858) and Alfred Wallace (1876) identified the main zoogeographic regions of the world used today: Palaearctic, Aethiopian (today Afrotropic), India (today Indomalayan), Australasian, Nearctic and Neotropical.

Marine regionalization began with Ortmann (1896).

In a similar way to geobotanic divisions, our planet is divided in zoogeographical (or faunal) regions (further divided as provinces, territories and districts), sometimes including the categories Empire and Domain.

The current trend is to classify the floristic kingdoms of botany or zoogeographic regions of zoology as biogeographic realms.

Following, some examples of regionalizations:

Sclater (1858)

Creatio Palaeogeana

  • I. Regio Palaearctica
  • II. Regio Aethiopica
  • III. Regio Indica
  • IV. Regio Australiana

Creatio Neogeana

  • V. Regio Nearctica
  • VI. Regio Neotropica

Huxley (1868)

Huxley (1868) scheme:

  • Arctogea
    • Nearctic province
    • Palaearctic province
    • Ethiopian province
    • Indian province
  • Notogea
    • Austro-Columbia province (= Neotropical)
    • Australasia province (= Australian; Eastern Palaeotropical)

Wallace (1876)

  • Palaearctic region
  • Ethiopian region
  • Oriental region
  • Australian region
  • Neotropical region
  • Nearctic region

Trouessart (1890)

Scheme by Trouessart (1890):

  • Arctic region
  • Antarctic region
  • Palearctic region
  • Nearctic region
  • Ethiopian region
  • Oriental region
  • Neotropical region
  • Australian region

Darlington (1957)

First scheme:

  • Realm Megagea (Arctogea): the main part of the world
    • 1. Ethiopian Region: Africa (except the northern corner), with part of southern Arabia
    • 2. Oriental Region: tropical Asia, with associated continental islands
    • 3. Palearctic Region: Eurasia above the tropics, with the northern corner of Africa
    • 4. Nearctic Region: North America, excepting the tropical part of Mexico
  • Realm Neogea
    • 5. Neotropical Region: South and Central America with the tropical part of Mexico
  • Realm Notogea
    • 6. Australian Region: Australia, with New Guinea, etc.

Second scheme:

  • Climate-limited regions
    • 1. Palearctic Region
    • 2. Nearctic Region
  • Main regions of the Old World tropics
    • 3. Oriental Region
    • 4. Ethiopian Region
  • Barrier-limited regions
    • 5. Neotropical Region
    • 6. Australian Region
  1. Darlington, P.J., Jr. 1957. Zoogeography: The Geographical Distribution of Animals. New York, [1] Archived 2018-08-13 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. Holt, B. G., et al. (2013). An update of Wallace’s zoogeographic regions of the world. Science, vol. 339, no. 6115, pp. 74-78.
  3. Taylor, E. B., McPhail, J.D., 1998. Evolutionary history of an adaptive radiation species in pairs of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosterus): insights from mitochondrial DNA. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 66: 271-291.
  4. Sachithanandam, V., Mohan, P.M., Muruganandam, N., 2015. DNA barcoding of marine venomous and poisonous fish of families Scorpaenidae and Tetraodontidae from Andaman waters. Ecology and Conservation: 351-372.
  5. Reichenbacher, B., Kowalke, T., 2009. Neogene and present-day zoogeography of killifishes (Aphanius and Aphanolebias) in the Mediterranean and Paratethys areas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 281: 43-56.
  6. Fiege, D., Ramey, P.A., Ebbe, B., 2010. Diversity and distributional patterns of Polychaeta in the deep South Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research I.57:1329-1344.
  7. Taylor, E. B., McPhail, J.D., 1998. Evolutionary history of an adaptive radiation species in pairs of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosterus): insights from mitochondrial DNA. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 66: 271-291.Palumbi, S.R., 1996. What can molecular genetics contribute to marine biogeaography? An urchin’s tale. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 203: 75-92.
  8. Schmarda L. K. 1853. Die geographische Verbreitung der Tiere. Wien, Gerold und Sohn, [2].
  9. Ebach, M.C. (2015). Origins of biogeography. The role of biological classification in early plant and animal geography. Dordrecht: Springer, xiv + 173 pp., [3].
  10. Woodward, Samuel Pickworth. A Manual of the Mollusca; or a Rudimentary Treatise of Recent and Fossil Shells. 3 parts. London, 1851-56, [4].
  11. Murray, A. 1866. The Geographical Distribution of Mammals. London: Day and Son, [5].
  12. Blith, E. (1871): A suggested new division of the earth into zoological regions. Nature 3: 427
  13. Allen, J. A. 1871. On the mammals and winter birds of East Florida. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 2:161–450.
  14. Heilprin, A. 1887. The geographical and geological distribution of animals. New York: Appleton, [6].
  15. Newton, A. (1893). Article on Geographical Distribution in the Dictionary of Birds, p. 311. London, [7].
  16. Gadow, H. 1893. Vögel. II. Systematischer Theil. In H. G. Bronn (ed.), Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs, vol. 6. Leipzig: C. F. Winter, [8].
  17. Sclater, P.L. (1858). On the general geographical distribution of the members of the class Aves. J. Proc. Linnean Soc. Zool. 2: 130–145, [9].
  18. Wallace A.R. 1876. The geographical distribution of animals. Macmillan, London, [10].
  19. Cox, C. B. (2001). The biogeographic regions reconsidered. Journal of Biogeography, 28: 511-523, [11].
  20. Holt, B. G., et al. (2013). An update of Wallace’s zoogeographic regions of the world. Science, vol. 339, no. 6115, pp. 74-78.
  21. Cox, C. B., Moore, P.D. & Ladle, R. J. 2016. Biogeography: an ecological and evolutionary approach. 9th edition. John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, p. 12, [12].
  22. Ortmann, A.E. (1896). Grundzüge der marinen Tiergeographie. Jena: Gustav Fischer, [13].
  23. Morrone, J. J. (2009). Evolutionary biogeography, an integrative approach with case studies. Columbia University Press, New York, [14].
  24. Huxley, T.H. 1868. On the classification and distribution of the Alectoromorphae and Heteromorpha. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868: 294-319, [15].
  25. Trouessart, E. L. (1890). La géographie zoologique. Bailliere, Paris, [16].
  • Bodenheimer, F.S. (1935). Animal life in Palestine. An introduction to the problems of animal ecology and zoogeography. L. Mayer: Jerusalem. 506 p., [17].
  • Ekman, Sven (1953). Zoogeography of the sea. London, Sidgwick and Jackson. 417 p.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toZoogeography.

Zoogeography
Zoogeography Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Zoogeographical Zoogeography is the branch of the science of biogeography that is concerned with geographic distribution present and past of animal species 1 Zoogeographic regions of Wallace 1876 As a multifaceted field of study zoogeography incorporates methods of molecular biology genetics morphology phylogenetics and Geographic Information Systems GIS to delineate evolutionary events within defined regions of study around the globe Once proposed by Alfred Russell Wallace known to be the father of Zoogeography phylogenetic affinities can be quantified among zoogeographic regions further elucidating the phenomena surrounding geographic distributions of organisms and explaining evolutionary relationships of taxa 2 Advancements in molecular biology and theory of evolution within zoological research has unraveled questions concerning speciation events and has expanded phylogenic relationships amongst taxa 3 Integration of phylogenetics with GIS provides a means for communicating evolutionary origins through cartographic design Related research linking phylogenetics and GIS has been conducted in areas of the southern Atlantic Mediterranean and Pacific Oceans Recent innovations in DNA bar coding for example have allowed for explanations of phylogenetic relationships within two families of marine venomous fishes Scorpaenidae and Tetraodontidae residing in the Andaman Sea 4 Continued efforts to understand species evolutionary divergence articulated in the geologic time scale based on fossil records for killifish Aphanius and Aphanolebias in locales of the Mediterranean and Paratethys areas revealed climatological influences during the Miocene 5 Further development of research within zoogeography has expanded upon knowledge of the productivity of South Atlantic ocean regions and distribution of organisms in analogous regions providing both ecological and geographic data to supply a framework for the taxonomic relationships and evolutionary branching of benthic polychaetes 6 Modern day zoogeography also places a reliance on GIS to integrate a more precise understanding and predictive model of the past current and future population dynamics of animal species both on land and in the ocean Through employment of GIS technology linkages between abiotic factors of habitat such as topography latitude longitude temperatures and sea level can serve to explain the distribution of species populations through geologic time Understanding correlations of habitat formation and the migration patterns of organisms at an ecological level allows for explanations of speciation events that may have arisen due to physical geographic isolation events or the incorporation of new refugia to survive unfavorable environmental conditions 7 Contents 1 Zoogeographic regions 1 1 Sclater 1858 1 2 Huxley 1868 1 3 Wallace 1876 1 4 Trouessart 1890 1 5 Darlington 1957 2 See also 3 References 4 Bibliography 5 External linksZoogeographic regions EditSchmarda 1853 proposed 21 regions 8 9 while Woodward proposed 27 terrestrial and 18 marine 10 Murray 1866 proposed 4 11 Blyth 1871 proposed 7 12 Allen 1871 8 regions 13 Heilprin 1871 proposed 6 14 Newton 1893 proposed 6 15 Gadow 1893 proposed 4 16 Philip Sclater 1858 and Alfred Wallace 1876 identified the main zoogeographic regions of the world used today Palaearctic Aethiopian today Afrotropic India today Indomalayan Australasian Nearctic and Neotropical 17 18 19 20 21 Marine regionalization began with Ortmann 1896 22 23 In a similar way to geobotanic divisions our planet is divided in zoogeographical or faunal regions further divided as provinces territories and districts sometimes including the categories Empire and Domain The current trend is to classify the floristic kingdoms of botany or zoogeographic regions of zoology as biogeographic realms Following some examples of regionalizations Sclater 1858 Edit Creatio Palaeogeana I Regio Palaearctica II Regio Aethiopica III Regio Indica IV Regio Australiana Creatio Neogeana V Regio Nearctica VI Regio NeotropicaHuxley 1868 Edit Huxley 1868 scheme 24 Arctogea Nearctic province Palaearctic province Ethiopian province Indian province Notogea Austro Columbia province Neotropical Australasia province Australian Eastern Palaeotropical Wallace 1876 Edit Palaearctic region Ethiopian region Oriental region Australian region Neotropical region Nearctic regionTrouessart 1890 Edit Scheme by Trouessart 1890 25 Arctic region Antarctic region Palearctic region Nearctic region Ethiopian region Oriental region Neotropical region Australian regionDarlington 1957 Edit First scheme Realm Megagea Arctogea the main part of the world 1 Ethiopian Region Africa except the northern corner with part of southern Arabia 2 Oriental Region tropical Asia with associated continental islands 3 Palearctic Region Eurasia above the tropics with the northern corner of Africa 4 Nearctic Region North America excepting the tropical part of Mexico Realm Neogea 5 Neotropical Region South and Central America with the tropical part of Mexico Realm Notogea 6 Australian Region Australia with New Guinea etc Second scheme Climate limited regions 1 Palearctic Region 2 Nearctic Region Main regions of the Old World tropics 3 Oriental Region 4 Ethiopian Region Barrier limited regions 5 Neotropical Region 6 Australian RegionSee also EditAnimal geographies Fauna Animals Zoology Leon CroizatReferences Edit Darlington P J Jr 1957 Zoogeography The Geographical Distribution of Animals New York 1 Archived 2018 08 13 at the Wayback Machine Holt B G et al 2013 An update of Wallace s zoogeographic regions of the world Science vol 339 no 6115 pp 74 78 Taylor E B McPhail J D 1998 Evolutionary history of an adaptive radiation species in pairs of threespine sticklebacks Gasterosterus insights from mitochondrial DNA Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66 271 291 Sachithanandam V Mohan P M Muruganandam N 2015 DNA barcoding of marine venomous and poisonous fish of families Scorpaenidae and Tetraodontidae from Andaman waters Ecology and Conservation 351 372 Reichenbacher B Kowalke T 2009 Neogene and present day zoogeography of killifishes Aphanius and Aphanolebias in the Mediterranean and Paratethys areas Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 281 43 56 Fiege D Ramey P A Ebbe B 2010 Diversity and distributional patterns of Polychaeta in the deep South Atlantic Deep Sea Research I 57 1329 1344 Taylor E B McPhail J D 1998 Evolutionary history of an adaptive radiation species in pairs of threespine sticklebacks Gasterosterus insights from mitochondrial DNA Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66 271 291 Palumbi S R 1996 What can molecular genetics contribute to marine biogeaography An urchin s tale Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 203 75 92 Schmarda L K 1853 Die geographische Verbreitung der Tiere Wien Gerold und Sohn 2 Ebach M C 2015 Origins of biogeography The role of biological classification in early plant and animal geography Dordrecht Springer xiv 173 pp 3 Woodward Samuel Pickworth A Manual of the Mollusca or a Rudimentary Treatise of Recent and Fossil Shells 3 parts London 1851 56 4 Murray A 1866 The Geographical Distribution of Mammals London Day and Son 5 Blith E 1871 A suggested new division of the earth into zoological regions Nature 3 427 Allen J A 1871 On the mammals and winter birds of East Florida Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 2 161 450 Heilprin A 1887 The geographical and geological distribution of animals New York Appleton 6 Newton A 1893 Article on Geographical Distribution in the Dictionary of Birds p 311 London 7 Gadow H 1893 Vogel II Systematischer Theil In H G Bronn ed Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier Reichs vol 6 Leipzig C F Winter 8 Sclater P L 1858 On the general geographical distribution of the members of the class Aves J Proc Linnean Soc Zool 2 130 145 9 Wallace A R 1876 The geographical distribution of animals Macmillan London 10 Cox C B 2001 The biogeographic regions reconsidered Journal of Biogeography 28 511 523 11 Holt B G et al 2013 An update of Wallace s zoogeographic regions of the world Science vol 339 no 6115 pp 74 78 Cox C B Moore P D amp Ladle R J 2016 Biogeography an ecological and evolutionary approach 9th edition John Wiley amp Sons Hoboken p 12 12 Ortmann A E 1896 Grundzuge der marinen Tiergeographie Jena Gustav Fischer 13 Morrone J J 2009 Evolutionary biogeography an integrative approach with case studies Columbia University Press New York 14 Huxley T H 1868 On the classification and distribution of the Alectoromorphae and Heteromorpha Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 294 319 15 Trouessart E L 1890 La geographie zoologique Bailliere Paris 16 Bibliography EditBodenheimer F S 1935 Animal life in Palestine An introduction to the problems of animal ecology and zoogeography L Mayer Jerusalem 506 p 17 Ekman Sven 1953 Zoogeography of the sea London Sidgwick and Jackson 417 p External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Zoogeography Ingersoll Ernest 1920 Zoogeography In Rines George Edwin ed Encyclopedia Americana Lydekker Richard 1911 Zoological Distribution Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th ed Distribution of Animals New International Encyclopedia 1905 Jordan David Starr 1920 Fishes Geographical Distribution of Encyclopedia Americana Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zoogeography amp oldid 999542254, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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