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Zouave

For the painting by Vincent van Gogh, see The Zouave.

The Zouaves (French pronunciation: ​) were a class of light infantry regiments of the French Army serving between 1830 and 1962 and linked to French North Africa, as well as some units of other countries modelled upon them. The zouaves, along with the indigenous Tirailleurs Algeriens, were among the most decorated units of the French Army.

A small detachment of France's 4th Regiment of Zouaves in the M'Sila region during the Algerian War, circa 1961
French zouave, circa 1870

It was initially intended that the zouaves would be a regiment of Berber volunteers from the Zwawa group of tribes in Algeria—thus the French term zouave—who had gained a martial reputation fighting for local rulers under the Ottoman Empire. The regiment was to consist of sixteen hundred Zwawa Berbers, French non-commissioned officers and French officers. Five hundred Zwawa were recruited in August and September 1830. Twelve years later, zouaves began to be recruited almost exclusively from Europeans, a policy which continued until the final dissolution of these regiments after the Algerian War.

In the 1860s, new units in several other countries called themselves zouaves. The Papal Zouaves were organized by Louis Juchault de Lamoricière, a former commander of North African zouaves, while a former zouave sergeant, François Rochebrune, organized the Polish Zouaves of Death who fought against Russia in the January Uprising of 1863–64. In the 1870s, former Papal Zouaves formed the cadre for a short-lived Spanish zouave unit. The "zouave" title was also used by Brazilian units of black volunteers in the Paraguayan War, possibly due to a perceived link with Africa.

In the United States, zouaves were brought to public attention by Elmer E. Ellsworth, who created and ran a drill company called the "Zouave Cadets". The drill company toured nationally. Zouave units were then raised on both sides of the American Civil War of 1861–65; including a regiment under Ellsworth's command, the 11th New York Infantry—the New York "Fire Zouaves".

The distinctive uniforms of French and other zouave units was of North African origin. It generally included short open-fronted jackets, baggy trousers (serouel), sashes, and a fez-like chéchia head-dress.

Contents

A French zouave from 1888 wearing white summer serouel trousers instead of the usual red

Recruitment

Zouaves at the Battle of Zaatcha during the Conquest of Algeria

The zouaves of the French Army were first raised in Algeria in 1831 with one and later two battalions, initially recruited primarily from the Zouaoua (or Zwāwa), a tribe of Berbers located in the mountains of the Jurjura Range (see Kabyles). The Zouaoua had formerly provided soldiers for the deys of Algiers and in August 1830 the commander of the French expeditionary force which had occupied the city recommended their continued employment in this role. The existence of the new corps was formally recognised by a Royal decree dated 21 March 1831.

French zouaves during the Crimean war; painting by Aleksander Raczyński (1858)

From their beginning the zouave units included a French European element, initially drawn from the demobilized Garde royal of Charles X and other Parisian volunteers. From March 1833 each zouave battalion was organised into ten companies, of which eight were Muslim Berbers and Arabs and two French. In 1838 a third battalion was raised, and the regiment thus formed was commanded by Major de Lamoriciere. Shortly afterwards the formation of the Tirailleurs algériens, the Turcos, as the infantry corps for Muslim troops, changed the basis for enlistment of the zouave battalions. For most of their remaining history the zouaves became an essentially French body, until in 1956 a new policy of partial racial mixing was introduced amongst units of the Army of Africa.

Etymology

The word "zouave" is a French language derivative of Zouaouas; the original name of the Kabyle Berbers recruited for French service.

Zouave regiments

Initially constituted as battalion sized units, the zouaves were reorganized as separate regiments in 1852:

  • The 1st Zouaves were linked to Algiers and central Algeria. The 1st Zouaves had a continuous existence from 1852 to 1949. After disbandment the regiment was recreated between 1956 and 1960
  • The 2nd Zouaves were linked to Oran and western Algeria, 1852-1962
  • The 3rd Zouaves were linked to Constantine and eastern Algeria, 1852-1962
  • The 4th Zouaves were linked to Tunis and Tunisia. They were first formed as the Zouaves of the Imperial Guard in 1854, and became the 4th Zouves on the establishment of the Third Republic in 1870. They remained in existence under this title until 1962.
Guard Zouaves (Zouaves de la Garde) during the Second Italian War of Independence in 1859.

At the end of the Algerian War six zouave regiments were in existence, of which the 1er was disbanded in 1960 and the remainder in 1962.

Other provisional regiments of zouaves were raised in 1914 and 1939 for the First and Second World Wars respectively. During World War I nine regiments de marche of zouaves were created; comprising active, reserve, and new battalions seconded from other regiments. In World War II the number reached fourteen.

The zouave regiments raised in 1914 for the First World War were the 8th and 9th. The 13th Zouaves were raised in 1919 and dissolved in 1940. The zouave regiments raised in 1939 for the Second World War were the 11th, 12th, 14th, and 21st, all of which were dissolved after the fall of France in 1940. Other regiments raised later in the Second World War were the 9th ('reactivated'), 22nd, 23rd, and 29th.

In addition, four mixed zouave and tirailleur regiments (régiments mixtes de zouaves et tirailleurs) were raised for the First World War, all of which were redesignated Algerian tirailleur regiments in 1918 or 1920.[citation needed]

The 9th Zouaves were the last French zouave unit. The first 9th Zouave regiment existed from 1914 until the fall of France in 1940, a second 9th Zouaves was raised in the Second World War and disbanded after the Algerian War (1954–62), and a third 9th Zouaves existed as a nominal unit from 1982 to 2006 (representing a commando training school). There was no zouave regiment in existence between 1962–82 and none now survive in the French Army.

Early history

The zouaves saw extensive service during the French conquest of Algeria, initially at the Mouzaia Pass action (March 1836), then at Mitidja (September 1836) and the siege of Constantine (1837). Recruited through voluntary enlistment or transfer from other regiments of men with at least two years service, the zouaves quickly achieved the status of an elite amongst the French Army of Africa.

A group of four zouaves of the French Army pose for the camera during the Crimean War, 1854–1856.

The Second Empire

By 1853, the French Army included three regiments of zouaves. Each of the three line regiments of zouaves was allocated to a different province of Algeria, where their depots and peace-time garrisons were located. The Crimean War was the first service which the regiments saw outside Algeria. They subsequently served as effective light infantry in the Franco-Austrian War of 1859, the Mexican Intervention (1864–66) and the Franco-Prussian War (1870). The distinctive dress and dash of the zouaves made them well known outside France and they were frequently portrayed in the illustrated publications of the period. The 2nd Zouaves (popularly known as "the Jackals of Oran") had their mutilated eagle decorated with the Legion d' Honneur following the Battle of Magenta in 1859.

On 23 December 1854 a fourth regiment was created, the Zouaves of the Imperial Guard. The actual formation of this unit was delayed until 15 March 1855 when detachments from the zouave regiments already serving in the Crimea were brought together before Sebastopol for this purpose. Having earned the unusual distinction of being created on the field of battle, the Zouaves of the Imperial Guard served through the remainder of the Crimean War and subsequently in all the campaigns of the Second Empire. Their peace-time garrisons were initially at Saint-Cloud and then Versailles from 1857. This regiment wore the classic zouave uniform but with yellow braiding and piping substituted for the red of the line regiments.

In the opening stages of the Franco-Prussian War the bulk of the serving zouave units were amongst the Imperial field army defeated at Sedan in September 1870. Drawing on remnants of the Imperial forces, depot troops from Algeria and volunteers it was possible to reconstitute all four regiments as part of the Army of the Loire and the Republican defenders of Paris.

French zouave officer in Tonkin, Spring 1885

The Third Republic

After 1871 the zouaves lost their status as an élite corps solely made up of long-service volunteers; they became a force mainly composed of conscripts from the French settlers in Algeria and Tunisia, undertaking their compulsory military service. Shortfalls in numbers were made up by detachments from the southern régions militaires of mainland France (Métropole). The zouave regiments did however retain significant numbers of long-service volunteers (engages volontiers et réengages) who contributed to the high morale and steadiness of these units.

Two zouave battalions (under chefs de bataillon Simon and Mignot) served in Tonkin during the closing weeks of the Sino-French War (August 1884 to April 1885). One of these battalions was roughly handled on 23 March 1885 in the Battle of Phu Lam Tao. A third zouave battalion (chef de bataillon Metzinger) joined the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps shortly after the end of the war, and took part in operations against Vietnamese insurgents.

In 1899 a law created for each regiment of zouaves a 5th Battalion, "to be stationed in France" in groupes des 5e bataillons de Zouaves. The 5th battalions of the 1st and 4th Zouaves were stationed as part of the Gouvernement militaire de Paris. The 5th battalions of the 2nd and 3rd Zouaves were stationed in the région militaire de Lyon. Upon mobilization for war in France, these battalions would form the nucleus of Régiments de Marche de Zouaves, each of 3 battalions. This permanent presence in the two key garrisons of metropolitan France facilitated subsequent arrival and participation by other elements of the 19th Military Region as reinforcements, in the event of an attack on mainland France.

Zouave battalions subsequently saw active service in China during the Boxer Rising (1900–01) and in Morocco (1908–1914). From the very beginning of World War I zouave regiments and detached battalions saw extensive service on the Western Front. Others served in the Dardanelles, Macedonia (within the 156th Division), Tonkin, Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco. Twelve zouave battalions were recruited for exclusively North African service from French-speaking prisoners-of-war and deserters from German Alsace-Lorraine, who had volunteered to join the French Army.

French Zouaves in the First World War

The four zouave regiments of the French Army wore their traditional colorful dress during the early months of the First World War. The development of the machine gun, rapid-fire artillery, and improved small-arms obliged them to adopt a plain khaki uniform from 1915 onwards, in common with other units of the Armée d'Afrique. From 1927 to 1939 the "oriental dress" of red fez ("chéchia"), blue sash, braided blue jackets with waistcoats and voluminous red trousers was reintroduced as off-duty dress for re-enlisted NCOs and other long-service regulars in the zouave regiments. It was also worn by colour guards and other detachments on ceremonial occasions. White trousers of the same style had earlier been worn as an item of hot-weather dress. The four regiments were distinguished by the colours (red, blue, white and yellow) of the "tombeaus" or false pockets on the front of their open-fronted jackets.

The zouaves played a major role in the 1914–18 War with their numbers being expanded to nine regiments de marche. These units retained much of their traditional panache, especially in attack. They became however less conspicuous in World War II, seeing service mainly during the opening stages of the war in the Battle of France (1940) and in the course of the liberation of France (1944).

Post-1945

As predominantly conscript units the zouaves did not serve in Indochina between 1945 and 1954. They were, however, employed extensively as sector troops during the Algerian War. Their history as a corps of high-profile elite infantry, closely identified with French Algeria, made for higher morale and effectiveness than that of most conscript units from metropolitan France assigned to Algeria. The 9th Zouaves based in the Casbah, played a major role in the 1957 Battle of Algiers.

At the end of the Algerian War, remaining zouave and tirailleur units were incorporated in a short-lived Force locale de l'ordre Algérienne: created under the Évian Accords of March 1962 and intended to provide a transitional peace-keeping force acceptable to both Muslim and European communities. The zouave regiments were finally disbanded in 1962 following Algerian independence. This was inevitable since their recruitment base was the European population of Algeria, which dispersed with the ending of French rule.

The traditions of the zouave regiments were maintained until 2006 by the French Army's Commando Training School (CEC), which occasionally paraded colour parties and other detachments in zouave dress. With the closure of the CEC school that year and the putting into store of the flag of the 9th Zouaves in 2010, any direct link between the former zouaves and active units of the modern French Army ceased. While other branches of the old French Army of Africa have either survived or been reestablished as representative units in recent years (notably the Foreign Legion, Chasseurs d'Afrique, Tirailleurs, and Spahis), France does not have any known plans to recreate one of its most distinctive and best known military corps.

Pontifical Zouave of Major O'Reilley's Papal Brigade, and a veteran of the battles against Garibaldi. Fully armed and equipped with a .71 calibre Model 1842 French Rifle with sword bayonet, and backpack.
Main article: Papal Zouaves

The Papal Zouaves were a corps of volunteers formed as part of the Army of the Papal States. The Zouaves evolved out of a unit formed by Lamoricière in 1860: the Franco-Belgian Tirailleurs. On January 1, 1861, the unit was renamed the Papal Zouaves.

Jules Marie Deluen (1849–1918) in Papal Zouave uniform in Nantes, France

The Zuavi Pontifici were mainly young men, unmarried and Roman Catholic, who volunteered to assist Pope Pius IX in his struggle against the Italian Risorgimento. They wore a similar style of uniform to that of the French Zouaves but in grey with red trim. A grey and red kepi was substituted for the North African fez.[citation needed]

All orders were given in French, and the unit was commanded by a Swiss Colonel, M. Allet. The regiment was truly international, and by May 1868 numbered 4,592 men including 1,910 Dutch, 1,301 French, 686 Belgians, and 240 Italians. A total of three hundred volunteers came from Canada, the United States and Ireland; while the remaining 155 Zouaves were mostly South American.

The Papal Zouaves assisted in the notable Franco/Papal victory at the Battle of Mentana on November 3, 1867. They suffered the brunt of the fighting, sustaining 81 casualties in the battle, including 24 killed (the Papal forces suffered only 30 dead in total). The official report of the battle prepared by the French commander, General de Failly cited the bravery of the Zouaves. They were also mentioned in Victor Hugo's poem Mentana.

The Papal Zouaves also played a role in the final engagements against the forces of the newly united Kingdom of Italy in September 1870, in which the Papal forces were outnumbered almost seven to one. The Zouaves fought bravely before surrender, inflicting losses on the Bersaglieri of the regular Italian Army as the latter stormed the Porta Pia. Several Papal Zouaves were reportedly executed or murdered by the Italian forces following the surrender.

The French component of the Papal Zouaves regrouped as the Volontaires de l'Ouest (Volunteers of the West) to fight on the French side in the Franco-Prussian War, where they kept their grey and red Papal uniforms. The Zouaves saw action outside Orléans, Patay and the Battle of Loigny. The Volontaires de l'Ouest were disbanded after the entrance of Prussian troops into Paris.[citation needed]

An English veteran, Joseph Powell, published his account of his service with the Papal Zouaves, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves.

François Rochebrune in uniform of Zouave of Death
Main article: Zouaves of Death

In 1863, during the Polish January Uprising against the Russian Empire, a French ex-officer who had served previously in one of the French zouave regiments, François Rochebrune, organised the Zouaves of Death. Members of this Polish unit swore "to conquer or to die" and not to surrender. They wore a black uniform with white cross and red fez.[citation needed]

The unit's baptism by fire occurred at the Battle of Miechów, where under the command of adjutant Wojciech Komorowski, they successfully charged Russian forces defending the local cemetery. However, the overall engagement was a defeat for the Poles on February 17, 1863. Lt. Tytus O'Brien de Lacy escaped with 400 zouaves to Galicia in March 1863. In the Battle of Chroberz the Zouaves covered the retreat of the main body of Polish forces under Marian Langiewicz. They also fought at the follow-up Battle of Grochowiska where they captured Russian artillery positions but suffered very high casualties.[citation needed]

Commanding officers of the regiment were:

  • Colonel François Rochebrune;
  • Lieutenant Count Wojciech Komorowski;
  • Lieutenant Tytus O'Brien de Lacy;
  • Lieutenant Antoni Wojcicki; and
  • Lieutenant Tenente Bella
Main article: West India Regiment
Members of the Jamaica Military Band in zouave style uniforms

In 1856, the West India Regiment of the British army switched its attire to a uniform modeled on that of the French zouaves. This consisted of a red fez with a white tassel, a white turban, a scarlet sleeveless jacket with yellow trimming, a white long sleeved waistcoat, and dark blue serouels with yellow piping. White canvas gaiters and leather jamberees completed the uniform. This uniform was reserved for full dress and is still used by the Barbados Defense Force band and the Jamaica Military Band (see photograph opposite).

Other British Empire units who adopted zouave features as part of their dress uniforms included the Gold Coast Regiment and the West African Frontier Force.

American Civil War

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Sergt Francis E. Brownell, 11th N.Y. Regt, 1861.
Goslin Zouave, 95th Regt, Pv by Xanthus Russell Smith, 1861.

Numerous zouave regiments were organized from soldiers of the United States of America who adopted the name and the North African–inspired uniforms during the American Civil War. The Union army had more than seventy volunteer zouave regiments throughout the conflict, while the Confederates fielded about twenty-five Zouave companies.

In the United States, zouaves were brought to public attention by Elmer E. Ellsworth. Inspired by his French friend Charles De Villers, who had been a surgeon in the North African zouaves, he obtained a zouave drill manual. In 1859, Ellsworth took over a drill company and renamed them the "Zouave Cadets". The drill company toured nationally, performing the light infantry drill of the north African zouaves with many theatrical additions. "Zouave" units were then raised on both sides of the American Civil War of 1861–1865, including a regiment under Ellsworth's command, the New York "Fire Zouaves".

A feature of some American zouave units, at least in the opening stages of the American Civil War, was the light infantry tactics and drill they employed. Zouaves "utilised light infantry tactics that emphasised open-order formations, with several feet between soldiers, rather than the customary close order, with its characteristic 'touch of elbows'. They moved at double-time, rather than marching to a stately cadence, and they lay on their backs to load their rifles rather than standing to do so. To fire, they rolled prone and sometimes rose on one knee."[citation needed]

Arguably the most famous Union zouave regiments were from New York and Pennsylvania: the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, "Duryee's Zouaves" (after its first colonel, Abram Duryee), the 114th Pennsylvania Infantry; "Collis's Zouaves" (after their colonel, Charles H. T. Collis); and the 11th New York Volunteer Infantry, the "Fire Zouaves". The 11th New York was initially led by Col. Elmer E. Ellsworth, until his death in 1861. The 11th New York was badly mauled during the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861 as it acted as the rear guard for the retreating Army of the Potomac.[verification needed] The 5th New York was considered one of the elite units of the Army of the Potomac; it was one of only two volunteer regiments serving with the regular division commanded by George Sykes. At the Second Battle of Bull Run, the 5th New York, along with another Zouave regiment, the 10th New York "National Zouaves", held off the flanking attack of James Longstreet's Corps for ten crucial minutes before it was overrun. The 5th New York thus suffered the highest percentage of casualties in the shortest amount of time of any unit in the Civil War (of 525 men, approximately 120 were killed and 330 were wounded in less than 10 minutes).[citation needed]

American Zouave ambulance crew demonstrating removal of wounded soldiers from the field, during the American Civil War.

In 1863 and 1864, three Union regiments (146th New York, 140th New York, and 155th Pennsylvania) were issued with Zouave uniforms to reward their proficiency in drill and battlefield performance. Difficulties in supply and replacement meant that Zouave and other exotic militia uniforms tended to be replaced by standard issue uniforms throughout the conflict. However, the tradition remained strong, and the last Union casualty of the fighting in Virginia was reported to be a Zouave of the 155th Pennsylvania, killed at Farmville, Virginia, on the morning of April 9, 1865.

A number of Confederate Zouave units were also raised. In contrast to the many Federal units, most Confederate Zouaves were not full "regiments"; many were companies within larger units. The cognomen "Louisiana Tiger" dates from the Mexican–American War; it refers to any Louisiana state trooper (and more recently, to the state's athletic teams[citation needed]). But none of the Mexican War Louisiana "Tigers" were Zouaves. The earliest, and most famous, Louisiana Zouave unit was White's Company B (the "Tiger Rifles") of Major Chatham Roberdeau Wheat's 1st Special Battalion, Louisiana Volunteers, a.k.a. "Louisiana Tigers".[citation needed]

Another notable Zouave unit on the Confederate side was the "1st (Coppens') Louisiana Zouave Battalion", which was raised by Georges Augustus Gaston De Coppens in 1861. They saw action from the Peninsula Campaign to the Siege of Petersburg, all the while being short of supplies. They were disbanded in 1865.

The Confederate Zouave units did not last long throughout the war. All of them had traded out their Zouave garb for standard Confederate clothing by 1862. The last Confederate Zouave unit was Coppens Zouave which later became dubbed the Confederate State Zouave Battalion.

Winters also notes that a group of itinerant actors, who claimed to have served in European wars, stimulated the Zouave craze. The actors attracted large crowds and inspired the formation of military companies. They visited several New Orleans companies and instructed the men in a new manual of arms. They toured the river towns and played to an overflow audience in Plaquemine, Louisiana. In Alexandria, in central Louisiana, the actors performed "a bloody drama of the Crimean War".

Post-Civil War

Zouaves gradually vanished from the U.S. military in the 1870s and 1880s, as the militia system slowly transformed into the National Guard. As an example, the Wisconsin militia still included one zouave unit in 1879, but the next year, in 1880, the traditional distinctions of title and dress ceased when a standard Wisconsin Guard uniform was adopted. After the Civil War, veteran groups sometimes dressed as zouaves during honor guard ceremonies such as funeral processions, since zouave dress was considered colorful and distinctive. Modern American Civil War reenactments often feature zouave units.

American Zouave uniforms

The Brierwood Pipe, an 1864 oil painting by Winslow Homer of two 5th New York Zouaves

The zouave uniform was sometimes quite elaborate, to the extent of being unwieldy. Some Zouave regiments wore a fez with a colored tassel (usually yellow, blue, green, or red) and turban, a tight fitting short jacket (some without buttons), a wide 10-foot-long (300 cm) sash, baggy pantaloons or "chasseur" trousers, white leggings, and a short leather cuff for the calf, called jambieres. The sash was especially difficult to put on, often requiring the help of another zouave. The zouave uniform was better suited for warm climates and rough terrain. The loose pantaloons allowed for greater freedom of movement than trousers, while the short jacket was much cooler than the long woolen blouse worn by most armies of the time.

In the Third Carlist War (1872–1876) the Infante Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime (the brother of the Carlist Pretender to the Spanish throne, Carlos, Duke of Madrid) raised a unit of Spanish zouaves, the Carlist Zouaves (Batallon Zuavos), as an honor guard for himself and his wife Maria de las Nieves Braganza. The Carlist Zouaves originated as the sixth company of the second battalion of the Pontifical Zouaves. (Don Alfonso Carlos had formerly served as a lieutenant in the Pontifical Zouaves.) The Carlist Zouaves had the status of an elite unit within the army of Catalonia and the Maestrazgo. The uniforms of the Carlist Zouaves included the baggy trousers, short jacket, vest and sash of both the French and Pontifical Zouaves. However, the Carlist Zouaves also wore a distinctive feature that differentiated them from existing zouave regiments elsewhere, in the form of a beret of Basque influence with a characteristic tassel. In order to distinguish the troops from the officers, the color of the officer's jacket was a blue-gray shade, with a darker blue for the other ranks. The beret worn by the troops was white with a yellow tassel, while the officers wore a red beret with yellow tassel. The baggy trousers were grayish for all ranks.

  • Between 1880 and 1908 the Turkish Imperial Guard included two zouave regiments. The Abdul Hamid II Collection in the US Library of Congress has a number of photographs of these soldiers. They wore a uniform similar to that of the French zouaves but with green turbans and less widely cut red breeches. The Ottoman Zouaves were disbanded following the Young Turks coup of 1908, when the Imperial Guard was reduced to a ceremonial palace unit.
  • Under the Empire of Brazil, a battalion of black volunteers, called the "Zuavos da Bahia" (Bahian Zouaves) was organized in 1865. Although such use drew on a long tradition of black men's service to the Brazilian monarchy and State, both government and army soon rejected such segregated units, scattering its men along other units.
  • During his campaign of 1860 against the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Giuseppe Garibaldi's Redshirts included a volunteer battalion designated as the Calabrian Zouaves (Zuavvi Calabesi).

From 1830 to 1848 the zouave costume was closely derived from contemporary North African clothing. However, with the establishment of the zouave regiments as a permanent and integral part of the French Army, the "oriental dress" became a formalized uniform, subject to regulations while retaining the distinctive features of its indigenous origins.

Features of the zouave dress were widely copied by colonial units of various European armies during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These included African regiments raised by Portugal, Britain, Spain, and Italy, as well as the West India Regiment in British service.

Variations of zouave-style dress of the short open jacket (shama), voluminous trousers (serouel) and fez were worn by indigenous regiments of the French Army of Africa such as the Spahis and the Tirailleurs Algeriens, although in different colours.

Modern ceremonial units of the Algerian, Moroccan, and Tunisian armies retain items of traditional North African dress, sharing some common features with the tenue orientale of the French zouaves.

The Zouave statue by Georges Diebolt at the Pont de l'Alma in Paris
  • In French vernacular speech, the phrase "faire le Zouave" can be translated as "to act the goat" i.e. to behave wildly. In this context "zouave" is used as an insult by Captain Haddock, a character in The Adventures of Tintin. Professor Calculus takes particular offense at the insult in the volume Destination Moon and at the conclusion of Explorers on the Moon.
  • A 5.2 m (17 ft) tall statue of The Zouave, carved by Georges Diebolt in the 19th century to form part of the Alma Bridge across the Seine in Paris, serves as a widely watched means of gauging the level of the river. When water reaches a point between the knees and the waist of the "Zouave of the Alma", flooding has historically been considered imminent and river traffic has been halted.
  • In the film Gods and Generals, the 11th New York (Ellsworth's Fire Zouaves) and the 14th Brooklyn (84th New York Infantry) are shown fighting the Stonewall Brigade at First Manassas.
  • In the film Gettysburg, the 14th Brooklyn are shown during the first day of battle. The 114th Pennsylvania are also shown guarding the Headquarter staff as the Union set up defenses and the 72nd Pennsylvania are briefly shown during Picketts Charge and the epilogue. In the opening credits, a scene that shows three Zouaves of the 5th New York is used as a background.
  • In the film Glory, the 14th Brooklyn is shown in the beginning and during the Battle of Antietam. The 14th Brooklyn is actually supposed to represent the Zouave d'Afrique (114th Pennsylvania a.k.a. Collis Zouaves later in history) because the scene is showing the assault on the Sunken Road. Zouaves can also be seen escorting General Strong's party as it observes Fort Wagner. These Zouaves are probably supposed to represent the 76th Pennsylvania which was the only Zouave regiment in the tenth corp. However, the uniform on the Zouaves shown does not depict the actual uniform worn by the 76th.
  • In the TV miniseries The Blue and the Gray, a group of Union Zouaves is shown fighting at the First Battle of Bull Run. These Zouaves are most likely supposed to represent the 11th New York First Fire Zouaves. However, just like the 14th Brooklyn in Gods and Generals, the Zouaves are shown fighting as part of a regiment instead of an individual regiment. The uniform that the zouaves wear is based on that shown in the Kurz and Alison lithograph of the battle. While both are most likely trying to represent the 11th New York (since it was the only true Zouave regiment present on the field), the uniform is inaccurate. At First Bull Run, the 11th wore red overshirts (most of them discarded the dark blue red trimmed zouave jackets prior to the battle), mid-blue sash, blue or red fez with a blue tassel, and leather gaiters.
  • In Margaret Mitchell's novel Gone With The Wind, a Zouave, Rene Picard, joins the Confederate Army of Tennessee in Atlanta, Georgia. Picard is remembered for his good humor, charm, and optimism; also, for his inveterate Creole French accent.
  • In the 1955 Danny Kaye film The Court Jester, the Jackson Zouaves American Legion Drill Team from Jackson, Michigan, is seen performing a humorous drill routine using the traditional Zouave quick-march. The group also made several appearances, in full Zouave uniform, on The Ed Sullivan Show between 1953 and 1960.
  • In the 1960 Edward Gorey book The Fatal Lozenge, a Zouave is the subject of the final poem in Gorey's alphabetical list. In the poem, the Zouave, used to killing after years of war, stabs a young child who has begun to prattle.
  • The figure portrayed on the front of Zig-Zag rolling papers, colloquially known as the "Zig-Zag man", originates from a folk story about a zouave in the battle of Sevastopol. When the soldier's clay pipe was destroyed by a bullet, he attempted to roll his tobacco using a piece of paper torn from his bag of gunpowder.
  • In the Buster Keaton film The Playhouse, a zouave drill routine is one of the acts at the theatre. One of the gags involves Buster's boss telling him to get him some Zouaves and Buster first hands him a pack of cigarettes (referring to the above brand).
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  8. Sumner 1995, p. 8.
  9. Sumner, Ian (15 April 1998). The French Army 1939-45 (1). p. 11. ISBN 1-85532-666-3.
  10. Huré 1977, p. 324.
  11. Gallic, Paul (2012). Officers et Soldats de L'Armee Francaise 1943-1956, d'apres le TTA 148. p. 88. ISBN 9-782352-50195-4.
  12. Shann, Stephen (25 April 1991). French Army 1870-71. Franco-Prussian War 1 Imperial Troops. p. 13. ISBN 1-85532-121-1.
  13. Jouineau, Andre (14 February 2019). L'Armee de Napoleon III dans la Guerre 1870. p. 79. ISBN 978-2-84048-511-7.
  14. Brooks, Richard (21 April 2009). Soferino 1859. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-84603-385-8.
  15. Huré 1977, pp. 114–115.
  16. Jouineau, Andre (14 February 2019). L'Armee de Napoleon III dans la Guerre 1870. p. 33. ISBN 978-2-84048-511-7.
  17. pages 35–38 "La Gazette des Uniformes", September 2005"
  18. Shann, Stephen (25 July 1991). French Army 1870-71 Franco-Prussian War 2. Republican Troops. p. 8. ISBN 1-85532-135-1.
  19. Larcade 2000, p. 188.
  20. Huré 1977, p. 188.
  21. Larcade 2000, p. 19.
  22. Larcade 2001, p. 444.
  23. Jouineau 2009a, pp. 46–47.
  24. Jouineau 2009a, pp. 52–53.
  25. "Notice descriptive des nouveaux uniformes. (Décision ministérielle du 9 décembre 1914 mise à jour avec le modificatif du 28 janvier 1915)" (in French). Paris: Ministère de la Guerre. 1915. Retrieved2021-07-30 – via Bibliothèque Nationale de France.
  26. Jouineau, Andre (15 January 2011). Officers and Soldiers of the French Army 1940. p. 52. ISBN 978-2-35250-179-4.
  27. Funcken, JLiliane et Fred (1981). L'Uuniformen et les Armes des Soldats du XIX Siecle 2. p. 44. ISBN 2-203-14325-8.
  28. Furlong, Charles Wellington (1914). "Turcos And The Legion: The Spahis, The Zouaves, The Tirailleurs, And The Foreign Legion". The World's Work, Second War Manual: The Conduct of the War: 35–37.
  29. Huré 1977, pp. 324–330.
  30. Huré 1977, pp. 402–418.
  31. Windrow, Martin (17 July 1995). The Algerian War 1954–62. pp. 20 & 44. ISBN 1-85532-516-0.
  32. Morgan, Ted (31 January 2006). My Battle of Algiers. pp. 116, 120, 148, 185, 187, 224, 230. ISBN 978-0-06-085224-5.
  33. Huré 1977, p. 463.
  34. Huré 1977, pp. 461–462.
  35. Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves (London: R. Washburne, 1871), at p. 1
  36. Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 2
  37. Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 287
  38. Howard R. Marraro, "Canadian and American Zouaves in the Papal Army, 1868–1870" CCHA Report, 12 (1944–45), 83-102 at 83, who cites the New York Herald, June 10, 1868 for the numbers. Available online at: http://www.umanitoba.ca/colleges/st_pauls/ccha/Back%20Issues/CCHA1944-45/Marraro.pdf
  39. Massimo Brandani, pages 34-35, "L'Esercito Pontificio da Castelfidardo a Porta Pia", published 1976 by Intergest Milano
  40. Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 32
  41. Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 35–36
  42. "Victor Hugo's poem: Mentana". Readbookonline.net. Retrieved2015-08-30.
  43. Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 260, quoting the Evening Freeman, September 29, 1870
  44. Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 259
  45. Stevenson, Charles (19 December 2014). A Box of Sand: The Italo-Ottoman War 1911–1912. p. 21. ISBN 9780957689275.
  46. Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 260
  47. Charles A. Coulombe, The Pope's Legion: The Multinational Fighting Force that Defended the Vatican, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2008
  48. Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 297pp.
  49. pages 32-33 "French Army 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War – Republican Troops", ISBN 1-85532-135-1
  50. Dyde, Brian (1997). The Empty Sleeve. The story of the West India Regiment of the British Army. pp. 149–150. ISBN 976-8163-09-7.
  51. R.M Barnes, page 276 "Military Uniforms of Britain & The Empire, Sphere Books Ltd 1972
  52. Whitewashing Civil War History Archived February 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  53. "U.S. Civil War Zouave Uniform Jacket". National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved2008-06-12.
  54. Tevis, C. V.; Marquis, D. R. (1911). The History of the Fighting Fourteenth: Published in Commemoration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Muster of the Regiment Into the United States Service, May 23, 1861. New York: Brooklyn Eagle Press.
  55. Smith 1996, p. 30.
  56. Smith 1996, p. 55.
  57. Coates, Earl J.; Mcafee, Michael J.; Troiani, Don (2006). Don Troiani's Civil War Zouaves, Chasseurs, Special Branches, & Officers (1st ed.). Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. p. 15. ISBN 0-8117-3320-3.
  58. Winters, p. 16
  59. Parade Ground Soldiers, J. Phillip Langellier ISBN 0-87020-174-3
  60. "Bringing the pages of history to life for SCV students". Signalscv.com. 2014-05-09. Retrieved2015-08-30.
  61. Don Jose Bueno, plate 5 "Uniformes, Banderas y Organizacion de las Tropas Carlistas 1872–76", Alcaniz Fresno's Editores, ISBN 978-84-96935-40-2
  62. New York Times 27 December 1908
  63. Esposito, Gabriele (24 March 2015). Armies of the War of the Triple Alliance 1864-70. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-4728-0725-0.
  64. Ibidem - Kraay, 2004
  65. Esposito, Gabriele (21 August 2018). Armies of the War of the Italian Wars of Unification 1848–70 (2). p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4728-2624-4.
  66. Larcade 2001, pp. 544–545.
  67. Mirouze, Laurent (2007). The French Army in the First World War. p. 186. ISBN 978-3-902526-09-0.
  68. Carman, W.Y. (1977). A Dictionary of Military Uniform. p. 139. ISBN 0-684-15130-8.
  69. Bueno, Jose (1989). Los Regulares. pp. 18–19. ISBN 84-86629-23-3.
  70. Piero Crociani, Figures 7-19 "Le Uniformi Coloniali Libiche 1912-1942, Quaderni D'Appunti, La Rocci 1980
  71. Dyde, Brian (1997). The Empty Sleeve. The Story of the West India Regiments of the British Army. pp. 149–150. ISBN 976-8163-09-7.
  72. Shann, Stephen; Delperier, Louis (1991). French Army 1870-71 Franco-Prussian War. Volume 1: Imperial Troops. Men-at-Arms. Illustrated by Jeffrey Burn. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85532-121-2.
  73. Larcade 2001, p. 550.
  74. Huré 1977, p. 80.
  75. Pierre Rosiere, "Spahis des spahis algeriens aux gardes rouges de Dakar", pages 53-56, Editions Xavier Paris 1984
  76. Dufour, Pierre (1999). 1er Regiment de Tirailleurs. pp. 44–45. ISBN 2-7025-0439-6.
  77. Larcade 2000, pp. 44–45.
  78. Rinaldo D'Ami, pages 44-46 World Uniforms in Colour, SBN 85059 040 X
  79. Cassin-Scott, Jack (1973). Ceremonial Uniforms of the World. pp. 44 & 72. ISBN 0-903792-03-6.
  80. Harrap's Shorter French and English Dictionary.
  81. Smith, Leanne (2012-08-23). "Peek Through Time: Jackson's fast-stepping Zouaves took Hollywood by storm in 1954 filming of 'The Court Jester'". mlive. Retrieved2021-01-13.
  82. "The Playhouse : Joseph M. Schenck : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Retrieved2015-08-30.

Bibliography

  • Huré, Robert, ed. (1977). L'Armée d'Afrique : 1830-1962. Paris: Charles-Lavauzelle. OCLC 757208988.
  • Jouineau, André (2009a) [2008]. Officiers et soldats de l'armée française Tome 1 : 1914 [Officers and Soldiers of the French Army Volume I: 1914]. Officers and Soldiers #11. Translated by McKay, Alan. Paris: Histoire & Collections. ISBN 978-2-35250-104-6.
  • Jouineau, André (2009b) [2009]. Officiers et soldats de l'armée française Tome 2 : 1915-1918 [Officers and Soldiers of the French Army Volume II: 1915-18]. Officers and Soldiers #12. Translated by McKay, Alan. Paris: Histoire & Collections. ISBN 978-2-35250-105-3.
  • Larcade, Jean-Louis (2000). Zouaves et Tirailleurs: les régiments de marche et les régiments mixtes (1914-1918), Vol I. Livet, Normandie: Editions des Argonautes. ISBN 2-95-151710-6.
  • Larcade, Jean-Louis (2001). Zouaves et Tirailleurs: les régiments de marche et les régiments mixtes (1914-1918), Vol II. Livet, Normandie: Editions des Argonautes. ISBN 2-95-151711-4.
  • Smith, Robin (1996). American Civil War Zouaves. Elite. London: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-85-532571-5.
  • Sumner, Ian (1995). The French Army 1914-18. Men-at-Arms. London: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-85-532516-6.
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Zouave
Zouave Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Zouaves For the painting by Vincent van Gogh see The Zouave The Zouaves French pronunciation zwav were a class of light infantry regiments of the French Army serving between 1830 and 1962 and linked to French North Africa as well as some units of other countries modelled upon them The zouaves along with the indigenous Tirailleurs Algeriens were among the most decorated units of the French Army A small detachment of France s 4th Regiment of Zouaves in the M Sila region during the Algerian War circa 1961 French zouave circa 1870 It was initially intended that the zouaves would be a regiment of Berber volunteers from the Zwawa group of tribes in Algeria thus the French term zouave who had gained a martial reputation fighting for local rulers under the Ottoman Empire The regiment was to consist of sixteen hundred Zwawa Berbers French non commissioned officers and French officers Five hundred Zwawa were recruited in August and September 1830 Twelve years later zouaves began to be recruited almost exclusively from Europeans a policy which continued until the final dissolution of these regiments after the Algerian War In the 1860s new units in several other countries called themselves zouaves The Papal Zouaves were organized by Louis Juchault de Lamoriciere a former commander of North African zouaves while a former zouave sergeant Francois Rochebrune organized the Polish Zouaves of Death who fought against Russia in the January Uprising of 1863 64 In the 1870s former Papal Zouaves formed the cadre for a short lived Spanish zouave unit The zouave title was also used by Brazilian units of black volunteers in the Paraguayan War 1 possibly due to a perceived link with Africa In the United States zouaves were brought to public attention by Elmer E Ellsworth who created and ran a drill company called the Zouave Cadets The drill company toured nationally Zouave units were then raised on both sides of the American Civil War of 1861 65 including a regiment under Ellsworth s command the 11th New York Infantry the New York Fire Zouaves The distinctive uniforms of French and other zouave units was of North African origin It generally included short open fronted jackets baggy trousers serouel sashes and a fez like chechia head dress Contents 1 French Zouaves 1 1 Recruitment 1 2 Etymology 1 3 Zouave regiments 1 4 Early history 1 5 The Second Empire 1 6 The Third Republic 1 7 Post 1945 2 Papal Zouaves 3 Polish Zouaves of Death 4 Zouave style units in the British Army 5 Zouaves of North America 5 1 American Civil War 5 2 Post Civil War 5 3 American Zouave uniforms 6 Spanish Zouaves 7 Other zouave units 8 North African dress influence 9 In popular culture 10 See also 11 References 11 1 Bibliography 12 External linksFrench Zouaves Edit A French zouave from 1888 wearing white summer serouel trousers instead of the usual red Recruitment Edit Zouaves at the Battle of Zaatcha during the Conquest of Algeria The zouaves of the French Army were first raised in Algeria in 1831 with one and later two battalions initially recruited primarily from the Zouaoua or Zwawa 2 a tribe of Berbers located in the mountains of the Jurjura Range see Kabyles 3 The Zouaoua had formerly provided soldiers for the deys of Algiers and in August 1830 the commander of the French expeditionary force which had occupied the city recommended their continued employment in this role 4 The existence of the new corps was formally recognised by a Royal decree dated 21 March 1831 5 French zouaves during the Crimean war painting by Aleksander Raczynski 1858 From their beginning the zouave units included a French European element initially drawn from the demobilized Garde royal of Charles X and other Parisian volunteers From March 1833 each zouave battalion was organised into ten companies of which eight were Muslim Berbers and Arabs and two French 4 In 1838 a third battalion was raised and the regiment thus formed was commanded by Major de Lamoriciere Shortly afterwards the formation of the Tirailleurs algeriens the Turcos as the infantry corps for Muslim troops changed the basis for enlistment of the zouave battalions For most of their remaining history the zouaves became an essentially French body until in 1956 a new policy of partial racial mixing was introduced amongst units of the Army of Africa 6 Etymology Edit The word zouave is a French language derivative of Zouaouas the original name of the Kabyle Berbers recruited for French service 7 Zouave regiments Edit Initially constituted as battalion sized units the zouaves were reorganized as separate regiments in 1852 The 1st Zouaves were linked to Algiers and central Algeria The 1st Zouaves had a continuous existence from 1852 to 1949 After disbandment the regiment was recreated between 1956 and 1960 The 2nd Zouaves were linked to Oran and western Algeria 1852 1962 The 3rd Zouaves were linked to Constantine and eastern Algeria 1852 1962 The 4th Zouaves were linked to Tunis and Tunisia They were first formed as the Zouaves of the Imperial Guard in 1854 and became the 4th Zouves on the establishment of the Third Republic in 1870 They remained in existence under this title until 1962 Guard Zouaves Zouaves de la Garde during the Second Italian War of Independence in 1859 At the end of the Algerian War six zouave regiments were in existence of which the 1er was disbanded in 1960 and the remainder in 1962 5 Other provisional regiments of zouaves were raised in 1914 and 1939 for the First and Second World Wars respectively During World War I nine regiments de marche of zouaves were created comprising active reserve and new battalions seconded from other regiments 8 In World War II the number reached fourteen 9 The zouave regiments raised in 1914 for the First World War were the 8th and 9th The 13th Zouaves were raised in 1919 and dissolved in 1940 The zouave regiments raised in 1939 for the Second World War were the 11th 12th 14th and 21st all of which were dissolved after the fall of France in 1940 Other regiments raised later in the Second World War were the 9th reactivated 22nd 23rd and 29th 10 In addition four mixed zouave and tirailleur regiments regiments mixtes de zouaves et tirailleurs were raised for the First World War all of which were redesignated Algerian tirailleur regiments in 1918 or 1920 citation needed The 9th Zouaves were the last French zouave unit The first 9th Zouave regiment existed from 1914 until the fall of France in 1940 a second 9th Zouaves was raised in the Second World War and disbanded after the Algerian War 1954 62 and a third 9th Zouaves existed as a nominal unit from 1982 to 2006 representing a commando training school There was no zouave regiment in existence between 1962 82 and none now survive in the French Army 11 Early history Edit The zouaves saw extensive service during the French conquest of Algeria initially at the Mouzaia Pass action March 1836 then at Mitidja September 1836 and the siege of Constantine 1837 Recruited through voluntary enlistment or transfer from other regiments of men with at least two years service the zouaves quickly achieved the status of an elite amongst the French Army of Africa 12 A group of four zouaves of the French Army pose for the camera during the Crimean War 1854 1856 The Second Empire Edit By 1853 the French Army included three regiments of zouaves Each of the three line regiments of zouaves was allocated to a different province of Algeria where their depots and peace time garrisons were located 13 The Crimean War was the first service which the regiments saw outside Algeria They subsequently served as effective light infantry 14 in the Franco Austrian War of 1859 the Mexican Intervention 1864 66 and the Franco Prussian War 1870 The distinctive dress and dash of the zouaves made them well known outside France and they were frequently portrayed in the illustrated publications of the period The 2nd Zouaves popularly known as the Jackals of Oran had their mutilated eagle decorated with the Legion d Honneur following the Battle of Magenta in 1859 15 On 23 December 1854 a fourth regiment was created the Zouaves of the Imperial Guard The actual formation of this unit was delayed until 15 March 1855 when detachments from the zouave regiments already serving in the Crimea were brought together before Sebastopol for this purpose Having earned the unusual distinction of being created on the field of battle 16 the Zouaves of the Imperial Guard served through the remainder of the Crimean War and subsequently in all the campaigns of the Second Empire Their peace time garrisons were initially at Saint Cloud and then Versailles from 1857 This regiment wore the classic zouave uniform but with yellow braiding and piping substituted for the red of the line regiments 17 In the opening stages of the Franco Prussian War the bulk of the serving zouave units were amongst the Imperial field army defeated at Sedan in September 1870 Drawing on remnants of the Imperial forces depot troops from Algeria and volunteers it was possible to reconstitute all four regiments as part of the Army of the Loire and the Republican defenders of Paris 18 French zouave officer in Tonkin Spring 1885 The Third Republic Edit After 1871 the zouaves lost their status as an elite corps solely made up of long service volunteers they became a force mainly composed of conscripts from the French settlers in Algeria and Tunisia undertaking their compulsory military service Shortfalls in numbers were made up by detachments from the southern regions militaires of mainland France Metropole The zouave regiments did however retain significant numbers of long service volunteers engages volontiers et reengages who contributed to the high morale and steadiness of these units 19 Two zouave battalions under chefs de bataillon Simon and Mignot served in Tonkin during the closing weeks of the Sino French War August 1884 to April 1885 One of these battalions was roughly handled on 23 March 1885 in the Battle of Phu Lam Tao A third zouave battalion chef de bataillon Metzinger joined the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps shortly after the end of the war and took part in operations against Vietnamese insurgents 20 In 1899 a law created for each regiment of zouaves a 5th Battalion to be stationed in France in groupes des 5e bataillons de Zouaves The 5th battalions of the 1st and 4th Zouaves were stationed as part of the Gouvernement militaire de Paris The 5th battalions of the 2nd and 3rd Zouaves were stationed in the region militaire de Lyon Upon mobilization for war in France these battalions would form the nucleus of Regiments de Marche de Zouaves each of 3 battalions This permanent presence in the two key garrisons of metropolitan France facilitated subsequent arrival and participation by other elements of the 19th Military Region as reinforcements in the event of an attack on mainland France 19 Zouave battalions subsequently saw active service in China during the Boxer Rising 1900 01 and in Morocco 1908 1914 21 From the very beginning of World War I zouave regiments and detached battalions saw extensive service on the Western Front Others served in the Dardanelles Macedonia within the 156th Division Tonkin Algeria Tunisia and Morocco Twelve zouave battalions were recruited for exclusively North African service from French speaking prisoners of war and deserters from German Alsace Lorraine who had volunteered to join the French Army 22 French Zouaves in the First World War The four zouave regiments of the French Army wore their traditional colorful dress during the early months of the First World War 23 The development of the machine gun rapid fire artillery and improved small arms obliged them to adopt a plain khaki uniform from 1915 onwards in common with other units of the Armee d Afrique 24 25 From 1927 to 1939 the oriental dress of red fez chechia blue sash braided blue jackets with waistcoats and voluminous red trousers was reintroduced as off duty dress for re enlisted NCOs and other long service regulars in the zouave regiments 26 It was also worn by colour guards and other detachments on ceremonial occasions White trousers of the same style had earlier been worn as an item of hot weather dress The four regiments were distinguished by the colours red blue white and yellow of the tombeaus or false pockets on the front of their open fronted jackets 27 The zouaves played a major role in the 1914 18 War with their numbers being expanded to nine regiments de marche These units retained much of their traditional panache especially in attack 28 They became however less conspicuous in World War II seeing service mainly during the opening stages of the war in the Battle of France 1940 29 and in the course of the liberation of France 1944 30 Post 1945 Edit As predominantly conscript units the zouaves did not serve in Indochina between 1945 and 1954 They were however employed extensively as sector troops during the Algerian War Their history as a corps of high profile elite infantry closely identified with French Algeria made for higher morale and effectiveness than that of most conscript units from metropolitan France assigned to Algeria 31 The 9th Zouaves based in the Casbah played a major role in the 1957 Battle of Algiers 32 At the end of the Algerian War remaining zouave and tirailleur units were incorporated in a short lived Force locale de l ordre Algerienne created under the Evian Accords of March 1962 and intended to provide a transitional peace keeping force acceptable to both Muslim and European communities 33 The zouave regiments were finally disbanded in 1962 following Algerian independence This was inevitable since their recruitment base was the European population of Algeria which dispersed with the ending of French rule 34 The traditions of the zouave regiments were maintained until 2006 by the French Army s Commando Training School CEC which occasionally paraded colour parties and other detachments in zouave dress With the closure of the CEC school that year and the putting into store of the flag of the 9th Zouaves in 2010 any direct link between the former zouaves and active units of the modern French Army ceased While other branches of the old French Army of Africa have either survived or been reestablished as representative units in recent years notably the Foreign Legion Chasseurs d Afrique Tirailleurs and Spahis France does not have any known plans to recreate one of its most distinctive and best known military corps Pontifical Zouave of Major O Reilley s Papal Brigade and a veteran of the battles against Garibaldi Fully armed and equipped with a 71 calibre Model 1842 French Rifle with sword bayonet and backpack Papal Zouaves EditMain article Papal Zouaves The Papal Zouaves were a corps of volunteers formed as part of the Army of the Papal States The Zouaves evolved out of a unit formed by Lamoriciere in 1860 the Franco Belgian Tirailleurs 35 On January 1 1861 the unit was renamed the Papal Zouaves 36 Jules Marie Deluen 1849 1918 in Papal Zouave uniform in Nantes France The Zuavi Pontifici were mainly young men unmarried and Roman Catholic who volunteered to assist Pope Pius IX in his struggle against the Italian Risorgimento They wore a similar style of uniform to that of the French Zouaves but in grey with red trim A grey and red kepi was substituted for the North African fez citation needed All orders were given in French and the unit was commanded by a Swiss Colonel M Allet 37 The regiment was truly international and by May 1868 numbered 4 592 men including 1 910 Dutch 1 301 French 686 Belgians and 240 Italians 38 A total of three hundred volunteers came from Canada the United States and Ireland while the remaining 155 Zouaves were mostly South American 39 The Papal Zouaves assisted in the notable Franco Papal victory at the Battle of Mentana on November 3 1867 They suffered the brunt of the fighting sustaining 81 casualties in the battle including 24 killed the Papal forces suffered only 30 dead in total 40 The official report of the battle prepared by the French commander General de Failly cited the bravery of the Zouaves 41 They were also mentioned in Victor Hugo s poem Mentana 42 The Papal Zouaves also played a role in the final engagements against the forces of the newly united Kingdom of Italy in September 1870 in which the Papal forces were outnumbered almost seven to one 43 The Zouaves fought bravely before surrender 44 inflicting losses on the Bersaglieri of the regular Italian Army as the latter stormed the Porta Pia 45 Several Papal Zouaves were reportedly executed or murdered by the Italian forces following the surrender 46 47 The French component of the Papal Zouaves regrouped as the Volontaires de l Ouest Volunteers of the West to fight on the French side in the Franco Prussian War where they kept their grey and red Papal uniforms The Zouaves saw action outside Orleans Patay 48 and the Battle of Loigny 49 The Volontaires de l Ouest were disbanded after the entrance of Prussian troops into Paris citation needed An English veteran Joseph Powell published his account of his service with the Papal Zouaves Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves 36 Francois Rochebrune in uniform of Zouave of DeathPolish Zouaves of Death EditMain article Zouaves of Death In 1863 during the Polish January Uprising against the Russian Empire a French ex officer who had served previously in one of the French zouave regiments Francois Rochebrune organised the Zouaves of Death Members of this Polish unit swore to conquer or to die and not to surrender They wore a black uniform with white cross and red fez citation needed Zouaves of Death in the Battle of Miechow during the January Uprising of 1863 painting by Walery Eljasz Radzikowski The unit s baptism by fire occurred at the Battle of Miechow where under the command of adjutant Wojciech Komorowski they successfully charged Russian forces defending the local cemetery However the overall engagement was a defeat for the Poles on February 17 1863 Lt Tytus O Brien de Lacy escaped with 400 zouaves to Galicia in March 1863 In the Battle of Chroberz the Zouaves covered the retreat of the main body of Polish forces under Marian Langiewicz They also fought at the follow up Battle of Grochowiska where they captured Russian artillery positions but suffered very high casualties citation needed Commanding officers of the regiment were Colonel Francois Rochebrune Lieutenant Count Wojciech Komorowski Lieutenant Tytus O Brien de Lacy Lieutenant Antoni Wojcicki and Lieutenant Tenente BellaZouave style units in the British Army EditMain article West India Regiment Members of the Jamaica Military Band in zouave style uniforms In 1856 the West India Regiment of the British army switched its attire to a uniform modeled on that of the French zouaves This consisted of a red fez with a white tassel a white turban a scarlet sleeveless jacket with yellow trimming a white long sleeved waistcoat and dark blue serouels with yellow piping White canvas gaiters and leather jamberees completed the uniform 50 This uniform was reserved for full dress and is still used by the Barbados Defense Force band and the Jamaica Military Band see photograph opposite Other British Empire units who adopted zouave features as part of their dress uniforms included the Gold Coast Regiment and the West African Frontier Force 51 Zouaves of North America EditAmerican Civil War Edit This section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed April 2014 Learn how and when to remove this template message Sergt Francis E Brownell 11th N Y Regt 1861 Goslin Zouave 95th Regt Pv by Xanthus Russell Smith 1861 Numerous zouave regiments were organized from soldiers of the United States of America who adopted the name and the North African inspired uniforms during the American Civil War 52 The Union army had more than seventy volunteer zouave regiments throughout the conflict while the Confederates fielded about twenty five Zouave companies 53 In the United States zouaves were brought to public attention by Elmer E Ellsworth Inspired by his French friend Charles De Villers who had been a surgeon in the North African zouaves he obtained a zouave drill manual In 1859 Ellsworth took over a drill company and renamed them the Zouave Cadets The drill company toured nationally performing the light infantry drill of the north African zouaves with many theatrical additions Zouave units were then raised on both sides of the American Civil War of 1861 1865 including a regiment under Ellsworth s command the New York Fire Zouaves A feature of some American zouave units at least in the opening stages of the American Civil War was the light infantry tactics and drill they employed Zouaves utilised light infantry tactics that emphasised open order formations with several feet between soldiers rather than the customary close order with its characteristic touch of elbows They moved at double time rather than marching to a stately cadence and they lay on their backs to load their rifles rather than standing to do so To fire they rolled prone and sometimes rose on one knee citation needed Arguably the most famous Union zouave regiments were from New York and Pennsylvania the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry Duryee s Zouaves after its first colonel Abram Duryee the 114th Pennsylvania Infantry Collis s Zouaves after their colonel Charles H T Collis and the 11th New York Volunteer Infantry the Fire Zouaves The 11th New York was initially led by Col Elmer E Ellsworth until his death in 1861 The 11th New York was badly mauled during the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861 as it acted as the rear guard for the retreating Army of the Potomac 54 verification needed The 5th New York was considered one of the elite units of the Army of the Potomac it was one of only two volunteer regiments serving with the regular division commanded by George Sykes At the Second Battle of Bull Run the 5th New York along with another Zouave regiment the 10th New York National Zouaves held off the flanking attack of James Longstreet s Corps for ten crucial minutes before it was overrun The 5th New York thus suffered the highest percentage of casualties in the shortest amount of time of any unit in the Civil War of 525 men approximately 120 were killed and 330 were wounded in less than 10 minutes citation needed American Zouave ambulance crew demonstrating removal of wounded soldiers from the field during the American Civil War In 1863 and 1864 three Union regiments 146th New York 140th New York and 155th Pennsylvania were issued with Zouave uniforms to reward their proficiency in drill and battlefield performance 55 Difficulties in supply and replacement meant that Zouave and other exotic militia uniforms tended to be replaced by standard issue uniforms throughout the conflict However the tradition remained strong and the last Union casualty of the fighting in Virginia was reported to be a Zouave of the 155th Pennsylvania killed at Farmville Virginia on the morning of April 9 1865 56 A number of Confederate Zouave units were also raised In contrast to the many Federal units most Confederate Zouaves were not full regiments many were companies within larger units The cognomen Louisiana Tiger dates from the Mexican American War it refers to any Louisiana state trooper and more recently to the state s athletic teams citation needed But none of the Mexican War Louisiana Tigers were Zouaves The earliest and most famous Louisiana Zouave unit was White s Company B the Tiger Rifles of Major Chatham Roberdeau Wheat s 1st Special Battalion Louisiana Volunteers a k a Louisiana Tigers citation needed Another notable Zouave unit on the Confederate side was the 1st Coppens Louisiana Zouave Battalion which was raised by Georges Augustus Gaston De Coppens in 1861 They saw action from the Peninsula Campaign to the Siege of Petersburg all the while being short of supplies They were disbanded in 1865 57 The Confederate Zouave units did not last long throughout the war All of them had traded out their Zouave garb for standard Confederate clothing by 1862 The last Confederate Zouave unit was Coppens Zouave which later became dubbed the Confederate State Zouave Battalion Winters also notes that a group of itinerant actors who claimed to have served in European wars stimulated the Zouave craze The actors attracted large crowds and inspired the formation of military companies They visited several New Orleans companies and instructed the men in a new manual of arms They toured the river towns and played to an overflow audience in Plaquemine Louisiana In Alexandria in central Louisiana the actors performed a bloody drama of the Crimean War 58 Post Civil War Edit Zouaves gradually vanished from the U S military in the 1870s and 1880s as the militia system slowly transformed into the National Guard As an example the Wisconsin militia still included one zouave unit in 1879 but the next year in 1880 the traditional distinctions of title and dress ceased when a standard Wisconsin Guard uniform was adopted 59 After the Civil War veteran groups sometimes dressed as zouaves during honor guard ceremonies such as funeral processions since zouave dress was considered colorful and distinctive Modern American Civil War reenactments often feature zouave units 60 American Zouave uniforms Edit The Brierwood Pipe an 1864 oil painting by Winslow Homer of two 5th New York Zouaves The zouave uniform was sometimes quite elaborate to the extent of being unwieldy Some Zouave regiments wore a fez with a colored tassel usually yellow blue green or red and turban a tight fitting short jacket some without buttons a wide 10 foot long 300 cm sash baggy pantaloons or chasseur trousers white leggings and a short leather cuff for the calf called jambieres The sash was especially difficult to put on often requiring the help of another zouave The zouave uniform was better suited for warm climates and rough terrain The loose pantaloons allowed for greater freedom of movement than trousers while the short jacket was much cooler than the long woolen blouse worn by most armies of the time Spanish Zouaves EditIn the Third Carlist War 1872 1876 the Infante Alfonso Carlos Duke of San Jaime the brother of the Carlist Pretender to the Spanish throne Carlos Duke of Madrid raised a unit of Spanish zouaves the Carlist Zouaves Batallon Zuavos as an honor guard for himself and his wife Maria de las Nieves Braganza The Carlist Zouaves originated as the sixth company of the second battalion of the Pontifical Zouaves Don Alfonso Carlos had formerly served as a lieutenant in the Pontifical Zouaves The Carlist Zouaves had the status of an elite unit within the army of Catalonia and the Maestrazgo The uniforms of the Carlist Zouaves included the baggy trousers short jacket vest and sash of both the French and Pontifical Zouaves However the Carlist Zouaves also wore a distinctive feature that differentiated them from existing zouave regiments elsewhere in the form of a beret of Basque influence with a characteristic tassel In order to distinguish the troops from the officers the color of the officer s jacket was a blue gray shade with a darker blue for the other ranks The beret worn by the troops was white with a yellow tassel while the officers wore a red beret with yellow tassel The baggy trousers were grayish for all ranks 61 Other zouave units EditBetween 1880 and 1908 the Turkish Imperial Guard included two zouave regiments The Abdul Hamid II Collection in the US Library of Congress has a number of photographs of these soldiers They wore a uniform similar to that of the French zouaves but with green turbans and less widely cut red breeches The Ottoman Zouaves were disbanded following the Young Turks coup of 1908 when the Imperial Guard was reduced to a ceremonial palace unit 62 Under the Empire of Brazil a battalion of black volunteers called the Zuavos da Bahia Bahian Zouaves was organized in 1865 63 Although such use drew on a long tradition of black men s service to the Brazilian monarchy and State both government and army soon rejected such segregated units scattering its men along other units 64 During his campaign of 1860 against the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Giuseppe Garibaldi s Redshirts included a volunteer battalion designated as the Calabrian Zouaves Zuavvi Calabesi 65 North African dress influence EditFrom 1830 to 1848 the zouave costume was closely derived from contemporary North African clothing 66 However with the establishment of the zouave regiments as a permanent and integral part of the French Army the oriental dress became a formalized uniform 67 subject to regulations while retaining the distinctive features of its indigenous origins 2 Features of the zouave dress were widely copied by colonial units of various European armies during the late 19th and early 20th centuries 68 These included African regiments raised by Portugal Britain Spain 69 and Italy 70 as well as the West India Regiment in British service 71 Variations of zouave style dress of the short open jacket shama 72 voluminous trousers serouel 73 and fez were worn by indigenous regiments of the French Army of Africa such as the Spahis and the Tirailleurs Algeriens although in different colours 74 75 76 77 Modern ceremonial units of the Algerian Moroccan and Tunisian armies retain items of traditional North African dress 78 sharing some common features with the tenue orientale of the French zouaves 79 In popular culture Edit The Zouave statue by Georges Diebolt at the Pont de l Alma in Paris The Zouave by Vincent van Gogh In French vernacular speech the phrase faire le Zouave can be translated as to act the goat i e to behave wildly 80 In this context zouave is used as an insult by Captain Haddock a character in The Adventures of Tintin Professor Calculus takes particular offense at the insult in the volume Destination Moon and at the conclusion of Explorers on the Moon A 5 2 m 17 ft tall statue of The Zouave carved by Georges Diebolt in the 19th century to form part of the Alma Bridge across the Seine in Paris serves as a widely watched means of gauging the level of the river When water reaches a point between the knees and the waist of the Zouave of the Alma flooding has historically been considered imminent and river traffic has been halted In the film Gods and Generals the 11th New York Ellsworth s Fire Zouaves and the 14th Brooklyn 84th New York Infantry are shown fighting the Stonewall Brigade at First Manassas In the film Gettysburg the 14th Brooklyn are shown during the first day of battle The 114th Pennsylvania are also shown guarding the Headquarter staff as the Union set up defenses and the 72nd Pennsylvania are briefly shown during Picketts Charge and the epilogue In the opening credits a scene that shows three Zouaves of the 5th New York is used as a background In the film Glory the 14th Brooklyn is shown in the beginning and during the Battle of Antietam The 14th Brooklyn is actually supposed to represent the Zouave d Afrique 114th Pennsylvania a k a Collis Zouaves later in history because the scene is showing the assault on the Sunken Road Zouaves can also be seen escorting General Strong s party as it observes Fort Wagner These Zouaves are probably supposed to represent the 76th Pennsylvania which was the only Zouave regiment in the tenth corp However the uniform on the Zouaves shown does not depict the actual uniform worn by the 76th In the TV miniseries The Blue and the Gray a group of Union Zouaves is shown fighting at the First Battle of Bull Run These Zouaves are most likely supposed to represent the 11th New York First Fire Zouaves However just like the 14th Brooklyn in Gods and Generals the Zouaves are shown fighting as part of a regiment instead of an individual regiment The uniform that the zouaves wear is based on that shown in the Kurz and Alison lithograph of the battle While both are most likely trying to represent the 11th New York since it was the only true Zouave regiment present on the field the uniform is inaccurate At First Bull Run the 11th wore red overshirts most of them discarded the dark blue red trimmed zouave jackets prior to the battle mid blue sash blue or red fez with a blue tassel and leather gaiters In Margaret Mitchell s novel Gone With The Wind a Zouave Rene Picard joins the Confederate Army of Tennessee in Atlanta Georgia Picard is remembered for his good humor charm and optimism also for his inveterate Creole French accent In the 1955 Danny Kaye film The Court Jester the Jackson Zouaves American Legion Drill Team from Jackson Michigan is seen performing a humorous drill routine using the traditional Zouave quick march The group also made several appearances in full Zouave uniform on The Ed Sullivan Show between 1953 and 1960 81 In the 1960 Edward Gorey book The Fatal Lozenge a Zouave is the subject of the final poem in Gorey s alphabetical list In the poem the Zouave used to killing after years of war stabs a young child who has begun to prattle The figure portrayed on the front of Zig Zag rolling papers colloquially known as the Zig Zag man originates from a folk story about a zouave in the battle of Sevastopol When the soldier s clay pipe was destroyed by a bullet he attempted to roll his tobacco using a piece of paper torn from his bag of gunpowder In the Buster Keaton film The Playhouse a zouave drill routine is one of the acts at the theatre One of the gags involves Buster s boss telling him to get him some Zouaves and Buster first hands him a pack of cigarettes referring to the above brand 82 See also Edit9th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment 10th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment 146th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment 62nd New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment 8th Missouri Volunteer Infantry Pont de l Alma Zouave jacket 11th Regiment Indiana Infantry Castle Pinckney has photos of the Charleston South Carolina Zouave Cadets References Edit Kraay Hendrik Whigham Thomas 2004 I Die with My Country Perspectives on the Paraguayan War 1864 1870 U of Nebraska Press p 61 ISBN 0 8032 2762 0 a b Mollo John 1972 Military Fashion p 166 ISBN 0 214 65349 8 page 1044 volume 28 Encyclopaedia Britannica Eleventh Edition a b Larcade 2000 p 15 a b Hure 1977 p 462 Windrow Martin 1997 The Algerian War 1954 62 p 20 ISBN 1 85532 658 2 ZOUAVE Definition de ZOUAVE Sumner 1995 p 8 Sumner Ian 15 April 1998 The French Army 1939 45 1 p 11 ISBN 1 85532 666 3 Hure 1977 p 324 Gallic Paul 2012 Officers et Soldats de L Armee Francaise 1943 1956 d apres le TTA 148 p 88 ISBN 9 782352 50195 4 Shann Stephen 25 April 1991 French Army 1870 71 Franco Prussian War 1 Imperial Troops p 13 ISBN 1 85532 121 1 Jouineau Andre 14 February 2019 L Armee de Napoleon III dans la Guerre 1870 p 79 ISBN 978 2 84048 511 7 Brooks Richard 21 April 2009 Soferino 1859 p 12 ISBN 978 1 84603 385 8 Hure 1977 pp 114 115 Jouineau Andre 14 February 2019 L Armee de Napoleon III dans la Guerre 1870 p 33 ISBN 978 2 84048 511 7 pages 35 38 La Gazette des Uniformes September 2005 Shann Stephen 25 July 1991 French Army 1870 71 Franco Prussian War 2 Republican Troops p 8 ISBN 1 85532 135 1 a b Larcade 2000 p 188 Hure 1977 p 188 Larcade 2000 p 19 Larcade 2001 p 444 Jouineau 2009a pp 46 47 Jouineau 2009a pp 52 53 Notice descriptive des nouveaux uniformes Decision ministerielle du 9 decembre 1914 mise a jour avec le modificatif du 28 janvier 1915 in French Paris Ministere de la Guerre 1915 Retrieved 2021 07 30 via Bibliotheque Nationale de France Jouineau Andre 15 January 2011 Officers and Soldiers of the French Army 1940 p 52 ISBN 978 2 35250 179 4 Funcken JLiliane et Fred 1981 L Uuniformen et les Armes des Soldats du XIX Siecle 2 p 44 ISBN 2 203 14325 8 Furlong Charles Wellington 1914 Turcos And The Legion The Spahis The Zouaves The Tirailleurs And The Foreign Legion The World s Work Second War Manual The Conduct of the War 35 37 Hure 1977 pp 324 330 Hure 1977 pp 402 418 Windrow Martin 17 July 1995 The Algerian War 1954 62 pp 20 amp 44 ISBN 1 85532 516 0 Morgan Ted 31 January 2006 My Battle of Algiers pp 116 120 148 185 187 224 230 ISBN 978 0 06 085224 5 Hure 1977 p 463 Hure 1977 pp 461 462 Joseph Powell Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves London R Washburne 1871 at p 1 a b Joseph Powell Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves p 2 Joseph Powell Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves p 287 Howard R Marraro Canadian and American Zouaves in the Papal Army 1868 1870 CCHA Report 12 1944 45 83 102 at 83 who cites the New York Herald June 10 1868 for the numbers Available online at http www umanitoba ca colleges st pauls ccha Back 20Issues CCHA1944 45 Marraro pdf Massimo Brandani pages 34 35 L Esercito Pontificio da Castelfidardo a Porta Pia published 1976 by Intergest Milano Joseph Powell Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves p 32 Joseph Powell Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves p 35 36 Victor Hugo s poem Mentana Readbookonline net Retrieved 2015 08 30 Joseph Powell Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves p 260 quoting the Evening Freeman September 29 1870 Joseph Powell Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves p 259 Stevenson Charles 19 December 2014 A Box of Sand The Italo Ottoman War 1911 1912 p 21 ISBN 9780957689275 Joseph Powell Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves p 260 Charles A Coulombe The Pope s Legion The Multinational Fighting Force that Defended the Vatican Palgrave Macmillan New York 2008 Joseph Powell Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves p 297pp pages 32 33 French Army 1870 71 Franco Prussian War Republican Troops ISBN 1 85532 135 1 Dyde Brian 1997 The Empty Sleeve The story of the West India Regiment of the British Army pp 149 150 ISBN 976 8163 09 7 R M Barnes page 276 Military Uniforms of Britain amp The Empire Sphere Books Ltd 1972 Whitewashing Civil War History Archived February 9 2012 at the Wayback Machine U S Civil War Zouave Uniform Jacket National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institution Retrieved 2008 06 12 Tevis C V Marquis D R 1911 The History of the Fighting Fourteenth Published in Commemoration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Muster of the Regiment Into the United States Service May 23 1861 New York Brooklyn Eagle Press Smith 1996 p 30 Smith 1996 p 55 Coates Earl J Mcafee Michael J Troiani Don 2006 Don Troiani s Civil War Zouaves Chasseurs Special Branches amp Officers 1st ed Mechanicsburg Pennsylvania Stackpole Books p 15 ISBN 0 8117 3320 3 Winters p 16 Parade Ground Soldiers J Phillip Langellier ISBN 0 87020 174 3 Bringing the pages of history to life for SCV students Signalscv com 2014 05 09 Retrieved 2015 08 30 Don Jose Bueno plate 5 Uniformes Banderas y Organizacion de las Tropas Carlistas 1872 76 Alcaniz Fresno s Editores ISBN 978 84 96935 40 2 New York Times 27 December 1908 Esposito Gabriele 24 March 2015 Armies of the War of the Triple Alliance 1864 70 p 46 ISBN 978 1 4728 0725 0 Ibidem Kraay 2004 Esposito Gabriele 21 August 2018 Armies of the War of the Italian Wars of Unification 1848 70 2 p 36 ISBN 978 1 4728 2624 4 Larcade 2001 pp 544 545 Mirouze Laurent 2007 The French Army in the First World War p 186 ISBN 978 3 902526 09 0 Carman W Y 1977 A Dictionary of Military Uniform p 139 ISBN 0 684 15130 8 Bueno Jose 1989 Los Regulares pp 18 19 ISBN 84 86629 23 3 Piero Crociani Figures 7 19 Le Uniformi Coloniali Libiche 1912 1942 Quaderni D Appunti La Rocci 1980 Dyde Brian 1997 The Empty Sleeve The Story of the West India Regiments of the British Army pp 149 150 ISBN 976 8163 09 7 Shann Stephen Delperier Louis 1991 French Army 1870 71 Franco Prussian War Volume 1 Imperial Troops Men at Arms Illustrated by Jeffrey Burn Osprey Publishing ISBN 978 1 85532 121 2 Larcade 2001 p 550 Hure 1977 p 80 Pierre Rosiere Spahis des spahis algeriens aux gardes rouges de Dakar pages 53 56 Editions Xavier Paris 1984 Dufour Pierre 1999 1er Regiment de Tirailleurs pp 44 45 ISBN 2 7025 0439 6 Larcade 2000 pp 44 45 Rinaldo D Ami pages 44 46 World Uniforms in Colour SBN 85059 040 X Cassin Scott Jack 1973 Ceremonial Uniforms of the World pp 44 amp 72 ISBN 0 903792 03 6 Harrap s Shorter French and English Dictionary Smith Leanne 2012 08 23 Peek Through Time Jackson s fast stepping Zouaves took Hollywood by storm in 1954 filming of The Court Jester mlive Retrieved 2021 01 13 The Playhouse Joseph M Schenck Free Download amp Streaming Internet Archive Retrieved 2015 08 30 Bibliography Edit Hure Robert ed 1977 L Armee d Afrique 1830 1962 Paris Charles Lavauzelle OCLC 757208988 Jouineau Andre 2009a 2008 Officiers et soldats de l armee francaise Tome 1 1914 Officers and Soldiers of the French Army Volume I 1914 Officers and Soldiers 11 Translated by McKay Alan Paris Histoire amp Collections ISBN 978 2 35250 104 6 Jouineau Andre 2009b 2009 Officiers et soldats de l armee francaise Tome 2 1915 1918 Officers and Soldiers of the French Army Volume II 1915 18 Officers and Soldiers 12 Translated by McKay Alan Paris Histoire amp Collections ISBN 978 2 35250 105 3 Larcade Jean Louis 2000 Zouaves et Tirailleurs les regiments de marche et les regiments mixtes 1914 1918 Vol I Livet Normandie Editions des Argonautes ISBN 2 95 151710 6 Larcade Jean Louis 2001 Zouaves et Tirailleurs les regiments de marche et les regiments mixtes 1914 1918 Vol II Livet Normandie Editions des Argonautes ISBN 2 95 151711 4 Smith Robin 1996 American Civil War Zouaves Elite London Osprey ISBN 978 1 85 532571 5 Sumner Ian 1995 The French Army 1914 18 Men at Arms London Osprey ISBN 978 1 85 532516 6 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Zouaves Zouave Database Online Van Gogh portrait of a Zouave soldier Lithograph of a Zouave soldier by Lucien Lefevre 1898 for Absinthe Mugnier Remington 1863 Zouave Rifle Les Zouaves French Photograph of Alfred Laroque a Canadian Papal Zouave taken at Montreal Quebec in 1868 by William Notman 1826 1891 housed in the McCord Museum in Montreal Laroque is posed seated and wears three medals 1 The Papal Zouaves America s Zouaves article by Robert Lebling Texts on Wikisource Zouaves New International Encyclopedia 1905 Zouaves The Nuttall Encyclopaedia 1907 Zouave Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th ed 1911 Zouaves The New Student s Reference Work 1914 Zouave Encyclopedia Americana 1920 Zouave Collier s New Encyclopedia 1921 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zouave amp oldid 1051721654, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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