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Zulfiqar (tank)

For other uses, see Zulfiqar (disambiguation).

Zulfiqar (ذوالفقار) is an Iranian main battle tank, conceived by Brigadier General Mir-Younes Masoumzadeh, deputy ground force commander for research and self-sufficiency of the armed forces. It is named after Zulfiqar, the legendary sword of Ali the fourth Caliph and the first Shiite Imam. It's also known as Zolfaqar.

Zulfiqar
A newly built Iranian Army Zulfiqar-3 on display in 2013
TypeMain battle tank
Service history
Used byIslamic Republic of Iran
Production history
DesignerResearchs and Self-Sufficiency Jihad Organization of Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Force
Designed1993- Zulfiqar-1 2012- Zulfiqar-3
ManufacturerShahid Kolah Dooz Industrial Complex
Produced1996–present
No. built~150 Zulfiqar-1 in 2012 150 Zulfiqar-3
VariantsZulfiqar 1, Zulfiqar 2, Zulfiqar 3
Specifications (Zulfiqar 3)
Mass52 tonnes
Length9.20 m (30 ft 2 in)
Width3.6 m (11 ft 10 in)
Height2.5 m (8 ft 2 in)
Crew3

Armorcomposite armour
Main
armament
125 mm smoothbore tank gun
Secondary
armament
12.7 mm and 7.62 mm machine guns
Engine12-cyl. diesel
Zulfiqar 1: 780 hp (630 kW) Zulfiqar 3: AVDS-1790 1000 hp
Power/weight21.7 hp/ton (Zulfiqar 1),17.85 hp/ton (zulfiqar 3)
Transmission6-gear SPAT 1200 automatic transmission
Suspensiontorsion-bar
Operational
range
450 km (280 mi)
Maximum speed70 km/h (43 mph)

The test prototypes of the tank were evaluated in 1993. Six semi-industrial prototypes of the tank were produced and tested in 1997.

Contents

Features

The tank has a distinctive box-shaped, steel-welded turret of local design. The Zulfiqar is believed to be developed from major components of the Soviet T-72 and American M48 and M60 tanks. The suspension is modelled on the M48 /M60 Patton tanks supplied to Iran by the U.S. The SPAT 1200 transmission also seems to be a local development of that of the M-60. Zulfiqar-1's combat weight has been reported to be 36 tonnes with a 780 hp diesel engine; giving the tank a 21.7 hp per ton ratio. Some sources see resemblances between the Zulfiqar design and the Brazilian prototype Osório.

The Zulfiqar is operated by a crew of three personnel. The automatic loader is believed to be the same one from the T-72 tank.

On 25 October 2016, Iran had successfully tested an active protection system on the Zulfiqar, based on pulse-doppler and phased-array radar systems equipped with four arms systems that can cover a full 360-degrees of sight.

Armament

The tank is armed with a 125 mm smoothbore gun 2A46 derived from that of the T-72, which is fitted with a fume extractor. Its secondary armament consists of a 7.62 mm coaxial and a 12.7 mm machine gun. For the Zulfiqar/T-72 fleet, the Ammunition Group of the Iranian Defense Industries Organization mass-produces a standard high explosive 23 kilograms (51 lb) propellant charge which fires the 3 kg warhead at a muzzle velocity of 850 metres per second (2,800 ft/s).

The Zulfiqar-1 uses the Slovenian EFCS-3 fire control system, the same model used on the Type 72Z ("Safir-74"), providing 'fire-on-the-move' technology. The Zulfiqar allegedly mounts a laser-warning pod on the turret. Its design enables the tank to use an Iranian-made package of reactive armor.

In April 1997 Acting Commander of the Ground Forces of the Iranian Army, Lieutenant General Mohammad Reza Ashtiani announced that the mass production of Zulfiqar tanks, which began in 1996, was still in progress. He stated that the manufacture of 520 different kinds of tank parts, 600 artillery parts, repair of 500 tanks and armored vehicles have been carried out. In late July 1997 Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani formally inaugurated a production line for the domestically manufactured Zulfiqar main battle tanks and Boragh tracked armoured personnel carrier. The facility, the Shahid Kolah Dooz Industrial Complex, will also produce the BMP-2 armored personnel carrier.

Zulfiqar-1

The Zulfiqar-1 is based on the M48 Patton model acquired under the pre-revolution era. The Zulfiqar-1 was first revealed in public in 1994. A total of six prototypes were completed and field tested in 1997. The Zulfiqar-1 is protected by a welded steel hull and the turret is reinforced by a composite armour. The Zulfiqar-1 is armed with a 125mm Smoothbore gun taken from a T-72. At least 150 were produced.

A side view of the Zulfiqar-1

Zulfiqar-2

The Zulfiqar-2 is an interim main battle tank prototype used as a test bed. This variant is fitted with a new and more powerful engine. It has an extended chassis and possibly uses an improved autoloader.

Zulfiqar-3

The Zulfiqar-3, the most advanced variant of the Zulfiqar family, bears an uncanny resemblance to the American M1 Abrams. It features considerable upgrades to the fire-control system, chassis, engine and main gun. The new variant is equipped with the 2A46 125 mm smoothbore cannon with an autoloader, a laser rangefinder and a new fire-control system. It is also fitted with a reinforced turret and the wheels are covered by an armoured skirt. Research and development on the tank was completed[by whom?] in 1999 and the tank appeared in a military parade in 2011. Around 100 built, unknown current production status. Some estimates put it as high as 250.

Zulfiqar-3 MBT with camo netting and ERA bricks

Current operators

  • Iran - At least 150 Zulfiqar 1, and 100-250 Zulfiqar-3.
  1. Iranian Ground Forces Equipment Archived 2010-03-03 at the Wayback Machine globalsecurity.com
  2. "The Iranian Zulfiqar Main Battle Tank". www.tanknutdave.com. Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. RetrievedFebruary 12, 2010.
  3. "Zulfiqar Main Battle Tank - Iranian ground forces 1993". tanks-encyclopedia.com. Retrieved2021-02-23.
  4. "Zulfiqar".
  5. John Pike. "Zulfiqar". Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved13 November 2014.
  6. Cordesman & Kleiber, page 46
  7. Tucker, Spencer (2004). Tanks: an illustrated history of their impact. ABC-CLIO, p. 164. ISBN 1-57607-995-3
  8. "DIO Zulfiqar". www.militaryfactory.com. Retrieved2021-02-23.
  9. "Strategy Page, 25 November 1999, article signed by Stephen V. Cole". Archived from the original on 1 February 2010. Retrieved13 February 2010.
  10. Iran tested its first home-made Active Protection System (APS) mounted on Zolfaqar tanks Archived 2016-10-26 at the Wayback Machine - Armyrecognition.com, 25 October 216
  11. "Commander: Upgraded Zolfaqar Tanks under Field Tests". Archived from the original on 2010-09-11. Retrieved2010-09-06.
  12. "Zulfiqar Zolfaqar 1 main battle tank technical data sheet specifications description pictures video | Iran Iranian army heavy armoured main battle tank UK | Iran Iranian army military equipment armoured UK".
  13. "Zulfiqar 2 Main Battle Tank". Archived from the original on 2009-12-16. Retrieved2010-04-06.
  14. "The Zulfiqar 2 main battle tank". Archived from the original on 2009-12-16. Retrieved2010-04-06.
  15. "Iranian Army plans to unveil tomorrow optimized version of its home-made main battle tank Zolfaqar". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved13 November 2014.
  16. "Iran to Unveil New Generation of Zolfaqar Tanks". Archived from the original on 2012-03-01. Retrieved2010-05-18.
  17. "Latest generation of Iranian-made main battle tank Zulfiqar with new reactive armor". June 4, 2013. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. RetrievedJune 9, 2013.
  18. Zulfiqar 3 Zolfaqar main battle tank technical data sheet specifications description pictures video
  • Cordesman, Anthony H. & Kleiber, Martin (2007). Iran's Military Forces and Warfighting Capabilities: The Threat in the Northern Gulf. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-34612-7
Wikimedia Commons has media related toZulfiqar tanks.

Zulfiqar (tank)
Zulfiqar tank Language Watch Edit For other uses see Zulfiqar disambiguation Zulfiqar ذوالفقار is an Iranian main battle tank conceived by Brigadier General Mir Younes Masoumzadeh deputy ground force commander for research and self sufficiency of the armed forces It is named after Zulfiqar the legendary sword of Ali the fourth Caliph and the first Shiite Imam 3 It s also known as Zolfaqar 4 ZulfiqarA newly built Iranian Army Zulfiqar 3 on display in 2013TypeMain battle tankService historyUsed byIslamic Republic of IranProduction historyDesignerResearchs and Self Sufficiency Jihad Organization of Islamic Republic of Iran Ground ForceDesigned1993 Zulfiqar 1 2012 Zulfiqar 3ManufacturerShahid Kolah Dooz Industrial ComplexProduced1996 presentNo built 150 Zulfiqar 1 in 2012 1 150 Zulfiqar 3VariantsZulfiqar 1 Zulfiqar 2 Zulfiqar 3Specifications Zulfiqar 3 Mass52 tonnesLength9 20 m 30 ft 2 in Width3 6 m 11 ft 10 in Height2 5 m 8 ft 2 in Crew3Armorcomposite armourMain armament125 mm smoothbore tank gunSecondary armament12 7 mm and 7 62 mm machine gunsEngine12 cyl diesel Zulfiqar 1 780 hp 630 kW Zulfiqar 3 AVDS 1790 1000 hp 2 Power weight21 7 hp ton Zulfiqar 1 17 85 hp ton zulfiqar 3 Transmission6 gear SPAT 1200 automatic transmissionSuspensiontorsion barOperational range450 km 280 mi Maximum speed70 km h 43 mph The test prototypes of the tank were evaluated in 1993 Six semi industrial prototypes of the tank were produced and tested in 1997 5 Contents 1 Design specifications 1 1 Features 1 2 Armament 2 Production 3 Variants 3 1 Zulfiqar 1 3 2 Zulfiqar 2 3 3 Zulfiqar 3 4 Operators 4 1 Current operators 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksDesign specifications EditFeatures Edit The tank has a distinctive box shaped steel welded turret of local design 6 The Zulfiqar is believed to be developed from major components of the Soviet T 72 and American M48 and M60 tanks 7 The suspension is modelled on the M48 M60 Patton tanks supplied to Iran by the U S The SPAT 1200 transmission also seems to be a local development of that of the M 60 Zulfiqar 1 s combat weight has been reported to be 36 tonnes with a 780 hp diesel engine giving the tank a 21 7 hp per ton ratio 6 Some sources see resemblances between the Zulfiqar design and the Brazilian prototype Osorio 6 The Zulfiqar is operated by a crew of three personnel The automatic loader is believed to be the same one from the T 72 tank 8 9 On 25 October 2016 Iran had successfully tested an active protection system on the Zulfiqar based on pulse doppler and phased array radar systems equipped with four arms systems that can cover a full 360 degrees of sight 10 Armament Edit The tank is armed with a 125 mm smoothbore gun 2A46 derived from that of the T 72 which is fitted with a fume extractor Its secondary armament consists of a 7 62 mm coaxial and a 12 7 mm machine gun For the Zulfiqar T 72 fleet the Ammunition Group of the Iranian Defense Industries Organization mass produces a standard high explosive 23 kilograms 51 lb propellant charge which fires the 3 kg warhead at a muzzle velocity of 850 metres per second 2 800 ft s 11 The Zulfiqar 1 uses the Slovenian EFCS 3 fire control system the same model used on the Type 72Z Safir 74 providing fire on the move technology The Zulfiqar allegedly mounts a laser warning pod on the turret Its design enables the tank to use an Iranian made package of reactive armor 6 Production EditIn April 1997 Acting Commander of the Ground Forces of the Iranian Army Lieutenant General Mohammad Reza Ashtiani announced that the mass production of Zulfiqar tanks which began in 1996 was still in progress 12 He stated that the manufacture of 520 different kinds of tank parts 600 artillery parts repair of 500 tanks and armored vehicles have been carried out In late July 1997 Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani formally inaugurated a production line for the domestically manufactured Zulfiqar main battle tanks and Boragh tracked armoured personnel carrier 3 The facility the Shahid Kolah Dooz Industrial Complex will also produce the BMP 2 armored personnel carrier 5 3 Variants EditZulfiqar 1 Edit The Zulfiqar 1 is based on the M48 Patton model acquired under the pre revolution era The Zulfiqar 1 was first revealed in public in 1994 A total of six prototypes were completed and field tested in 1997 The Zulfiqar 1 is protected by a welded steel hull and the turret is reinforced by a composite armour The Zulfiqar 1 is armed with a 125mm Smoothbore gun taken from a T 72 At least 150 were produced 8 A side view of the Zulfiqar 1 Zulfiqar 2 Edit The Zulfiqar 2 is an interim main battle tank prototype used as a test bed This variant is fitted with a new and more powerful engine It has an extended chassis and possibly uses an improved autoloader 13 14 Zulfiqar 3 Edit The Zulfiqar 3 15 the most advanced variant of the Zulfiqar family bears an uncanny resemblance to the American M1 Abrams It features considerable upgrades to the fire control system chassis 4 engine and main gun The new variant is equipped with the 2A46 125 mm smoothbore cannon with an autoloader a laser rangefinder and a new fire control system 8 11 16 It is also fitted with a reinforced turret and the wheels are covered by an armoured skirt 17 Research and development on the tank was completed by whom in 1999 and the tank appeared in a military parade in 2011 18 Around 100 built unknown current production status 8 Some estimates put it as high as 250 4 Zulfiqar 3 MBT with camo netting and ERA bricksOperators EditCurrent operators Edit Iran At least 150 Zulfiqar 1 and 100 250 Zulfiqar 3 8 See also EditList of main battle tanks by generationNotes Edit Iranian Ground Forces Equipment Archived 2010 03 03 at the Wayback Machine globalsecurity com The Iranian Zulfiqar Main Battle Tank www tanknutdave com Archived from the original on May 3 2011 Retrieved February 12 2010 a b c Zulfiqar Main Battle Tank Iranian ground forces 1993 tanks encyclopedia com Retrieved 2021 02 23 a b c Zulfiqar a b John Pike Zulfiqar Archived from the original on 13 November 2014 Retrieved 13 November 2014 a b c d Cordesman amp Kleiber page 46 Tucker Spencer 2004 Tanks an illustrated history of their impact ABC CLIO p 164 ISBN 1 57607 995 3 a b c d e DIO Zulfiqar www militaryfactory com Retrieved 2021 02 23 Strategy Page 25 November 1999 article signed by Stephen V Cole Archived from the original on 1 February 2010 Retrieved 13 February 2010 Iran tested its first home made Active Protection System APS mounted on Zolfaqar tanks Archived 2016 10 26 at the Wayback Machine Armyrecognition com 25 October 216 a b Commander Upgraded Zolfaqar Tanks under Field Tests Archived from the original on 2010 09 11 Retrieved 2010 09 06 Zulfiqar Zolfaqar 1 main battle tank technical data sheet specifications description pictures video Iran Iranian army heavy armoured main battle tank UK Iran Iranian army military equipment armoured UK Zulfiqar 2 Main Battle Tank Archived from the original on 2009 12 16 Retrieved 2010 04 06 The Zulfiqar 2 main battle tank Archived from the original on 2009 12 16 Retrieved 2010 04 06 Iranian Army plans to unveil tomorrow optimized version of its home made main battle tank Zolfaqar Archived from the original on 23 September 2015 Retrieved 13 November 2014 Iran to Unveil New Generation of Zolfaqar Tanks Archived from the original on 2012 03 01 Retrieved 2010 05 18 Latest generation of Iranian made main battle tank Zulfiqar with new reactive armor June 4 2013 Archived from the original on September 23 2015 Retrieved June 9 2013 Zulfiqar 3 Zolfaqar main battle tank technical data sheet specifications description pictures videoReferences EditCordesman Anthony H amp Kleiber Martin 2007 Iran s Military Forces and Warfighting Capabilities The Threat in the Northern Gulf Greenwood Publishing Group ISBN 0 313 34612 7External links EditExternal mediaImages Zulfiqar 3 Zulfiqar 2 Zulfiqar 1Video Zulfiqar 3 videoDescription of the different versions in French ACIG org Photos of the Zulfiqar 3 at a 2003 parade in TehranWikimedia Commons has media related to Zulfiqar tanks Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zulfiqar tank amp oldid 1050492680, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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