fbpx
Wikipedia

Zulu Kingdom

This article is about the kingdom in Southern Africa. For other and related uses, see Zululand.

The Zulu Kingdom (, Zulu: KwaZulu), sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north.

Kingdom of Zululand
KwaZulu
1816–1897
Conjectural flag of Zululand (1884–1897) by Roberto Breschi taken from The South African Flag Book by A. P. Burgers
Location of the Zulu Kingdom, c. 1890 (red)
(borders in flux)
StatusProtectorate of the United Kingdom (1887–1897)
CapitalkwaBulawayo; umGungundlovu; Ulundi
Common languagesisiZulu
Religion
Zulu religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Heads of State
• 1816–1828
Shaka
• 1828–1840
Dingane
• 1840–1856
Mpande
• 1856–1884
Cetshwayo
• 1884–1887
Dinuzulu
History
• Death of Dingiswayo
1818
• Accession of Shaka
1816
1818
1820
1838
1879
• Annexation (British)
1887
• to Natal
1897
Area
1822207,000 km2 (80,000 sq mi)
Currencycattle
Today part ofSouth Africa

The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu-Natal and Southern Africa. In 1879, the British Empire invaded, beginning the Anglo-Zulu War. After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January, the British Army regrouped and defeated the Zulus in July during the Battle of Ulundi. The area was absorbed into the Colony of Natal and later became part of the Union of South Africa.

Contents

Rise under Shaka

Main article: Shaka
Further information: Zulu royal family

Shaka was the illegitimate son of Senzangakhona, Chief of the Zulus. He was born c. 1787. He and his mother, Nandi, were exiled by Senzangakhona, and found refuge with the Mthethwa. Shaka fought as a warrior under Jobe, and then under Jobe's successor, Dingiswayo, leader of the Mthethwa Paramountcy. When Senzangakona died, Dingiswayo helped Shaka become king of the Zulu. After Dingiswayo's death at the hands of Zwide, king of the Ndwandwe, around 1818, Shaka assumed leadership of the entire Mthethwa alliance.

Shaka initiated many military, social, cultural and political reforms, forming a well-organized and centralised Zulu state. The most important reforms involved the transformation of the army, through the innovative tactics and weapons, and a showdown with the spiritual leadership, witchdoctors, effectively ensuring the subservience of the "Zulu church" to the state.

Drawing of King Shaka (c. 1824)

Another important reform integrated defeated clans into the Zulu, on a basis of full equality, with promotions in the army and civil service becoming a matter of merit rather than due to circumstances of birth.

The alliance under his leadership survived Zwide's first assault at the Battle of Gqokli Hill (1818). Within two years, Shaka had defeated Zwide at the Battle of Mhlatuze River (1820) and broken up the Ndwandwe alliance, some of whom in turn began a murderous campaign against other Nguni tribes and clans, setting in motion what became known as Difaqane or Mfecane, a mass-migration of tribes fleeing the remnants of the Ndwandwe fleeing the Zulu. The death toll has never been satisfactorily determined, but the whole region became nearly depopulated. Normal estimates for the death toll during this period range from 1 million to 2 million people. These numbers are however controversial. By 1822, Shaka had conquered an empire covering an area of around 80,000 square miles (210,000 km2).

An offshoot of the Zulu, the amaNdebele, better known to history as the Matabele created an even larger empire under their king Mzilikazi, including large parts of the highveld and modern-day Zimbabwe.

Dingane's reign

Map illustrating the rise of the Zulu Empire under Shaka (1816–1828) in present-day South Africa. The rise of the Zulu Empire forced other chiefdoms and clans to flee across a wide area of southern Africa. Clans fleeing the Zulu war zone included the Soshangane, Zwangendaba, Ndebele, Hlubi, Ngwane, and the Mfengu. A number of clans were caught between the Zulu Empire and advancing Voortrekkers and British Empire such as the Xhosa . East of the green area was the land of the Mpondo under their king Faku and their brother clan the Mpondomise. Faku created a No Man's Land as a buffer between his kingdom and the Zulu.
King Dingane
(Artist: Allen Francis Gardiner)

Shaka was succeeded by Dingane, his half-brother, who conspired with Mhlangana, another half-brother, and Mbopa, an induna, to murder him in 1828. Following this assassination, Dingane murdered Mhlangana, and took over the throne. One of his first royal acts was to execute all of his royal kin. In the years that followed, he also executed many past supporters of Shaka in order to secure his position. One exception to these purges was Mpande, another half-brother, who was considered too weak to be a threat at the time.

Clashes with Voortrekkers

Military innovations such as the assegai, the age-grade regimental system and encirclement tactics helped make the Zulu one of the most powerful clans in southern and south-eastern Africa.

Before encountering the British, the Zulus were first confronted with the Boers. In an attempt to form their own state as a protection against the British, the Boers began moving across the Orange River northwards. While travelling they first collided with the Ndebele kingdom, and then with Dingane's Zulu kingdom.

In October 1837, the Voortrekker leader Piet Retief visited Dingane at his royal kraal to negotiate a land deal for the voortrekkers. In November, about 1,000 Voortrekker wagons began descending the Drakensberg mountains from the Orange Free State into what is now KwaZulu-Natal.[citation needed]

Dingane asked that Retief and his party retrieve some cattle stolen from him by a local chief as part of the treaty for land for the Boers. This Retief and his men did, returning on 3 February 1838. The next day, a treaty was signed, wherein Dingane ceded all the land south of the Tugela River to the Mzimvubu River to the Voortrekkers. Celebrations followed. On 6 February, at the end of the celebrations, Retief's party were invited to a dance, and asked to leave their weapons behind. At the peak of the dance, Dingane leapt to his feet and yelled "Bambani abathakathi!" (isiZulu for "Seize the wizards"). Retief and his men were overpowered, taken to the nearby hill kwaMatiwane, and executed. Some allege that they were killed for withholding some of the cattle they recovered, but it is likely that the deal was a plot to overpower the Voortrekkers. Dingane's army then attacked and massacred a group of 250 Voortrekker men, women and children camped nearby. The site of this massacre is today called Weenen, (Dutch for "to weep").

The remaining Voortrekkers elected a new leader, Andries Pretorius, who led a crushing attack on the Zulu forces and Dingane at the Battle of Blood River on 16 December 1838, when 15,000 Zulu impis (warriors) attacked a group of 470 Voortrekker settlers led by Pretorius.

Mpande's reign

King Mpande
(Artist: George French Angas)

Following his defeat, Dingane burned his royal household and fled north. Mpande, the half-brother who had been spared from Dingane's purges, defected with 17,000 followers, and, together with Pretorius and the Voortrekkers, went to war with Dingane. Dingane was assassinated near the modern Swaziland border. Mpande then took over rulership of the Zulu nation.

Following the campaign against Dingane, in 1839 the Voortrekkers, under Pretorius, formed the Boer republic of Natalia, south of the Tugela, and west of the British settlement of Port Natal (now Durban). Mpande and Pretorius maintained peaceful relations. However, in 1842, war broke out between the British and the Boers, resulting in the British annexation of Natalia. Mpande shifted his allegiance to the British, and remained on good terms with them.

In 1843, Mpande ordered a purge of perceived dissidents within his kingdom. This resulted in numerous deaths, and the fleeing of thousands of refugees into neighbouring areas (including the British-controlled Natal). Many of these refugees fled with cattle. Mpande began raiding the surrounding areas, culminating in the invasion of Swaziland in 1852. However, the British pressured him into withdrawing, which he did shortly.

Cetshwayo's reign

King Cetshwayo (c. 1875)

At this time, a battle for the succession broke out between two of Mpande's sons, Cetshwayo and Mbuyazi. This culminated in 1856 with the Battle of Ndondakusuka, which left Mbuyazi dead. Cetshwayo then set about usurping his father's authority. When Mpande died of old age in 1872, Cetshwayo took over as ruler.

British Conquest

Main article: Anglo-Zulu War

On 11 December 1878, with the intent of instigating a war with the Zulu, Sir Henry Bartle Frere, on his own initiative and without the approval of the British government, presented an ultimatum to the Zulu king Cetshwayo in terms with which he could not possibly comply: that the Zulu army be disbanded and the Zulus accept a British resident. British forces crossed the Tugela river at the end of December 1878. Initially, the British suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 where the Zulu army killed more than 1,000 British soldiers in a single day. The Zulu deployment at Isandhlwana showed the well-organized tactical system that had made the Zulu kingdom successful for many decades. This constituted the worst defeat the British army had ever suffered at the hands of a native African fighting force. The defeat prompted a redirection of the war effort, and the British, though outnumbered, began winning victories, culminating in the Siege of Ulundi, the Zulus' capital city, and the subsequent defeat of the Zulu Kingdom.

Division and the death of Cetshwayo

Cetshwayo was captured a month after his defeat, and then exiled to Cape Town. The British passed rule of the Zulu kingdom onto 13 "kinglets", each with his own subkingdom. Conflict soon erupted between these subkingdoms, and in 1882, Cetshwayo was allowed to visit England. He had audiences with Queen Victoria and other famous personages before being allowed to return to Zululand to be reinstated as king.

In 1883, Cetshwayo was put in place as king over a buffer reserve territory, much reduced from his original kingdom. Later that year, however, Cetshwayo was attacked at Ulundi by Zibhebhu, one of the 13 kinglets. Cetshwayo was wounded and fled. Cetshwayo died in February 1884, possibly poisoned. His son, Dinuzulu, then 15, inherited the throne.

The academic Roberto Breschi notes that Zululand had a flag from 1884 to 1897 but this is pure conjecture as A.P. Burgers notes in his book. It consisted of three horizontal bands in equal width of gold, green and red.

Dinuzulu's reign and exile

King Dinuzulu (c. 1883)

Dinuzulu made a pact with the Boers of his own, promising them land in return for their aid. The Boers were led by Louis Botha. Dinuzulu and the Boers defeated Zibhebhu in 1884. They were granted about half of Zululand individually as farms, and formed the independent Republic of Vryheid. This alarmed the British who wanted to prevent the Boers access to a harbour. The British then annexed Zululand in 1897. Dinuzulu became involved in later conflicts with rivals. In 1906 Dinuzulu was accused of being behind the Bambatha Rebellion. He was arrested and put on trial by the British for "high treason and public violence". In 1909, he was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment on St Helena island. When the Union of South Africa was formed, Louis Botha became its first prime minister, and he arranged for his old ally Dinuzulu to return to South Africa and live in exile on a farm in the Transvaal, where he died in 1913.

Dinuzulu's son Solomon kaDinuzulu was never recognised by South African authorities as the Zulu king, only as a local chief, but he was increasingly regarded as king by chiefs, by political intellectuals such as John Langalibalele Dube and by ordinary Zulu people. In 1923, Solomon founded the organisation Inkatha YaKwaZulu to promote his royal claims, which became moribund and then was revived in the 1970s by Mangosuthu Buthelezi, chief minister of the KwaZulu bantustan. In December 1951, Solomon's son Cyprian Bhekuzulu kaSolomon was officially recognised as the Paramount Chief of the Zulu people, but real power over ordinary Zulu people lay with South African government officials working through local chiefs who could be removed from office for failure to cooperate.

KwaZulu Bantustan

KwaZulu was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Zulu people. The capital was moved from Nongoma to Ulundi in 1980.

It was led until its abolition in 1994 by Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi of the Zulu royal family and head of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP). It was merged with the surrounding South African province of Natal to form the new province of KwaZulu-Natal.

The name kwaZulu translates roughly as Place of Zulus, or more formally Zululand.

Contemporary Zululand

Main articles: Zulu people and KwaZulu-Natal

The area that was once the Zulu Kingdom is currently part of South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal, one of the country's nine provinces, and a large portion of the territory is made up of wildlife reserves and a major contributing source of income is derived from tourism – the area is known for its savanna covered hills. It is home to a WWF Black Rhinoceros reintroduction project known as "The Black Rhino Range Expansion Project" within the Zululand Rhino Reserve (ZRR). The ZRR is a 20,000 hectare reserve consisting of 15 individually owned farms that have lowered their fences in order to further conservation. The Zulu royal family still fulfils many important ceremonial duties.

This article includes a list of general references, but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.(July 2009) ()
  1. Gluckman, Max (1960)."The Rise of a Zulu Empire". Scientific American. 202 (4): 162. Bibcode:1960SciAm.202d.157G. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0460-157. ISSN 0036-8733. JSTOR 24940454. Retrieved7 July 2020. By 1822 he had made himself master over 80,000 square miles
  2. "Zululand | historical region, South Africa". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved27 May 2020.
  3. "South African History Online".
  4. "New History of South Africa". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved18 July 2012.
  5. Wilkinson, Stephan (14 March 2017). "Shaka Zulu: Africa's Napoleon?". HistoryNet. Retrieved27 May 2020.
  6. Walter, Eugene Victor (1969). Terror and Resistance: A Study of Political Violence, with Case Studies of Some Primitive African Communities. ISBN 9780195015621.
  7. Charters, R. A. (Major, Royal Artillery) (1839). "Notices of the Cape And Southern Africa, Since The Appointment, As Governor, Of Major-Gen. Sir Geo. Napier". United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine. London: Henry Colburn. 1839, Part III (September, October, November): 19–25, 171–179, 352–359.
  8. Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition
  9. Hanson, Victor Davis (2001). Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise to Western Power. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-307-42518-8.
  10. "Zulu Kingdom".
  11. Martin Meredith, Diamonds Gold and War, (New York: Public Affairs, 2007):5
  12. Knight, Ian (2004). Zulu War. Osprey. p. 11.
  13. Conjectural flag of Zululand (1884–1897) by Roberto Breschi taken from The South African Flag Book by A.P.Burgers
Wikimedia Commons has media related toKingdom of Zulu.

Coordinates:28°17′51″S31°25′18″E /28.29750°S 31.42167°E /-28.29750; 31.42167

Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom Language Watch Edit This article is about the kingdom in Southern Africa For other and related uses see Zululand The Zulu Kingdom z uː l uː Zulu KwaZulu sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north 2 Kingdom of ZululandKwaZulu1816 1897Conjectural flag of Zululand 1884 1897 by Roberto Breschi taken from The South African Flag Book by A P BurgersLocation of the Zulu Kingdom c 1890 red borders in flux StatusProtectorate of the United Kingdom 1887 1897 CapitalkwaBulawayo umGungundlovu UlundiCommon languagesisiZuluReligionZulu religionGovernmentMonarchyHeads of State 1816 1828Shaka 1828 1840Dingane 1840 1856Mpande 1856 1884Cetshwayo 1884 1887DinuzuluHistory Death of Dingiswayo1818 Accession of Shaka1816 Battle of Gqokli Hill1818 Battle of Mhlatuze River1820 Battle of Blood River1838 Anglo Zulu War1879 Annexation British 1887 to Natal1897Area1822 1 207 000 km2 80 000 sq mi CurrencycattlePreceded by Succeeded byMtetwa Paramountcy Natalia RepublicNieuwe RepubliekColony of NatalToday part ofSouth Africa The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is today KwaZulu Natal and Southern Africa 3 4 In 1879 the British Empire invaded beginning the Anglo Zulu War After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January the British Army regrouped and defeated the Zulus in July during the Battle of Ulundi The area was absorbed into the Colony of Natal and later became part of the Union of South Africa Contents 1 History 1 1 Rise under Shaka 1 2 Dingane s reign 1 2 1 Clashes with Voortrekkers 1 3 Mpande s reign 1 4 Cetshwayo s reign 1 4 1 British Conquest 1 4 2 Division and the death of Cetshwayo 1 5 Dinuzulu s reign and exile 2 Recent history 2 1 KwaZulu Bantustan 2 2 Contemporary Zululand 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksHistory EditRise under Shaka Edit Main article Shaka Further information Zulu royal family Shaka was the illegitimate son of Senzangakhona Chief of the Zulus He was born c 1787 He and his mother Nandi were exiled by Senzangakhona and found refuge with the Mthethwa Shaka fought as a warrior under Jobe and then under Jobe s successor Dingiswayo leader of the Mthethwa Paramountcy When Senzangakona died Dingiswayo helped Shaka become king of the Zulu After Dingiswayo s death at the hands of Zwide king of the Ndwandwe around 1818 Shaka assumed leadership of the entire Mthethwa alliance 5 Shaka initiated many military social cultural and political reforms forming a well organized and centralised Zulu state The most important reforms involved the transformation of the army through the innovative tactics and weapons and a showdown with the spiritual leadership witchdoctors effectively ensuring the subservience of the Zulu church to the state Drawing of King Shaka c 1824 Another important reform integrated defeated clans into the Zulu on a basis of full equality with promotions in the army and civil service becoming a matter of merit rather than due to circumstances of birth The alliance under his leadership survived Zwide s first assault at the Battle of Gqokli Hill 1818 Within two years Shaka had defeated Zwide at the Battle of Mhlatuze River 1820 and broken up the Ndwandwe alliance some of whom in turn began a murderous campaign against other Nguni tribes and clans setting in motion what became known as Difaqane or Mfecane a mass migration of tribes fleeing the remnants of the Ndwandwe fleeing the Zulu The death toll has never been satisfactorily determined but the whole region became nearly depopulated Normal estimates for the death toll during this period range from 1 million to 2 million people These numbers are however controversial 6 7 8 9 By 1822 Shaka had conquered an empire covering an area of around 80 000 square miles 210 000 km2 1 An offshoot of the Zulu the amaNdebele better known to history as the Matabele created an even larger empire under their king Mzilikazi including large parts of the highveld and modern day Zimbabwe Dingane s reign Edit Map illustrating the rise of the Zulu Empire under Shaka 1816 1828 in present day South Africa The rise of the Zulu Empire forced other chiefdoms and clans to flee across a wide area of southern Africa Clans fleeing the Zulu war zone included the Soshangane Zwangendaba Ndebele Hlubi Ngwane and the Mfengu A number of clans were caught between the Zulu Empire and advancing Voortrekkers and British Empire such as the Xhosa East of the green area was the land of the Mpondo under their king Faku and their brother clan the Mpondomise Faku created a No Man s Land as a buffer between his kingdom and the Zulu King Dingane Artist Allen Francis Gardiner Shaka was succeeded by Dingane his half brother who conspired with Mhlangana another half brother and Mbopa an induna to murder him in 1828 Following this assassination Dingane murdered Mhlangana and took over the throne One of his first royal acts was to execute all of his royal kin In the years that followed he also executed many past supporters of Shaka in order to secure his position One exception to these purges was Mpande another half brother who was considered too weak to be a threat at the time 10 Clashes with Voortrekkers Edit Military innovations such as the assegai the age grade regimental system and encirclement tactics helped make the Zulu one of the most powerful clans in southern and south eastern Africa Before encountering the British the Zulus were first confronted with the Boers In an attempt to form their own state as a protection against the British the Boers began moving across the Orange River northwards While travelling they first collided with the Ndebele kingdom and then with Dingane s Zulu kingdom 11 In October 1837 the Voortrekker leader Piet Retief visited Dingane at his royal kraal to negotiate a land deal for the voortrekkers In November about 1 000 Voortrekker wagons began descending the Drakensberg mountains from the Orange Free State into what is now KwaZulu Natal citation needed Dingane asked that Retief and his party retrieve some cattle stolen from him by a local chief as part of the treaty for land for the Boers This Retief and his men did returning on 3 February 1838 The next day a treaty was signed wherein Dingane ceded all the land south of the Tugela River to the Mzimvubu River to the Voortrekkers Celebrations followed On 6 February at the end of the celebrations Retief s party were invited to a dance and asked to leave their weapons behind At the peak of the dance Dingane leapt to his feet and yelled Bambani abathakathi isiZulu for Seize the wizards Retief and his men were overpowered taken to the nearby hill kwaMatiwane and executed Some allege that they were killed for withholding some of the cattle they recovered but it is likely that the deal was a plot to overpower the Voortrekkers Dingane s army then attacked and massacred a group of 250 Voortrekker men women and children camped nearby The site of this massacre is today called Weenen Dutch for to weep The remaining Voortrekkers elected a new leader Andries Pretorius who led a crushing attack on the Zulu forces and Dingane at the Battle of Blood River on 16 December 1838 when 15 000 Zulu impis warriors attacked a group of 470 Voortrekker settlers led by Pretorius Mpande s reign Edit King Mpande Artist George French Angas Following his defeat Dingane burned his royal household and fled north Mpande the half brother who had been spared from Dingane s purges defected with 17 000 followers and together with Pretorius and the Voortrekkers went to war with Dingane Dingane was assassinated near the modern Swaziland border Mpande then took over rulership of the Zulu nation Following the campaign against Dingane in 1839 the Voortrekkers under Pretorius formed the Boer republic of Natalia south of the Tugela and west of the British settlement of Port Natal now Durban Mpande and Pretorius maintained peaceful relations However in 1842 war broke out between the British and the Boers resulting in the British annexation of Natalia Mpande shifted his allegiance to the British and remained on good terms with them In 1843 Mpande ordered a purge of perceived dissidents within his kingdom This resulted in numerous deaths and the fleeing of thousands of refugees into neighbouring areas including the British controlled Natal Many of these refugees fled with cattle Mpande began raiding the surrounding areas culminating in the invasion of Swaziland in 1852 However the British pressured him into withdrawing which he did shortly 10 Cetshwayo s reign Edit King Cetshwayo c 1875 At this time a battle for the succession broke out between two of Mpande s sons Cetshwayo and Mbuyazi This culminated in 1856 with the Battle of Ndondakusuka which left Mbuyazi dead Cetshwayo then set about usurping his father s authority When Mpande died of old age in 1872 Cetshwayo took over as ruler British Conquest Edit Main article Anglo Zulu War The Battle of Isandlwana 1879 On 11 December 1878 with the intent of instigating a war with the Zulu Sir Henry Bartle Frere on his own initiative and without the approval of the British government presented an ultimatum to the Zulu king Cetshwayo in terms with which he could not possibly comply 12 that the Zulu army be disbanded and the Zulus accept a British resident British forces crossed the Tugela river at the end of December 1878 Initially the British suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 where the Zulu army killed more than 1 000 British soldiers in a single day The Zulu deployment at Isandhlwana showed the well organized tactical system that had made the Zulu kingdom successful for many decades This constituted the worst defeat the British army had ever suffered at the hands of a native African fighting force The defeat prompted a redirection of the war effort and the British though outnumbered began winning victories culminating in the Siege of Ulundi the Zulus capital city and the subsequent defeat of the Zulu Kingdom Division and the death of Cetshwayo Edit Cetshwayo was captured a month after his defeat and then exiled to Cape Town The British passed rule of the Zulu kingdom onto 13 kinglets each with his own subkingdom Conflict soon erupted between these subkingdoms and in 1882 Cetshwayo was allowed to visit England He had audiences with Queen Victoria and other famous personages before being allowed to return to Zululand to be reinstated as king 10 In 1883 Cetshwayo was put in place as king over a buffer reserve territory much reduced from his original kingdom Later that year however Cetshwayo was attacked at Ulundi by Zibhebhu one of the 13 kinglets Cetshwayo was wounded and fled Cetshwayo died in February 1884 possibly poisoned His son Dinuzulu then 15 inherited the throne 10 The academic Roberto Breschi notes that Zululand had a flag from 1884 to 1897 but this is pure conjecture as A P Burgers notes in his book 13 It consisted of three horizontal bands in equal width of gold green and red Dinuzulu s reign and exile Edit King Dinuzulu c 1883 Dinuzulu made a pact with the Boers of his own promising them land in return for their aid The Boers were led by Louis Botha Dinuzulu and the Boers defeated Zibhebhu in 1884 They were granted about half of Zululand individually as farms and formed the independent Republic of Vryheid This alarmed the British who wanted to prevent the Boers access to a harbour The British then annexed Zululand in 1897 Dinuzulu became involved in later conflicts with rivals In 1906 Dinuzulu was accused of being behind the Bambatha Rebellion He was arrested and put on trial by the British for high treason and public violence In 1909 he was sentenced to ten years imprisonment on St Helena island When the Union of South Africa was formed Louis Botha became its first prime minister and he arranged for his old ally Dinuzulu to return to South Africa and live in exile on a farm in the Transvaal where he died in 1913 10 Dinuzulu s son Solomon kaDinuzulu was never recognised by South African authorities as the Zulu king only as a local chief but he was increasingly regarded as king by chiefs by political intellectuals such as John Langalibalele Dube and by ordinary Zulu people In 1923 Solomon founded the organisation Inkatha YaKwaZulu to promote his royal claims which became moribund and then was revived in the 1970s by Mangosuthu Buthelezi chief minister of the KwaZulu bantustan In December 1951 Solomon s son Cyprian Bhekuzulu kaSolomon was officially recognised as the Paramount Chief of the Zulu people but real power over ordinary Zulu people lay with South African government officials working through local chiefs who could be removed from office for failure to cooperate 10 Recent history EditKwaZulu Bantustan Edit KwaZulu was a bantustan in South Africa intended by the apartheid government as a semi independent homeland for the Zulu people The capital was moved from Nongoma to Ulundi in 1980 It was led until its abolition in 1994 by Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi of the Zulu royal family and head of the Inkatha Freedom Party IFP It was merged with the surrounding South African province of Natal to form the new province of KwaZulu Natal The name kwaZulu translates roughly as Place of Zulus or more formally Zululand Contemporary Zululand Edit Main articles Zulu people and KwaZulu Natal The area that was once the Zulu Kingdom is currently part of South Africa s KwaZulu Natal one of the country s nine provinces and a large portion of the territory is made up of wildlife reserves and a major contributing source of income is derived from tourism the area is known for its savanna covered hills It is home to a WWF Black Rhinoceros reintroduction project known as The Black Rhino Range Expansion Project within the Zululand Rhino Reserve ZRR The ZRR is a 20 000 hectare reserve consisting of 15 individually owned farms that have lowered their fences in order to further conservation The Zulu royal family still fulfils many important ceremonial duties See also EditAfrican military innovation and change Anglo Zulu War List of Zulu kings Postage stamps and postal history of Zululand Shaka Zulu people Nguni stick fightingReferences EditThis article includes a list of general references but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations July 2009 Learn how and when to remove this template message a b Gluckman Max 1960 The Rise of a Zulu Empire Scientific American 202 4 162 Bibcode 1960SciAm 202d 157G doi 10 1038 scientificamerican0460 157 ISSN 0036 8733 JSTOR 24940454 Retrieved 7 July 2020 By 1822 he had made himself master over 80 000 square miles Zululand historical region South Africa Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 27 May 2020 South African History Online New History of South Africa Archived from the original on 29 October 2013 Retrieved 18 July 2012 Wilkinson Stephan 14 March 2017 Shaka Zulu Africa s Napoleon HistoryNet Retrieved 27 May 2020 Walter Eugene Victor 1969 Terror and Resistance A Study of Political Violence with Case Studies of Some Primitive African Communities ISBN 9780195015621 Charters R A Major Royal Artillery 1839 Notices of the Cape And Southern Africa Since The Appointment As Governor Of Major Gen Sir Geo Napier United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine London Henry Colburn 1839 Part III September October November 19 25 171 179 352 359 Encyclopaedia Britannica 15th edition Hanson Victor Davis 2001 Carnage and Culture Landmark Battles in the Rise to Western Power New York Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group p 313 ISBN 978 0 307 42518 8 a b c d e f Zulu Kingdom Martin Meredith Diamonds Gold and War New York Public Affairs 2007 5 Knight Ian 2004 Zulu War Osprey p 11 Conjectural flag of Zululand 1884 1897 by Roberto Breschi taken from The South African Flag Book by A P BurgersFurther reading EditBryant Alfred T 1964 A History of the Zulu and Neighbouring Tribes Cape Town C Struik p 157 Morris Donald R 1965 The Washing of the Spears the Rise of the Zulu Nation New York Simon and Schuster p 655 Deflem Mathieu 1999 Warfare Political Leadership and State Formation The Case of the Zulu Kingdom 1808 1879 Ethnology 38 4 371 391 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Kingdom of Zulu Afropop Worldwide s public radio program on Zulu Music The Zulu Factor People of Africa Zulu marriage explained An article on Piet Retief including his interactions with Dingane History section of the official page for the Zululand region Human Rights Watch report on KwaZulu just before the 1994 elections This includes detailed well referenced sections on recent Zulu history Coordinates 28 17 51 S 31 25 18 E 28 29750 S 31 42167 E 28 29750 31 42167 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Zulu Kingdom amp oldid 1050132098, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.