fbpx
Wikipedia

J

This article is about the letter of the alphabet. For other uses, see J (disambiguation).
For technical reasons, "J#" redirects here. For the programming language, see J Sharp.
For the Cyrillic letter Ј, see Je (Cyrillic).

J, or j, is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its usual name in English is jay (pronounced), with a now-uncommon variant jy. When used in the International Phonetic Alphabet for the y sound, it may be called yod or jod (pronounced or).

J
J j ȷ
(See below)
Usage
Writing systemLatin script
TypeAlphabetic
Language of originLatin language
Phonetic usage[j]
[]~[]
[x~h]
[ʒ]
[ɟ]
[ʝ]
[dz]
[]
[]
[t]~[]
[ʐ]
[ʃ]
[]
[i]

Unicode codepointU+004A, U+006A, U+0237
Alphabetical position10
History
Development
Time period1524 to present
DescendantsɈ
Tittle
J
SistersІ
Ј
י
ي
ܝ

ی

𐎊





Variations(See below)
Other
Other letters commonly used withj(x), ij
This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see . For the distinction between[ ],/ / and ⟨⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

Contents

Children's book from 1743, showing I and J considered as the same letter

The letter J used to be used as the swash letter I, used for the letter I at the end of Roman numerals when following another I, as in XXIIJ or xxiij instead of XXIII or xxiii for the Roman numeral representing 23. A distinctive usage emerged in Middle High German. Gian Giorgio Trissino (1478–1550) was the first to explicitly distinguish I and J as representing separate sounds, in his Ɛpistola del Trissino de le lettere nuωvamente aggiunte ne la lingua italiana ("Trissino's epistle about the letters recently added in the Italian language") of 1524. Originally, 'I' and 'J' were different shapes for the same letter, both equally representing/i/,/iː/, and/j/; however, Romance languages developed new sounds (from former/j/ and/ɡ/) that came to be represented as 'I' and 'J'; therefore, English J, acquired from the French J, has a sound value quite different from/j/ (which represents the initial sound in the English language word "yet").

List of pronunciations
Most common pronunciation:/j/ Languages in italics do not use the Latin alphabet
Language Dialect(s) Pronunciation

(IPA)

Environment Notes
Arabic Standard; most dialects // Latinization
Gulf /j/ Latinization
Sudanese, Omani, Yemeni /ɟ/ Latinization
Levantine, Maghrebi /ʒ/ Latinization
Azeri /ʒ/
Basque Bizkaian //
Lapurdian /j/ also used in southwest Bizkaian
Low Navarrese /ɟ/ also used in south Lapurdian
High Navarrese /ʃ/
Gipuzkoan /x/ also used in east Bizkaian
Zuberoan /ʒ/
Catalan /ʒ/
English //
Finnish /j/
French /ʒ/
Hindi //
Hokkien /dz/~//
/z/~/ʑ/
Igbo //
Indonesian //
Japanese //~/ʑ/ /ʑ/ and// distinct in some dialects, see Yotsugana
Kiowa /t/
Konkani /ɟ/
Korean North /ts/
/dz/ after vowels
South //
// after vowels
Kurdish /ʒ/
Luxembourgish /j/
/ʒ/ Some words
Malay //
Mandarin Standard // Pinyin latinization
/ʐ/ Wade–Giles latinization
Manx //
Oromo //
Pashto /dz/
Portuguese /ʒ/
Romanian /ʒ/
Scots //
Shona //
Somali //
Spanish Standard /x/
Some dialects /h/
Swahili /ɟ/
Tamil //
Tatar /ʐ/
Telugu //
Turkish /ʒ/
Turkmen //
Yoruba /ɟ/
Zulu //

English

In English, ⟨j⟩ most commonly represents the affricate/dʒ/. In Old English, the phoneme/dʒ/ was represented orthographically with ⟨cg⟩ and ⟨cȝ⟩. Under the influence of Old French, which had a similar phoneme deriving from Latin/j/, English scribes began to use ⟨i⟩ (later ⟨j⟩) to represent word-initial/dʒ/ in Old English (for example, iest and, later jest), while using ⟨dg⟩ elsewhere (for example, hedge). Later, many other uses of ⟨i⟩ (later ⟨j⟩) were added in loanwords from French and other languages (e.g. adjoin, junta). The first English language book to make a clear distinction between ⟨i⟩ and ⟨j⟩ was the King James Bible 1st Revision Cambridge 1629 and an English grammar book published in 1633. In loan words such as raj, ⟨j⟩ may represent/ʒ/. In some of these, including raj, Azerbaijan, Taj Mahal, and Beijing, the regular pronunciation/dʒ/ is actually closer to the native pronunciation, making the use of/ʒ/ an instance of a hyperforeignism. Occasionally, ⟨j⟩ represents the original/j/ sound, as in Hallelujah and fjord (see Yodh for details). In words of Spanish origin, where ⟨j⟩ represents the voiceless velar fricative[x] (such as jalapeño), English speakers usually approximate with the voiceless glottal fricative.

In English, ⟨j⟩ is the fourth least frequently used letter in words, being more frequent only than ⟨z⟩, ⟨q⟩, and ⟨x⟩. It is, however, quite common in proper nouns, especially personal names.

Other languages

Germanic and Eastern-European languages

Pronunciation of written ⟨j⟩ in European languages

The great majority of Germanic languages, such as German, Dutch, Icelandic, Swedish, Danish and Norwegian, use ⟨j⟩ for the palatal approximant/j/, which is usually represented by the letter ⟨y⟩ in English. Notable exceptions are English, Scots and (to a lesser degree) Luxembourgish. ⟨j⟩ also represents/j/ in Albanian, and those Uralic, Slavic and Baltic languages that use the Latin alphabet, such as Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Slovenian, Latvian and Lithuanian. Some related languages, such as Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian, also adopted ⟨j⟩ into the Cyrillic alphabet for the same purpose. Because of this standard, the lower case letter was chosen to be used in the IPA as the phonetic symbol for the sound.

Romance languages

In the Romance languages, ⟨j⟩ has generally developed from its original palatal approximant value in Latin to some kind of fricative. In French, Portuguese, Catalan, and Romanian it has been fronted to the postalveolar fricative/ʒ/ (like ⟨s⟩ in English measure). In Spanish, by contrast, it has been both devoiced and backed from an earlier/ʝ/ to a present-day/x/ ~/h/, with the actual phonetic realization depending on the speaker's dialect.

Generally, ⟨j⟩ not commonly present in modern standard Italian spelling. Only proper nouns (such as Jesi and Letojanni), Latin words (Juventus), or those borrowed from foreign languages have ⟨j⟩. The proper nouns and Latin words are pronounced as the palatal approximant/j/, while words borrowed from foreign languages tend to follow that language's pronunciation of ⟨j⟩. Until the 19th century, ⟨j⟩ was used instead of ⟨i⟩ in diphthongs, as a replacement for final -ii, and in vowel groups (as in Savoja); this rule was quite strict in official writing. ⟨j⟩ is also used to render/j/ in dialectal spelling, e.g. Romanesco dialect ⟨ajo⟩[ajo] (garlic; cf. Italian aglio[aʎo]). The Italian novelist Luigi Pirandello used ⟨j⟩ in vowel groups in his works written in Italian; he also wrote in his native Sicilian language, which still uses the letter ⟨j⟩ to represent/j/ (and sometimes also [dʒ] or [gj], depending on its environment). The Maltese language is a Semitic language, not a Romance language; but has been deeply influenced by them (especially Sicilian) and it uses ⟨j⟩ for the sound /j/ (cognate of the Semitic yod).

Basque

In Basque, the diaphoneme represented by ⟨j⟩ has a variety of realizations according to the regional dialect:[j, ʝ, ɟ, ʒ, ʃ, x] (the last one is typical of Gipuzkoa).

Non-European languages

Among non-European languages that have adopted the Latin script, ⟨j⟩ stands for/ʒ/ in Turkish and Azerbaijani, for/ʐ/ in Tatar. ⟨j⟩ stands for// in Indonesian, Somali, Malay, Igbo, Shona, Oromo, Turkmen, and Zulu. It represents a voiced palatal plosive/ɟ/ in Konkani, Yoruba, and Swahili. In Kiowa, ⟨j⟩ stands for a voiceless alveolar plosive,/t/.

⟨j⟩ stands for// in the romanization systems of most of the Languages of India such as Hindi and Telugu and stands for// in the Romanization of Japanese and Korean.

For Chinese languages, ⟨j⟩ stands for/t͡ɕ/ in Mandarin Chinese Pinyin system, the unaspirated equivalent of ⟨q⟩ (/t͡ɕʰ/). In Wade–Giles, ⟨j⟩ stands for Mandarin Chinese/ʐ/. Pe̍h-ōe-jī of Hokkien and Tâi-lô for Taiwanese Hokkien, ⟨j⟩ stands for/z/ and/ʑ/, or/d͡z/ and/d͡ʑ/, depending on accents. In Jyutping for Cantonese, ⟨j⟩ stands for/j/.

The Royal Thai General System of Transcription does not use the letter ⟨j⟩, although it is used in some proper names and non-standard transcriptions to represent either[tɕ] or[tɕʰ] (the latter following Pali/Sanskrit root equivalents).

In romanized Pashto, ⟨j⟩ represents ځ, pronounced[dz].

In the Qaniujaaqpait spelling of the Inuktitut language, ⟨j⟩ is used to transcribe/j/.

  • 𐤉 : Semitic letter Yodh, from which the following symbols originally derive
  • I i : Latin letter I, from which J derives
  • ȷ : Dotless j
  • ᶡ : Modifier letter small dotless j with stroke
  • ᶨ : Modifier letter small j with crossed-tail
  • IPA-specific symbols related to J:ʝɟʄʲ
  • Uralic Phonetic Alphabet-specific symbols related to J:
    • U+1D0ALATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL J
    • U+1D36MODIFIER LETTER CAPITAL J
    • U+2C7CLATIN SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER J
  • J with diacritics: Ĵ ĵ ǰ Ɉ ɉ J̃ j̇̃
Character information
Preview J j ȷ
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER J LATIN SMALL LETTER J LATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS J
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 74 U+004A 106 U+006A 567 U+0237
UTF-8 74 4A 106 6A 200 183 C8 B7
Numeric character reference J J j j ȷ ȷ
Named character reference ȷ
EBCDIC family 209 D1 145 91
ASCII 1 74 4A 106 6A
1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Unicode also has a dotless variant, ȷ (U+0237). It is primarily used in Landsmålsalfabet and in mathematics. It is not intended to be used with diacritics since the normal j is softdotted in Unicode (that is, the dot is removed if a diacritic is to be placed above; Unicode further states that, for example i+ ¨ ≠ ı+¨ and the same holds true for j and ȷ).

In Unicode, a duplicate of 'J' for use as a special phonetic character in historical Greek linguistics is encoded in the Greek script block as ϳ (Unicode U+03F3). It is used to denote the palatal glide/j/ in the context of Greek script. It is called "Yot" in the Unicode standard, after the German name of the letter J. An uppercase version of this letter was added to the Unicode Standard at U+037F with the release of version 7.0 in June 2014.

Wingdings smiley issue

In the Wingdings font by Microsoft, the letter "J" is rendered as a smiley face (this is distinct from the Unicode code point U+263A, which renders as ☺︎). In Microsoft applications, ":)" is automatically replaced by a smiley rendered in a specific font face when composing rich text documents or HTML email. This autocorrection feature can be switched off or changed to a Unicode smiley.

  1. "J", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989)
  2. "J" and "jay", Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993)
  3. "yod". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press.(Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  4. "Wörterbuchnetz". Retrieved22 December 2016.
  5. De le lettere nuωvamente aggiunte ne la lingua Italiana in Italian Wikisource.
  6. Trask, R. L. (Robert Lawrence), 1944-2004. (1997). The history of Basque. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13116-2. OCLC 34514667.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. Hogg, Richard M.; Norman Francis Blake; Roger Lass; Suzanne Romaine; R. W. Burchfield; John Algeo (1992). The Cambridge History of the English Language. Cambridge University Press. p. 39. ISBN 0-521-26476-6.
  8. English Grammar, Charles Butler, 1633
  9. Wells, John (1982). Accents of English 1: An Introduction. Cambridge, UN: Cambridge University Press. p. 108. ISBN 0-521-29719-2.
  10. Penny, Ralph John (2002).A History of the Spanish Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-01184-1.
  11. Cipolla, Gaetano (2007). The Sounds of Sicilian: A Pronunciation Guide. Mineola, NY: Legas. pp. 11–12. ISBN 9781881901518. Retrieved2013-03-31.
  12. Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS"(PDF).
  13. Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS"(PDF).
  14. Ruppel, Klaas; Rueter, Jack; Kolehmainen, Erkki I. (2006-04-07). "L2/06-215: Proposal for Encoding 3 Additional Characters of the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet"(PDF).
  15. The Unicode Standard, Version 8.0, p. 293 (at the very bottom)
  16. Nick Nicholas, "Yot" Archived 2012-08-05 at archive.today
  17. "Unicode Character 'GREEK LETTER YOT' (U+03F3)". Retrieved22 December 2016.
  18. "Unicode: Greek and Coptic"(PDF). Retrieved2014-06-26.
  19. "Unicode 7.0.0". Unicode Consortium. Retrieved2014-06-26.
  20. Pirillo, Chris (26 June 2010). "J Smiley Outlook Email: Problem and Fix!". Retrieved22 December 2016.
  21. Chen, Raymond (23 May 2006). "That mysterious J". The Old New Thing. MSDN Blogs. Retrieved2011-04-01.
  22. "Car Registration Years | Suffix Number Plates | Platehunter". www.platehunter.com. Retrieved2018-12-20.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to J.

J
J Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Ϳ This article is about the letter of the alphabet For other uses see J disambiguation For technical reasons J redirects here For the programming language see J Sharp For the Cyrillic letter Ј see Je Cyrillic J or j is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet Its usual name in English is jay pronounced ˈ dʒ eɪ with a now uncommon variant jy ˈ dʒ aɪ 1 2 When used in the International Phonetic Alphabet for the y sound it may be called yod or jod pronounced ˈ j ɒ d or ˈ j oʊ d 3 JJ j ȷ See below UsageWriting systemLatin scriptTypeAlphabeticLanguage of originLatin languagePhonetic usage j dʒ tʃ x h ʒ ɟ ʝ dz tɕ gʱ t dʑ ʐ ʃ c i dʒ eɪ dʒ aɪ Unicode codepointU 004A U 006A U 0237Alphabetical position10HistoryDevelopmentIi𐌉I iJ j ȷTime period1524 to presentDescendants Ɉ Tittle JSistersI Ј י ي ܝ ی ࠉ 𐎊 ዪ Ⴢ ⴢ ჲ Variations See below OtherOther letters commonly used withj x ijThis article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet IPA For an introductory guide on IPA symbols see Help IPA For the distinction between and see IPA Brackets and transcription delimiters Contents 1 History 2 Pronunciation and use 2 1 English 2 2 Other languages 2 2 1 Germanic and Eastern European languages 2 2 2 Romance languages 2 2 3 Basque 2 2 4 Non European languages 3 Related characters 4 Computing codes 4 1 Wingdings smiley issue 5 Other uses 6 Other representations 7 References 8 External linksHistory Edit Children s book from 1743 showing I and J considered as the same letter The letter J used to be used as the swash letter I used for the letter I at the end of Roman numerals when following another I as in XXIIJ or xxiij instead of XXIII or xxiii for the Roman numeral representing 23 A distinctive usage emerged in Middle High German 4 Gian Giorgio Trissino 1478 1550 was the first to explicitly distinguish I and J as representing separate sounds in his Ɛpistola del Trissino de le lettere nuwvamente aggiunte ne la lingua italiana Trissino s epistle about the letters recently added in the Italian language of 1524 5 Originally I and J were different shapes for the same letter both equally representing i iː and j however Romance languages developed new sounds from former j and ɡ that came to be represented as I and J therefore English J acquired from the French J has a sound value quite different from j which represents the initial sound in the English language word yet Pronunciation and use EditList of pronunciations Most common pronunciation j Languages in italics do not use the Latin alphabetLanguage Dialect s Pronunciation IPA Environment NotesArabic Standard most dialects dʒ LatinizationGulf j LatinizationSudanese Omani Yemeni ɟ LatinizationLevantine Maghrebi ʒ LatinizationAzeri ʒ Basque 6 Bizkaian dʒ Lapurdian j also used in southwest BizkaianLow Navarrese ɟ also used in south LapurdianHigh Navarrese ʃ Gipuzkoan x also used in east BizkaianZuberoan ʒ Catalan ʒ English dʒ Finnish j French ʒ Hindi dʒ Hokkien dz dʑ z ʑ Igbo dʒ Indonesian dʒ Japanese dʑ ʑ ʑ and dʑ distinct in some dialects see YotsuganaKiowa t Konkani ɟ Korean North ts dz after vowelsSouth tɕ dʑ after vowelsKurdish ʒ Luxembourgish j ʒ Some wordsMalay dʒ Mandarin Standard tɕ Pinyin latinization ʐ Wade Giles latinizationManx dʒ Oromo dʒ Pashto dz Portuguese ʒ Romanian ʒ Scots dʒ Shona dʒ Somali dʒ Spanish Standard x Some dialects h Swahili ɟ Tamil dʑ Tatar ʐ Telugu dʒ Turkish ʒ Turkmen dʒ Yoruba ɟ Zulu dʒ English Edit In English j most commonly represents the affricate dʒ In Old English the phoneme dʒ was represented orthographically with cg and cȝ 7 Under the influence of Old French which had a similar phoneme deriving from Latin j English scribes began to use i later j to represent word initial dʒ in Old English for example iest and later jest while using dg elsewhere for example hedge 7 Later many other uses of i later j were added in loanwords from French and other languages e g adjoin junta The first English language book to make a clear distinction between i and j was the King James Bible 1st Revision Cambridge 1629 and an English grammar book published in 1633 8 In loan words such as raj j may represent ʒ In some of these including raj Azerbaijan Taj Mahal and Beijing the regular pronunciation dʒ is actually closer to the native pronunciation making the use of ʒ an instance of a hyperforeignism 9 Occasionally j represents the original j sound as in Hallelujah and fjord see Yodh for details In words of Spanish origin where j represents the voiceless velar fricative x such as jalapeno English speakers usually approximate with the voiceless glottal fricative h In English j is the fourth least frequently used letter in words being more frequent only than z q and x It is however quite common in proper nouns especially personal names Other languages Edit Germanic and Eastern European languages Edit Pronunciation of written j in European languages The great majority of Germanic languages such as German Dutch Icelandic Swedish Danish and Norwegian use j for the palatal approximant j which is usually represented by the letter y in English Notable exceptions are English Scots and to a lesser degree Luxembourgish j also represents j in Albanian and those Uralic Slavic and Baltic languages that use the Latin alphabet such as Hungarian Finnish Estonian Polish Czech Serbo Croatian Slovak Slovenian Latvian and Lithuanian Some related languages such as Serbo Croatian and Macedonian also adopted j into the Cyrillic alphabet for the same purpose Because of this standard the lower case letter was chosen to be used in the IPA as the phonetic symbol for the sound Romance languages Edit In the Romance languages j has generally developed from its original palatal approximant value in Latin to some kind of fricative In French Portuguese Catalan and Romanian it has been fronted to the postalveolar fricative ʒ like s in English measure In Spanish by contrast it has been both devoiced and backed from an earlier ʝ to a present day x h 10 with the actual phonetic realization depending on the speaker s dialect Generally j not commonly present in modern standard Italian spelling Only proper nouns such as Jesi and Letojanni Latin words Juventus or those borrowed from foreign languages have j The proper nouns and Latin words are pronounced as the palatal approximant j while words borrowed from foreign languages tend to follow that language s pronunciation of j Until the 19th century j was used instead of i in diphthongs as a replacement for final ii and in vowel groups as in Savoja this rule was quite strict in official writing j is also used to render j in dialectal spelling e g Romanesco dialect ajo ajo garlic cf Italian aglio aʎo The Italian novelist Luigi Pirandello used j in vowel groups in his works written in Italian he also wrote in his native Sicilian language which still uses the letter j to represent j and sometimes also dʒ or gj depending on its environment 11 The Maltese language is a Semitic language not a Romance language but has been deeply influenced by them especially Sicilian and it uses j for the sound j cognate of the Semitic yod Basque Edit In Basque the diaphoneme represented by j has a variety of realizations according to the regional dialect j ʝ ɟ ʒ ʃ x the last one is typical of Gipuzkoa Non European languages Edit Among non European languages that have adopted the Latin script j stands for ʒ in Turkish and Azerbaijani for ʐ in Tatar j stands for dʒ in Indonesian Somali Malay Igbo Shona Oromo Turkmen and Zulu It represents a voiced palatal plosive ɟ in Konkani Yoruba and Swahili In Kiowa j stands for a voiceless alveolar plosive t j stands for dʒ in the romanization systems of most of the Languages of India such as Hindi and Telugu and stands for dʑ in the Romanization of Japanese and Korean For Chinese languages j stands for t ɕ in Mandarin Chinese Pinyin system the unaspirated equivalent of q t ɕʰ In Wade Giles j stands for Mandarin Chinese ʐ Pe h ōe ji of Hokkien and Tai lo for Taiwanese Hokkien j stands for z and ʑ or d z and d ʑ depending on accents In Jyutping for Cantonese j stands for j The Royal Thai General System of Transcription does not use the letter j although it is used in some proper names and non standard transcriptions to represent either c tɕ or ch tɕʰ the latter following Pali Sanskrit root equivalents In romanized Pashto j represents ځ pronounced dz In the Qaniujaaqpait spelling of the Inuktitut language j is used to transcribe j Related characters Edit𐤉 Semitic letter Yodh from which the following symbols originally derive I i Latin letter I from which J derives ȷ Dotless j ᶡ Modifier letter small dotless j with stroke 12 ᶨ Modifier letter small j with crossed tail 12 IPA specific symbols related to J ʝ ɟ ʄ ʲ Uralic Phonetic Alphabet specific symbols related to J U 1D0A ᴊ LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL J 13 U 1D36 ᴶ MODIFIER LETTER CAPITAL J 13 U 2C7C ⱼ LATIN SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER J 14 J with diacritics Ĵ ĵ ǰ Ɉ ɉ J j Computing codes EditCharacter information Preview J j ȷUnicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER J LATIN SMALL LETTER J LATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS JEncodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hexUnicode 74 U 004A 106 U 006A 567 U 0237UTF 8 74 4A 106 6A 200 183 C8 B7Numeric character reference amp 74 wbr amp x4A wbr amp 106 wbr amp x6A wbr amp 567 wbr amp x237 wbr Named character reference amp jmath EBCDIC family 209 D1 145 91ASCII 1 74 4A 106 6A1 Also for encodings based on ASCII including the DOS Windows ISO 8859 and Macintosh families of encodings Unicode also has a dotless variant ȷ U 0237 It is primarily used in Landsmalsalfabet and in mathematics It is not intended to be used with diacritics since the normal j is softdotted in Unicode that is the dot is removed if a diacritic is to be placed above Unicode further states that for example i i and the same holds true for j and ȷ 15 In Unicode a duplicate of J for use as a special phonetic character in historical Greek linguistics is encoded in the Greek script block as ϳ Unicode U 03F3 It is used to denote the palatal glide j in the context of Greek script It is called Yot in the Unicode standard after the German name of the letter J 16 17 An uppercase version of this letter was added to the Unicode Standard at U 037F with the release of version 7 0 in June 2014 18 19 Wingdings smiley issue Edit In the Wingdings font by Microsoft the letter J is rendered as a smiley face this is distinct from the Unicode code point U 263A which renders as In Microsoft applications is automatically replaced by a smiley rendered in a specific font face when composing rich text documents or HTML email This autocorrection feature can be switched off or changed to a Unicode smiley 20 21 Other uses EditIn international licence plate codes J stands for Japan In mathematics j is one of the three imaginary units of quaternions Also in mathematics j is one of the three unit vectors In the Metric system J is the symbol for the joule the SI derived unit for energy In some areas of physics electrical engineering and related fields j is the symbol for the imaginary unit the square root of 1 in other fields the letter i is used but this would be ambiguous as it is also the symbol for current A J can be a slang term for a joint marijuana cigarette In the United Kingdom under the old system before 2001 a licence plate that begins with J for example J123 XYZ would correspond to a vehicle registered between August 1 1991 and July 31 1992 Again under the old system a licence plate that ends with J for example ABC 123J would correspond to a vehicle that was registered between August 1 1970 and July 31 1971 22 Other representations EditNATO phonetic Morse codeJuliet Signal flag Flag semaphore American manual alphabet ASL fingerspelling British manual alphabet BSL fingerspelling Braille dots 245 Unified English BrailleReferences Edit J Oxford English Dictionary 2nd edition 1989 J and jay Merriam Webster s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged 1993 yod Oxford English Dictionary Online ed Oxford University Press Subscription or participating institution membership required Worterbuchnetz Retrieved 22 December 2016 De le lettere nuwvamente aggiunte ne la lingua Italiana in Italian Wikisource Trask R L Robert Lawrence 1944 2004 1997 The history of Basque London Routledge ISBN 0 415 13116 2 OCLC 34514667 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link a b Hogg Richard M Norman Francis Blake Roger Lass Suzanne Romaine R W Burchfield John Algeo 1992 The Cambridge History of the English Language Cambridge University Press p 39 ISBN 0 521 26476 6 English Grammar Charles Butler 1633 Wells John 1982 Accents of English 1 An Introduction Cambridge UN Cambridge University Press p 108 ISBN 0 521 29719 2 Penny Ralph John 2002 A History of the Spanish Language Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521 01184 1 Cipolla Gaetano 2007 The Sounds of Sicilian A Pronunciation Guide Mineola NY Legas pp 11 12 ISBN 9781881901518 Retrieved 2013 03 31 a b Constable Peter 2004 04 19 L2 04 132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS PDF a b Everson Michael et al 2002 03 20 L2 02 141 Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS PDF Ruppel Klaas Rueter Jack Kolehmainen Erkki I 2006 04 07 L2 06 215 Proposal for Encoding 3 Additional Characters of the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet PDF The Unicode Standard Version 8 0 p 293 at the very bottom Nick Nicholas Yot Archived 2012 08 05 at archive today Unicode Character GREEK LETTER YOT U 03F3 Retrieved 22 December 2016 Unicode Greek and Coptic PDF Retrieved 2014 06 26 Unicode 7 0 0 Unicode Consortium Retrieved 2014 06 26 Pirillo Chris 26 June 2010 J Smiley Outlook Email Problem and Fix Retrieved 22 December 2016 Chen Raymond 23 May 2006 That mysterious J The Old New Thing MSDN Blogs Retrieved 2011 04 01 Car Registration Years Suffix Number Plates Platehunter www platehunter com Retrieved 2018 12 20 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to J The dictionary definition of J at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of j at Wiktionary J Encyclopaedia Britannica 15 11th ed 1911 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title J amp oldid 1053016590 Computing codes, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.