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Calluna

Calluna vulgaris, common heather, ling, or simply heather, is the sole species in the genus Calluna in the flowering plant family Ericaceae. It is a low-growing evergreen shrub growing to 20 to 50 centimetres (8 to 20 in) tall, or rarely to 1 metre (40 in) and taller, and is found widely in Europe and Asia Minor on acidic soils in open sunny situations and in moderate shade. It is the dominant plant in most heathland and moorland in Europe, and in some bog vegetation and acidic pine and oak woodland. It is tolerant of grazing and regenerates following occasional burning, and is often managed in nature reserves and grouse moors by sheep or cattle grazing, and also by light burning.

Calluna
Flowering Calluna vulgaris
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Subfamily: Ericoideae
Tribe: Ericeae
Genus: Calluna
Salisb.
Species:
C. vulgaris
Binomial name
Calluna vulgaris
(L.) Hull

Calluna was separated from the closely related genus Erica by Richard Anthony Salisbury, who devised the generic name Calluna probably from the Greek Kallyno (καλλύνω), "beautify, sweep clean", in reference to its traditional use in besoms. The specific epithet vulgaris is Latin for 'common'. Calluna is differentiated from Erica by its corolla and calyx each being in four parts instead of five.

Contents

Calluna has small scale-leaves (less than 2–3 mm long) borne in opposite and decussate pairs, whereas those of Erica are generally larger and in whorls of 3–4, sometimes 5. It flowers from July to September.: 231 In wild plants these are normally mauve, but white-flowered plants also occur occasionally. They are terminal in racemes with sepal-like bracts at the base with a superior ovary, the fruit a capsule. Unlike Erica, Calluna sometimes sports double flowers. Calluna is sometimes referred to as Summer (or Autumn) heather to distinguish it from winter or spring flowering species of Erica.[citation needed]

Calluna vulgaris is extremely cold-hardy, surviving severe exposure and freezing conditions well below −20 °C (−4 °F). It is native to Europe, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and the Azores. It has been introduced into many other places worldwide with suitable climates, including North America, Australia, New Zealand and the Falkland Islands.

Calluna flower close-up

Despised until the 19th century for its associations with the most rugged rural poverty, heather's growth in popularity may be paralleled with the vogue for alpine plants. It is a very popular ornamental plant in gardens and for landscaping, in lime-free areas where it will thrive, but it very hard to grow in less acidic soil.

Cultivars

There are many named cultivars, selected for variation in flower colour and for different foliage colour and growing habits.[citation needed]

Different cultivars have flower colours ranging from white, through pink and a wide range of purples, and including reds. The flowering season with different cultivars extends from late July to November in the northern hemisphere. The flowers may turn brown but still remain on the plants over winter, and this can lead to interesting decorative effects.[citation needed]

Cultivars with ornamental foliage are usually selected for reddish and golden leaf colour. A few forms can be silvery grey. Many of the ornamental foliage forms change colour with the onset of winter weather, usually increasing in intensity of colour. Some forms are grown for distinctive young spring foliage. Cultivars include ‘Beoley Crimson’ (Crimson red), ‘Boskoop’ (light purple), ‘Cuprea’ (copper), 'Firefly' (deep mauve),‘Long White’ (white).[citation needed]

The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:

  • 'Alicia' (Garden Girls series)
  • 'Annemarie'
  • 'Beoley Gold'
  • 'County Wicklow'
  • 'Dark Beauty'
  • 'Dark Star'
  • 'Darkness'
  • 'Elsie Purnell'
  • 'Firefly'
  • 'Gold Haze'
  • 'Kerstin'
  • 'Kinlochruel'
  • 'Peter Sparkes'
  • 'Robert Chapman'
  • 'Silver Queen'
  • 'Sister Anne'
  • 'Spring Cream'
  • 'Tib'
  • 'Velvet Fascination'
  • 'Wickwar Flame'
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(December 2010) ()

Heather is an important food source for various sheep and deer which can graze the tips of the plants when snow covers low-growing vegetation. Willow grouse and red grouse feed on the young shoots and seeds of this plant. Both adult and larva of the heather beetle (Lochmaea suturalis) feed on it, and can cause extensive mortality in some instances. The larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species also feed on the plant, notably the small emperor moth Saturnia pavonia.

Formerly heather was used to dye wool yellow and to tan leather. With malt, heather is an ingredient in gruit, a mixture of flavourings used in the brewing of heather-beer during the Middle Ages before the use of hops. Thomas Pennant wrote in A Tour in Scotland (1769) that on the Scottish island of Islay "ale is frequently made of the young tops of heath, mixing two thirds of that plant with one of malt, sometimes adding hops".

From time immemorial heather has been used for making besoms, a practice recorded in "Buy Broom Buzzems" a song probably written by William Purvis (Blind Willie) (1752–1832) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England.

Heather honey is a highly valued product in moorland and heathland areas, with many beehives being moved there in late summer. Not always as valued as it is today, it was dismissed as mel improbum, "unwholesome honey" by Dioscurides. Heather honey has a characteristic strong taste, and an unusual texture, for it is thixotropic, being a jelly until stirred, when it becomes a syrup like other honey, but then sets again to a jelly. This makes the extraction of the honey from the comb difficult, and it is therefore often sold as comb honey.

White heather is regarded in Scotland as being lucky, a tradition brought from Balmoral to England by Queen Victoria and sprigs of it are often sold as a charm and worked into bridal bouquets.

Heather stalks are used by a small industry in Scotland as a raw material for sentimental jewellery. The stalks are stripped of bark, dyed in bright colours and then compressed with resin.

Calluna vulgaris herb has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea for treatment of disorders of the kidneys and urinary tract.

The plant was introduced to New Zealand and has become an invasive weed in some areas, notably the Tongariro National Park in the North Island and the Wilderness Reserve (Te Anau) in the South Island, overgrowing native plants. Heather beetles have been released to stop the heather, with preliminary trials successful to date.

The shoots of Calluna vulgaris contain the phenolic compounds chlorogenic acid, its 3-O-glucoside, 3-O-galactoside and 3-O-arabinoside.

Heather is seen as iconic of Scotland, where the plant grows widely. When poems like Bonnie Auld Scotland speak of "fragrant hills of purple heather', when the hero of Kidnapped flees through the heather, when heather and Scotland are linked in the same sentence, the heather talked about is Calluna vulgaris.

Purple heather is one of the two national flowers of Norway.[citation needed]

  1. Matveev, Vladimir. "Ling – definition from". Biology-Online.org. Retrieved2010-01-27.
  2. "In favorable conditions, old plants can grow to the height of a man, and have hidden many a fugitive," remarks Alice M. Coats, British Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Calluna".
  3. Clive Stace, (2010) New Flora of the British Isles, 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press.
  4. A.R. Clapham, T. G. Tutin, E. F. Warburg (1981). Excursion Flora of the British Isles (3 ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23290-2.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  5. Parnell, P. and Curtis, T. 2012. Webb's An Irish Flora. Cork University Press ISBN 978-185918-4783
  6. "Calluna vulgaris". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  7. Anderberg, Arne. "Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull". Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm.
  8. "Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Calluna vulgaris in the Global Invasive Species Database". Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.
  9. John L. Creech, note in Coats 1992.
  10. "Calluna vulgaris 'Alicia' (Garden Girls Series)". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  11. "Calluna vulgaris 'Annemarie'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  12. "Calluna vulgaris 'Beoley Gold'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  13. "Calluna vulgaris 'County Wicklow'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  14. "Calluna vulgaris 'Dark Beauty'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  15. "Calluna vulgaris 'Dark Star'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  16. "Calluna vulgaris 'Darkness'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  17. "Calluna vulgaris 'Elsie Purnell'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  18. "Calluna vulgaris 'Firefly'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  19. "Calluna vulgaris 'Gold Haze'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  20. "Calluna vulgaris 'Kerstin'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  21. "Calluna vulgaris 'Kinlochruel'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  22. "Calluna vulgaris 'Peter Sparkes'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  23. "Calluna vulgaris 'Robert Chapman'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  24. "Calluna vulgaris 'Silver Queen'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  25. "Calluna vulgaris 'Sister Anne'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  26. "Calluna vulgaris 'Spring Cream'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  27. "Calluna vulgaris 'Tib'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  28. "Calluna vulgaris 'Velvet Fascination'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  29. "Calluna vulgaris 'Wickwar Flame'". RHS. Retrieved12 April 2020.
  30. Moss R & Parkinson J (1972) The digestion of heather (Culluna vulgaris) by red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) Br.J.Nutr. 27, 285–296
  31. Thomas Pennant, A Tour in Scotland and Voyage to the Hebrides (1772), New Ed. (Birlinn Ltd, 1998) ISBN 1-874744-88-2
  32. "Most people today consider it the best of all honeys, but this was not always so." Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Calluna".
  33. Translated as "noughty honey" by William Turner: noted in Coats (1964) 1992.
  34. "The Folklore of Heather". Tree for Life. Archived from the original on 2008-04-25. Retrieved2013-04-08.
  35. Coats (1964) 1992.
  36. Vogl, S; Picker, P; Mihaly-Bison, J; Fakhrudin, N; Atanasov, A. G.; Heiss, E. H.; Wawrosch, C; Reznicek, G; Dirsch, V. M.; Saukel, J; Kopp, B (2013). "Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine—an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. PMC3791396. PMID 23770053.
  37. "Cabweb.org – de beste bron van informatie over cabweb.Deze website is te koop!". Pest.cabweb.org. Archived from the original on 2011-07-25. Retrieved2010-01-27.
  38. Mahbubul, A.F. Jalal; David J. Read; E. Haslam (1982). "Phenolic composition and its seasonal variation in Calluna vulgaris". Phytochemistry. 21 (6): 1397–1401. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(82)80150-7.
  39. Alexander Wallace (1858). The heather in lore, lyric and lay ...

Calluna
Calluna Language Watch Edit Calluna vulgaris common heather ling or simply heather 1 is the sole species in the genus Calluna in the flowering plant family Ericaceae It is a low growing evergreen shrub growing to 20 to 50 centimetres 8 to 20 in tall or rarely to 1 metre 40 in and taller 2 and is found widely in Europe and Asia Minor on acidic soils in open sunny situations and in moderate shade It is the dominant plant in most heathland and moorland in Europe and in some bog vegetation and acidic pine and oak woodland It is tolerant of grazing and regenerates following occasional burning and is often managed in nature reserves and grouse moors by sheep or cattle grazing and also by light burning CallunaFlowering Calluna vulgarisScientific classificationKingdom PlantaeClade TracheophytesClade AngiospermsClade EudicotsClade AsteridsOrder EricalesFamily EricaceaeSubfamily EricoideaeTribe EriceaeGenus Calluna Salisb Species C vulgarisBinomial nameCalluna vulgaris L Hull Calluna was separated from the closely related genus Erica by Richard Anthony Salisbury who devised the generic name Calluna probably from the Greek Kallyno kallynw beautify sweep clean in reference to its traditional use in besoms The specific epithet vulgaris is Latin for common Calluna is differentiated from Erica by its corolla and calyx each being in four parts instead of five Contents 1 Description 2 Distribution 3 Cultivation 3 1 Cultivars 4 Uses 5 Invasive species 6 Chemistry 7 Cultural references 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksDescription EditCalluna has small scale leaves less than 2 3 mm long borne in opposite and decussate pairs whereas those of Erica are generally larger and in whorls of 3 4 sometimes 5 3 It flowers from July to September 4 231 In wild plants these are normally mauve but white flowered plants also occur occasionally They are terminal in racemes with sepal like bracts at the base with a superior ovary the fruit a capsule 5 Unlike Erica Calluna sometimes sports double flowers Calluna is sometimes referred to as Summer or Autumn heather to distinguish it from winter or spring flowering species of Erica citation needed Distribution EditCalluna vulgaris is extremely cold hardy surviving severe exposure and freezing conditions well below 20 C 4 F 6 It is native to Europe Iceland the Faroe Islands and the Azores 7 It has been introduced into many other places worldwide with suitable climates including North America Australia New Zealand and the Falkland Islands 8 Cultivation Edit Calluna flower close up Despised until the 19th century for its associations with the most rugged rural poverty heather s growth in popularity may be paralleled with the vogue for alpine plants It is a very popular ornamental plant in gardens and for landscaping in lime free areas where it will thrive but it very hard to grow in less acidic soil 9 Cultivars Edit There are many named cultivars selected for variation in flower colour and for different foliage colour and growing habits citation needed Different cultivars have flower colours ranging from white through pink and a wide range of purples and including reds The flowering season with different cultivars extends from late July to November in the northern hemisphere The flowers may turn brown but still remain on the plants over winter and this can lead to interesting decorative effects citation needed Cultivars with ornamental foliage are usually selected for reddish and golden leaf colour A few forms can be silvery grey Many of the ornamental foliage forms change colour with the onset of winter weather usually increasing in intensity of colour Some forms are grown for distinctive young spring foliage Cultivars include Beoley Crimson Crimson red Boskoop light purple Cuprea copper Firefly deep mauve Long White white citation needed The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society s Award of Garden Merit Alicia Garden Girls series 10 Annemarie 11 Beoley Gold 12 County Wicklow 13 Dark Beauty 14 Dark Star 15 Darkness 16 Elsie Purnell 17 Firefly 18 Gold Haze 19 Kerstin 20 Kinlochruel 21 Peter Sparkes 22 Robert Chapman 23 Silver Queen 24 Sister Anne 25 Spring Cream 26 Tib 27 Velvet Fascination 28 Wickwar Flame 29 Uses EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed December 2010 Learn how and when to remove this template message Heather is an important food source for various sheep and deer which can graze the tips of the plants when snow covers low growing vegetation Willow grouse and red grouse feed on the young shoots and seeds of this plant 30 Both adult and larva of the heather beetle Lochmaea suturalis feed on it and can cause extensive mortality in some instances The larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species also feed on the plant notably the small emperor moth Saturnia pavonia Formerly heather was used to dye wool yellow and to tan leather With malt heather is an ingredient in gruit a mixture of flavourings used in the brewing of heather beer during the Middle Ages before the use of hops Thomas Pennant wrote in A Tour in Scotland 1769 that on the Scottish island of Islay ale is frequently made of the young tops of heath mixing two thirds of that plant with one of malt sometimes adding hops 31 From time immemorial heather has been used for making besoms a practice recorded in Buy Broom Buzzems a song probably written by William Purvis Blind Willie 1752 1832 from Newcastle upon Tyne England Heather honey is a highly valued product in moorland and heathland areas with many beehives being moved there in late summer Not always as valued as it is today 32 it was dismissed as mel improbum unwholesome honey by Dioscurides 33 Heather honey has a characteristic strong taste and an unusual texture for it is thixotropic being a jelly until stirred when it becomes a syrup like other honey but then sets again to a jelly This makes the extraction of the honey from the comb difficult and it is therefore often sold as comb honey White heather is regarded in Scotland as being lucky 34 a tradition brought from Balmoral to England by Queen Victoria 35 and sprigs of it are often sold as a charm and worked into bridal bouquets Heather stalks are used by a small industry in Scotland as a raw material for sentimental jewellery The stalks are stripped of bark dyed in bright colours and then compressed with resin Calluna vulgaris herb has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea for treatment of disorders of the kidneys and urinary tract 36 Invasive species EditThe plant was introduced to New Zealand and has become an invasive weed in some areas notably the Tongariro National Park in the North Island and the Wilderness Reserve Te Anau in the South Island overgrowing native plants Heather beetles have been released to stop the heather with preliminary trials successful to date 37 Chemistry EditThe shoots of Calluna vulgaris contain the phenolic compounds chlorogenic acid its 3 O glucoside 3 O galactoside and 3 O arabinoside 38 Cultural references EditHeather is seen as iconic of Scotland where the plant grows widely When poems like Bonnie Auld Scotland speak of fragrant hills of purple heather when the hero of Kidnapped flees through the heather when heather and Scotland are linked in the same sentence the heather talked about is Calluna vulgaris 39 Purple heather is one of the two national flowers of Norway citation needed See also EditList of Lepidoptera that feed on Calluna Heath habitat EricaReferences Edit Matveev Vladimir Ling definition from Biology Online org Retrieved 2010 01 27 In favorable conditions old plants can grow to the height of a man and have hidden many a fugitive remarks Alice M Coats British Shrubs and Their Histories 1964 1992 s v Calluna Clive Stace 2010 New Flora of the British Isles 3rd edition Cambridge University Press A R Clapham T G Tutin E F Warburg 1981 Excursion Flora of the British Isles 3 ed Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521 23290 2 CS1 maint uses authors parameter link Parnell P and Curtis T 2012 Webb s An Irish Flora Cork University Press ISBN 978 185918 4783 Calluna vulgaris RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Anderberg Arne Calluna vulgaris L Hull Naturhistoriska riksmuseet Stockholm Countries or multi country features with distribution records for Calluna vulgaris in the Global Invasive Species Database Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG of the IUCN Species Survival Commission John L Creech note in Coats 1992 Calluna vulgaris Alicia Garden Girls Series RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Annemarie RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Beoley Gold RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris County Wicklow RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Dark Beauty RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Dark Star RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Darkness RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Elsie Purnell RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Firefly RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Gold Haze RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Kerstin RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Kinlochruel RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Peter Sparkes RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Robert Chapman RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Silver Queen RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Sister Anne RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Spring Cream RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Tib RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Velvet Fascination RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Calluna vulgaris Wickwar Flame RHS Retrieved 12 April 2020 Moss R amp Parkinson J 1972 The digestion of heather Culluna vulgaris by red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus Br J Nutr 27 285 296 Thomas Pennant A Tour in Scotland and Voyage to the Hebrides 1772 New Ed Birlinn Ltd 1998 ISBN 1 874744 88 2 Most people today consider it the best of all honeys but this was not always so Alice M Coats Garden Shrubs and Their Histories 1964 1992 s v Calluna Translated as noughty honey by William Turner noted in Coats 1964 1992 The Folklore of Heather Tree for Life Archived from the original on 2008 04 25 Retrieved 2013 04 08 Coats 1964 1992 Vogl S Picker P Mihaly Bison J Fakhrudin N Atanasov A G Heiss E H Wawrosch C Reznicek G Dirsch V M Saukel J Kopp B 2013 Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria s folk medicine an unexplored lore in vitro anti inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs Journal of Ethnopharmacology 149 3 750 71 doi 10 1016 j jep 2013 06 007 PMC 3791396 PMID 23770053 Cabweb org de beste bron van informatie over cabweb Deze website is te koop Pest cabweb org Archived from the original on 2011 07 25 Retrieved 2010 01 27 Mahbubul A F Jalal David J Read E Haslam 1982 Phenolic composition and its seasonal variation in Calluna vulgaris Phytochemistry 21 6 1397 1401 doi 10 1016 0031 9422 82 80150 7 Alexander Wallace 1858 The heather in lore lyric and lay External links Edit Media related to Calluna vulgaris at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Calluna at Wikispecies Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Calluna amp oldid 1052006198, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.