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Calmecac

The Calmecac (, from calmecatl meaning "line/grouping of houses/buildings" and by extension a scholarly campus) was a school for the sons of Aztec nobility (pīpiltin ) in the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican history, where they would receive rigorous religious and military training. The calmecac tied together the military, political and sacred hierarchies of the community. The two main primary sources for information on the calmecac and telpochcalli are in Bernardino de Sahagún's Florentine Codex of the General History of the Things of New Spain (Books III, VI, and VIII) and part 3 of the Codex Mendoza. Although the calmecac has been characterized as for elites only, Sahagun's account says that at times commoners, macehualtin were assigned to the calmecac as well and trained for the priesthood. The Tēlpochcalli ( "house of youth") was where mostly commoners and some noble youths received military training, but would have been precluded from the higher ranks of power. Codex Mendoza's account of the calmecac emphasizes the possibilities of upward mobility for young commoner men, (macehualtin), educated in the telpochcalli. The placement of noble youth in the telpochcalli might have been by lesser wives' or concubines' sons or younger sons, perhaps of commoner status so that the boys did not have to compete with noble youths in the calmecac. Codex Mendoza's account largely ignores class distinctions between the two institutions.

Nahuatl glyph of a calmecac (codex Mendoza, recto of the folio 61).

The calmecac of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, was located in the ceremonial centre of the city and it was dedicated to Quetzalcoatl.

The calmecac was the students' home for the duration of their training, and they would enter the school as young as five to seven years of age. The students received instruction in songs, rituals, reading and writing, the calendar (tōnalpōhualli ) and all the basic training which was also taught in the telpochcalli.

Students commenced formal military training around age fifteen.

Promising sons of nobles would be trained especially by the military orders of the Jaguar warriors (ōcēlōmeh ) or Eagle warriors (cuāuhtin ) in their quarters, the cuāuhcalli ().

  1. Carrasco, Pedro. (2001). "Calmecac". In Davíd Carrasco (ed). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures, vol 1. New York : Oxford University Press.
  2. Edward Calneck, "The Calmecac and Telpochcalli in Pre-Conquest Tenochtitlan," in The Work of Bernardino de Sahagún: Pioneer Ethnographer of Sixteenth-Century Aztec Mexico, J. Jorge Klor de Alva et al., eds. Albany: SUNY Albany Institute for Mesoamerican Studies 1988, p. 170.
  3. Edward Calneck, "The Calmecac and Telpochcalli" p. 169.
  4. Hassig (1988), p.34.
  5. Calnek, "Calmecac and Telpochcalli", p. 169.
  6. Calnek, "Calmecac and Telpochcalli", p. 176.
  7. Calnek, "Calmecac and Telpochcalli", p. 177.
  8. Hassig (1988), p.34.
  9. Hassig (1988), p.35.
  10. Hassig (1988), p.36.

Calmecac
Calmecac Language Watch Edit The Calmecac kaɬˈmekak from calmecatl meaning line grouping of houses buildings and by extension a scholarly campus was a school for the sons of Aztec nobility pipiltin piːˈpiɬtin in the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican history where they would receive rigorous religious and military training The calmecac tied together the military political and sacred hierarchies of the community 1 The two main primary sources for information on the calmecac and telpochcalli are in Bernardino de Sahagun s Florentine Codex of the General History of the Things of New Spain Books III VI and VIII and part 3 of the Codex Mendoza 2 Although the calmecac has been characterized as for elites only Sahagun s account says that at times commoners macehualtin were assigned to the calmecac as well and trained for the priesthood 3 4 The Telpochcalli teːɬpot ʃˈkalːi house of youth was where mostly commoners and some noble youths received military training but would have been precluded from the higher ranks of power 5 Codex Mendoza s account of the calmecac emphasizes the possibilities of upward mobility for young commoner men macehualtin educated in the telpochcalli The placement of noble youth in the telpochcalli might have been by lesser wives or concubines sons or younger sons perhaps of commoner status so that the boys did not have to compete with noble youths in the calmecac 6 Codex Mendoza s account largely ignores class distinctions between the two institutions 7 Nahuatl glyph of a calmecac codex Mendoza recto of the folio 61 The calmecac of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan was located in the ceremonial centre of the city and it was dedicated to Quetzalcoatl 8 The calmecac was the students home for the duration of their training and they would enter the school as young as five to seven years of age The students received instruction in songs rituals reading and writing the calendar tōnalpōhualli toːnaɬpoːˈwalːi and all the basic training which was also taught in the telpochcalli Students commenced formal military training around age fifteen 9 Promising sons of nobles would be trained especially by the military orders of the Jaguar warriors ōcelōmeh oːseːˈloːmeʔ or Eagle warriors cuauhtin ˈkʷaːʍtin in their quarters the cuauhcalli kʷaːʍˈkalːi 10 Notes Edit Carrasco Pedro 2001 Calmecac In David Carrasco ed The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures vol 1 New York Oxford University Press Edward Calneck The Calmecac and Telpochcalli in Pre Conquest Tenochtitlan in The Work of Bernardino de Sahagun Pioneer Ethnographer of Sixteenth Century Aztec Mexico J Jorge Klor de Alva et al eds Albany SUNY Albany Institute for Mesoamerican Studies 1988 p 170 Edward Calneck The Calmecac and Telpochcalli p 169 Hassig 1988 p 34 Calnek Calmecac and Telpochcalli p 169 Calnek Calmecac and Telpochcalli p 176 Calnek Calmecac and Telpochcalli p 177 Hassig 1988 p 34 Hassig 1988 p 35 Hassig 1988 p 36 References EditAguilar Moreno Manuel 2007 Handbook to Life in the Aztec World Oxford and New York Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 533083 0 OCLC 81150666 Andrews J Richard 2003 Introduction to Classical Nahuatl revised ed Norman University of Oklahoma Press ISBN 0 8061 3452 6 OCLC 50090230 Calnek Edward The Calmecac and Telpochcalli in Pre Conquest Tenochtitlan in The Work of Bernardino de Sahagun Pioneer Ethnographer of Sixteenth Century Aztec Mexico J Jorge Klor de Alva et al eds Albany SUNY Albany Institute for Mesoamerican Studies 1988 Carrasco Pedro Calmecac In David Carrasco ed The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures vol 1 New York Oxford University Press 2001 ISBN 9780195108156 Hassig Ross 1988 Aztec Warfare Imperial Expansion and Political Control Civilization of the American Indian series no 188 Norman University of Oklahoma Press ISBN 0 8061 2121 1 OCLC 17106411 Leon Portilla Miguel 1980 Native Mesoamerican Spirituality Ancient myths discourses stories doctrines hymns poems from the Aztec Yucatec Quiche Maya and other sacred traditions New York Paulist Press ISBN 0 8091 0293 5 OCLC 6450751 Sahagun Bernardino de 1997 ca 1558 61 Primeros Memoriales Civilization of the American Indians series vol 200 part 2 Thelma D Sullivan English trans and paleography of Nahuatl text with H B Nicholson Arthur J O Anderson Charles E Dibble Eloise Quinones Keber and Wayne Ruwet completion revisions and ed Norman University of Oklahoma Press ISBN 978 0 8061 2909 9 OCLC 35848992 Van Tuerenhout Dirk R 2005 The Aztecs New Perspectives ABC CLIO s understanding ancient civilizations series Santa Barbara CA ABC CLIO ISBN 1 57607 921 X OCLC 57641467 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Calmecac amp oldid 1040970073, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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